Royal Marines

Historical Time Line  

The Royal Marines were formed in 1755 as the Royal Navy's infantry troops. However the Marines can trace their origins back to the formation of ‘the Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot’ at the grounds of the Honourable Artillery Company on 28th October 1664.

1664. 11.58am Tuesday 28th October

The formation of the Duke of York and Albany’s Maritime Regiment of Foot by Order at which King Charles all was present, also known as the Lord High Admirals Regiment or, simply The Admiral’s Regiment. The King directed at The Court of Whitehall on 28th October 1664: That twelve hundred Land Soldiers be forthwith raised, to be in readiness, to be distributed into His Majesties Fleets prepared for Sea Service which said twelve hundred Men are to be put into One Regiment under One Colonel, One Lieutenant Colonel and One Sergeant Major and to be divided into Six Companies. Each Company to consist of Two hundred Soldiers, and to have One Captain, One Lieutenant, One Ensign, One Drummer, Four Sergeants and Four Corporals, and all the Soldiers aforesaid to be armed with good Firelocks. All which Arms, Drums and Colours are forthwith to be prepared and furnished out of His Majesty's stores? The care of all was recommended to the Duke of Albermarle his Grace Lord of His Majesty's Forces.

Attending the court at Whitehall on Tuesday 28th of October 1664 was the Kings most excellent Majesty. His Royal Highness the Duke of York. Lord Chancellor. Lord Treasurer. Duke of Albemarle. Duke of Ormond. Lord Chamberlain. Earl of Anglesey. Earl of Lauderdale. Earl of Middleton. Lord Bishop of London. Lord Ashely. Mr. Vice-Chamberlain. Mr. Secretary Morice. Mr Secretary Bennet. Mr. Chancellor of the Dutchy. Sir Edward Nicholas. It was this day ordered (His Majesty present in Council) that his Majesties declaration, for encouragement of sea men and mariners employed in the present service, be forthwith printed by his Majesties printer, &. Richard Browne. His Majesties declaration for encouragement of Seamen and Mariners employed in the present service.

As the Duke of York was the Lord High Admiral, they soon became known as the Admiral's Regiment, and were paid by the Admiralty. They and their successors being the only long service troops in the Navy during the 17th and 18th century. They were therefore not only soldiers but also seamen, who were part of the complement on board all warships. The Honourable Artillery Company had earlier been formed by Royal Charter under King Henry Vlll on Wednesday 25th August 1537. The second oldest military organisation in the world.

Recruitment was from the 'London Trained Bands', the City of London’s militia, composed of house holders who fulfilled their statutory obligation to maintain arms and serve in the defence of their City. They were under the jurisdiction of the Lord Mayor and were commanded by officers appointed by him and the Aldermen. Members of the Trained Bands met regularly at the Artillery Garden in Bishopsgate and the Military Garden in St Martin’s in the Field to practice weapon handling, drilling and other military activities under the guidance of officers from the Honourable Artillery Company. These officers made the Trained Bands an effective force, providing professional training for its part time members.

They were the fourth European Marine unit formed, being preceded by the Spanish Marines who were formed on Saturday 27th February 1537, the Portuguese Marines in 1610, and the French Marines who were formed in 1622.

Admiral's Regiment consisted of six 200 man companies and was initially commanded by Colonel Sir William Killigrew with Sir Charles Lyttleton as Lieutenant-Colonel. Killigrew had commanded an English Regiment in Dutch service and many of the Regiment's initial complement of officers had served there as well.

Until  the year 1664 the British Navy was manned by means of the system of impress, or by enlisting landsmen; but the commerce of England at that period was so limited, that those measures were found inadequate to procure sufficient seamen for the public service, and this difficulty suggested the formation of an establishment of Marines. The men were raised with the object of forming a nursery to man the fleet, and being quartered in or near the principal sea-ports, their great utility in the equipment of squadrons soon made it desirable to augment their strength.

Initially all Marine field officers were taken from the Royal Navy, not liking that the Marine field officer was nearly all honorary. This meant that until then Marine officers could only advance up to the rank of Captain, or possibly a Major. A situating that continued into the1800s.

During King William III rein, each company of Infantry (except the Fusiliers and Grenadiers) consisted of 14 Pikemen and 46 Musketeers, the Captains carried Pikes, Lieutenants and Partisans, Half-Pikes, while Sergeants carried Halberds.

Marines served on board all Royal Navy ships, and have been involved in all of the sea battles that have taken place around the world right up to the modern day.

1664. Wednesday 5th November. "Colonel Killigrew was duly appointed to the command of the Regiment, His Majesty; reposing special trust and confidence in your loyalty, & have thought fit to constitute and appoint you to be Colonel of the Admirals Regiment of Foot now forthwith to be raised for our service consisting of six companies, receiving also, as was the custom at that period, a second commission of the same date to command a company in his own Regiment."
As will be seen in Colonel Killigrew’s commission no mention is made that the Regiment is raised for sea service, but merely "for our service". The remaining officers appointed on the same day were Sir Chichester Rey a Lieutenant Colonel, Sir Charles Littleton a Major, John Griffin a Captain, John Legge a Captain, Nath Dorrell a Captain, Thomas Bennet a Lieutenant, and Richard Dennis a Lieutenant. And all ye commissions were styled by ye Adms Regt.

1664. Sunday 16th November. The first muster was as follows:

Colonel – Sir William Killigrew, Vice Chamberlain to the Queen
Lieutenant Col – Sir Chichester Wrey
Major – Sir Charles Littleton
Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Sir William Killigrew Thomas Bennett Phillip Bickerstaff 1
Sir Chichester Wrey Martin Gardiner Francis Hoblin
Sir Charles Littleton Edward Talbot John Snelling
John Griffith Godfrey Dennis Arthur Ingram 2
John Legge Charles Cole David Hume
Nathaniel Dorrell Henry Steward Robert Thompson

Quartermaster John Symonds, Chirugeon Simon Boninga and the Chaplain Rev John Evans.

1 Clerk for all the particular offices. 2 Supernumerary Groom of the Privy Chamber.

The Regiment consisted of twelve companies, without any grenadiers, had yellow coats lined with red, and their colours were a red cross, with rays of the sun issuing from each of its angles. It stood the third in seniority in the line of that day, and it may be presumed, from its subsequent reduction that a step was obtained in it by the 4th, then the Regiment of Holland, Commanded by John, the second Lord Mulgrave, and now entitled The Old Buffs.

1664. Wednesday 19th December. The attack on the Dutch Smyrna fleet in the straights bt allin.

1664. Wednesday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

Colonel – Sir William Killigrew, Knt, and Bart.
Lieutenant Col – Sir Chichester Wrey, Knt.
Major – Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Sir William Killigrew
5th November 1664
Thomas Bennet
5th November 1664
Phillip Bickerstaffe
11th November 1664
Sir Chichester Rey
5th November 1664
Martin Gardiner
11th November 1664
Francis Hoblin
11th November 1664
Sir Charles Littleton
5th November 1664
Edward Talbot
11th November 1664
John Snelling
11th November 1664
John Griffiths
5th November 1664
Godfrey Dennis
11th November 1664
Arthur Ingram
11th November 1664
John Legge (Colonel)
5th November 1664
Charles Cole
11th November 1664
David Hume
11th November 1664
Nath Dorrell
5th November 1664
Henry Steward
11th November 1664
Robert Thompson
11th November 1664
Adjutant - Mat Locke.
Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Simon Boninga (11th November 1664).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).
Note - an officer of the name of Collins appears to have been appointed as a Lieutenant to Captain Dorrell, dated 11th November, but not to have joined the Regiment.

1664. Equipment. “A difference was also made in the equipment of the force, and it stands out pre-eminently as the first Regiment under the crown which was armed throughout with firelocks and not, as was the rule of the service at this period, with a considerable proportion of pikes. Instructions were accordingly issued for delivering “to our trusty and well beloved Sir William Killigrew, Knt, Colonel of the Admirals Regiment of Foote now to be raised for our service Twelve Hundred Good Firelocks, with the like number of good Bandeleares, Twenty Fower Halberts and six Drumes being for the use of the said Regiment”. A footnote to this Warrant adds that 1200 Snaphaunch Musquettes were “Delivered by virtue of the Warrant above written”.
There is however no note stating at what station or port, or to whom these stores were to be delivered, although by a Warrant of a similar nature bearing the same date and completing the armament of the Regiment, we find that there is to be forthwith issued out “of our Tower of London for the Admirals Regiment, 1200 Swords and Belts, thirty barrels of bullets, and two Hogsheads of flints which together with the arms formerly by us directed to be delivered for your use of your Regiment you are with all diligence to cause to be conveyed by such way as you shall find most convenient on board our fleet to be there delivered to Sir Charles Littleton, Knt, Major of the Admirals Regt being for your use thereof.” 

1664. Friday 19th December. Sir Thomas Allin, 1st Baronet (1612 - 1685) attacks the Dutch Smyrna fleet in the Straits of Gibraltar. Allin had been nominated to succeed Sir John Lawson as the commander in the Mediterranean. On Thursday 26th June 1664 he sailed to take up his command aboard HMS Plymouth in company with HMS Crown. Upon their arrival they initially operated out of Tangiers, and while operating in the Straits of Gibraltar he and his fleet intercepted and engaged the Dutch Smyrna fleet, capturing and sinking several of the Dutch ships. He was born and grew up in the Lowestoft area, becoming a merchant and ship owner. Upon the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642, Allin sided with the Royalists, in common with most of his fellow town’s folk. On Saturday 13th June 1665 he took part in the sea battle off Lowestoft.

1664 - 1689. The Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot the Lord High Admirals Regiment Crest. (taken from 'History of the Royal Marine Forces 1664 - 1701' by Major l. Edye 1893.)

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Officers and Soldiers Uniforms of the 1600's. (taken from 'History of the Royal Marine Forces 1664 - 1701' by Major l. Edye 1893.)

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An Officer of the Lord High Admiral's Regiment 1664 - 1685   A Soldier of the Lord High Admiral's Regiment. 1864 - 1685

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1665. Monday 16th February. Shortly after the return of the fleet to England, the Regiment was moved from Southampton, the several companies being stationed as follows: Sir William Killigrew’s Company at Southampton except 50 men of which are at Winchester and 150 at Ramsey.
Sir Chichester Wray’s Company at Southwarke.
Sir Charles Littleton’s Company at Dover and Canterbury.
Sir John Griffith’s Company at Rochester and Gravesend.
Colonel John Legg’s at Harwiche, although by the 3rd April they were at Ipswich.
Captain Dorrel’s Company on the Isle of Wight.
The change of Commanding Officer, the actual date of the death of the first Commanding officer of the Admirals Regiment, Sir William Killigrew, is not known, but he was buried in the north aisle of Westminster Abbey on 17th July 1665. On the following day (18th July 1665) Sir Chichester Wrey was appointed to the command of the Regiment.

1665. Wednesday 4th March - Friday 31st July 1667. Owing to the commercial rivalry between the English and Dutch the Second Anglo-Dutch War took place after hostilities had begun earlier the previous year after the English had captured New Amsterdam (New York).

1665. April. The Black Death struck London, killing at least 68,596 people as some two-thirds of the 460,000 inhabitants fled to the country side. One of the last outbreaks in England, which also contributed to Britain’s problems and manpower in Europe.

1665. Wednesday 3rd June (OS). Defeat of Obdam van Wassenaer by the Duke of York. The Admiral's Regiment first saw action at sea against the Dutch in the Battle of Lowestoft (Suffolk). Both fleets are reported to have been about 100 strong. However, the English claimed to have won a victory over the Dutch. So fierce was the engagement that both fleets were incapable of further operations. Unlike some land Regiments equipped with pikes and matchlocks, the Admiral’s Regiment fought with better flintlock muskets. The Dutch paid a heavy price in its large loss of ships, and of officers and men totalling 4000 killed and 2000 captured. While the British losses were 250 men killed, about 340 wounded, and about 200 taken prisoner.

1665. Saturday 11th July. The Holland Regiment (later the Buffs) was also raised to serve at sea and both of these two Naval Regiments were paid for by the Treasurer of the Navy by Order of Council of the 11th July. They were also different in that they had no pikemen, every man being issued a musket. The Holland Regiment was very distinctive, being dressed in yellow, rather than the Red coat of the other regiments, until 1685. John Churchill, later the 1st Duke of Marlborough, was the most famous member of this regiment. The Holland Regiment remained on the naval establishments until May 1667.

1665. Wednesday 3rd September. Lord Sandwich captures the Dutch East India Fleet.

1665. During the Battle of Lowestoft one of England’s ally’s the small principality of Munster sent some of its troops into Dutch territory to assist the English.

1665. Just after the Battle of Lowestoft the Dutch were so impressed by the performance of the British Marines that they formed their own Royal Netherlands Marine Corps.

1665. Thursday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

Colonel - Sir Chichester Wrey, Knt.
Lieutenant Colonel – Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
Major - Colonel Sir John Legge.
Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Sir Chichester Wrey
18th July 1665
Martin Gardiner
18th July 1665
Arthur Ingram
2nd December 1665
Sir Charles Littleton
18th July 1665
Edward Talbot
18th July 1665
John Snelling
18th July 1665
John Legge (Colonel)
18th July 1665
Charles Cole
18th July 1665
David Hume
18th July 1665
Sir John Griffiths
18th July 1665
Henry Steward
18th July 1665
Robert Thompson
18th July 1665
Nathaniel Dorrell
18th July 1665
Francis Hoblin
2nd December 1665
John Griffith
2nd December 1665
Thomas Bennet
18th July 1665
Phillip Bickerstaffe
18th July 1665
Robert Carvey
18th July 1665
Adjutant - Mat Locke (11th November 1664).
Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Simon Boninga (11th November 1664).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1666. January. The principality of Munster was forced out of the war by France, who eventually took the Dutch side.

1666. Most Battles during 1666 were won by the Dutch.

1666. Tuesday 1st June - Friday 4th June (OS). The Four Days Fight off North Forleand. The English commanded by George Monk and the Dutch Commanded by Michiel de Ruyter were involved in a four day battle near North Foreland off the English coast. In which the Dutch were the victors. It remains one of the longest naval engagements in history. The English casualties were 1,500 killed, 1,400 wounded, 1,800 captured and 10 ships lost. While the Dutch suffered 1,500 killed, 1,300 wounded and 4 ships lost.

1666. Sunday 25th July (OS). An engagement with the Dutch known as the ‘St. James Fight’. Prince Rupert of the Rhine and George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle won a victory over the Dutch Commanded by Michiel de Ruyter during the St James’s day Battle off the coast of North Foreness, (later to be known as Orfordness). It is also known as the Second Battle of North Foreness. The Battle altered the balance of power at sea in favour of the English. The Dutch fleet lost 2 ships and around 800 men were killed or injured. The English suffered 300 killed and the loss of one ship the ‘Resolution’ However, it demonstrated its new dominance in the area.

1666. Sunday 8th August (OS). Sir Robert Holmes and his English fleet destroyed more than 160 Dutch merchantmen vessels on the Vile River in the Nederland’s. It became known as Sir Robert Holmes Bonfire.

1666. Thursday 2nd September - Sunday 5th September: The Great Fire of London destroyed four-fifths of the city within the walls and sixty-three acres outside. Including the Gothic Cathedral of Saint Paul’s, eighty-six other churches, the Guildhall, the Custom House, the Royal Exchange, and many other buildings, including more than thirteen thousand house. The fire also destroyed many files, documents, books and other historical information including that of the Marines. It also contributed to England’s problems within Europe.

1666. Saturday 18th September. The capture of the French Ruby by Sir Thomas Allin.

1666. December. Captain Herbert and HMS Pembroke engaged a Dutch Frigate.

1666. December. A British Squadron defeated the Dutch in the North Sea.

1666. Friday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

Colonel - Sir Chichester Wrey, Knt and Bart.
Lieutenant Colonel – Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
Major - Colonel Sir John Legge.
Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Sir Chichester Wrey
18th July 1665
Martin Gardiner
18th July 1665
Richard Baggott
24th March 1666
Sir Charles Littleton
18th July 1665
Edward Talbot
18th July 1665
David Hume
18th July 1665
John Legge (Colonel)
18th July 1665
William Legge
22nd March 1666
 
Sir John Griffiths
18th July 1665
Francis Hoblin
2nd December 1665
John Griffith
2nd December 1665
Nathaniel Dorrell
18th July 1665
John Snelling
21st March 1666
Robert Thompson
18th July 1665
Thomas Bennet
18th July 1665
Phillip Bickerstaffe
18th July 1665
Robert Carey
18th July 1665
Sylas Titus
2nd July 1666
Moyal
2nd July 1666
Francis Vincent
2nd July 1666
George Cartwright
3rd July 1666
William Morice
3rd July 1666
Edward Harris
3rd July 1666
Sir Edward Carleton
4th July 1666
John Wise
4th July 1666
Richard Sheldon
4 Jul 1666
Edmund Molroyen
5th July 1666
Francis Izod
8th July 1666
William Heydon
5th July 1666
Hercules Lee
6th July 1666
Bourchier Wrey
6th July 1666
James Webb
6th July 1666
Thomas Bromley
7th July 1666
John Grove
7th July 1666
Percy Kirk
7th July 1666
Adjutant - William Pierson(June 1666).
Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1667. The Kings coffers were empty.There was no money to keep the Navy’s sailors paid or to refit and supply the ships. In London there were stirrings of rebellion.

1667. Monday 17th January. An order was given to Sir Chichester Wrey to direct 'the officers of the Admirals Regiment to collect and send to the stores in the tower their supernumerary Armes the Regiment now consisting of 12 companies 100 men in each instead of 6 companies, 350 men in each as formerly'.

1667. Tuseday 3rd May. Mention is made of two companies of the Regiment changing their quarters. One paper, dated, Yarmouth 3rd May, says that, Capt Thomas Brumbly RN is paying his sowagers quorters and as sune as they can (will) march to Langley fort. A second dated West Cowes, 4th May, say that at “about 3 or 4 y clocke afternoon departed from hence to Guernze the Deptford catch with Sir Edward Charleton and 100 brave soldiers yellow coates, of HRH Regiment who weare one night here on shore for refreshment and I hope are nowe safly landed at Guernze” (Note all spelling correctly copied).

The ship in which these men took passage appears to have been HMS Paradox and not the Deptford Catch, although the latter vessel accompanied them, for in a letter of Mr John Lyle to Mr Secretary Williamson, dated also from West Cowes, it is said “The Paradox, carrying over a company of the Duke of York’s yellow coates to Guernsey, had a hot dispute with a French fly boat of 14 guns, and drove her on the French coast”, and another letter of the 12th May declares that “The Paradox which ye Ketch that carried soldiers for the islands of Jersey and Guernsey are returned, the first had an encounter with a doger French of warre but the wind blew soe hard and the sea was soe high could not board her, the Paradox had 100 soldiers besides their owne company and they plyed their small shot lustily , one of them was killed and six more wounded”. This is the first occasion on record of any of the men of the Regiment having been specifically mentioned either as killed or as wounded. (Note all spelling copied correctly)

Whilst Sir Charles Littleton’s company was quartered at Harwich, a misfortune occurred to his “Ensigne”. Of this Sir Charles himself gives the following quaint account, “My ensigne went to London with my leave, about a weeke after I came hither, for 8 days, and is not yet returned. The last post I had a letter to excuse it, because he was sick; but since, I am well informed, hee has married a dirty tapstresse, and, this being knowne, have an opinion he is ashamed to return among us. For other reasons I am not much in love with his companie, and would be glad to bee ridde of him; yet am not resolved to add to his misfortune by turning him out against his will” The young officer referred to was Ensign David Hume, who was, on 28th August superseded in Sir Charles company by Ensign Charles Palmer so that the Colonel had not long to wait “to bee ridde of him”

1667. Thursday 24th May - 2nd May 1668. War of Devolution. Came about after Louis XlV’s French army over run the Habsburgh controlled Spanish Netherlands and French Comte, but were forced to give most of it back by the triple alliance of England, Sweden and the Dutch Republic. Although the alliance never engaged in combat against France, but it was enough of a threat to force Louis XlV to halt his offensive and sign the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle with Spain on Wednesday 2nd May 1668 in Aachen North Rhine-Westphalia Germany.

1667. It was directed that men absenting themselves from vessels that were fitting, should have 2 shillings and 6 pence for each day of absence deducted from their pay, and that the fines should be given to the men who remained on duty.

1667. Wednesday 11th May. Uniform. A letter from John Lyle to Mr Secretary Williamson, we find HMS Paradox carrying over a company of the Duke of York’s yellow coat had a hot dispute with a French fly boat.”

1667. Thursday 9th - 14th June (OS). The destruction of the English fleet while docked in Chatham by the Dutch, sometimes miss known as a Battle of the Medway. Two years earlier during 1665, the Dutch fleet under the command of the same Dutch Admiral de Ruyter, had almost completely destroyed the English navy in a murderous four day long battle that neither would break off the action. Now, almost two years to the day, on 7th June, De Ruyter was back and this time there was no British Navy to face him, for England was almost bankrupt and there was no money to pay for a navy. Instead King Charles II had gambled on an early peace that was not to be. For three days the 70 Dutch ships of the line prowled the English coast as if taunting their foe. For the first and only time since Britain had been a world power, an enemy appeared inside within country’s borders. On both sides of the river Thames, scratch forces brought up to fight could only stand and watch as the Dutch sailed past. Muskets could not even reach the jeering Dutchmen on board, and the English land cannons were silent after their small stock of powder had run out. Having humbled British sea pride and proved the English Channel was a Dutch controlled waterway, De Ruyter turned his attention to the toothless English fleet. His men had already stormed and captured Sheerness, then a castle on the isle of Sheppey. Twenty Dutch ships sailed into the Medway, and when they left, five great English ships of the line were in flames and HMS Royal Charles, the British flagship was towed away captive. De Ruyter withdrew having accomplished what he had set out to do, and that was to prove that Holland was still capable of fighting and a country not to be messed with.

1667. Thursday 16th June (O.S.) The London Gazette, This is the first report published of the Raid on the Medway.
"The Dutch fleet having the tenth instant in the evening made themselves master of Sheerness. On the eleventh they advanced up the river of Medway, and though with much difficulty, passed by several vessels which had been sunk about Muselebank, which was the narrowest part of it, the better to put some stop to them in their passings and with 22 sail came up towards the chain, where the Lord General was in person with considerable force to oppose them; but the enemy taking advantage of an Easterly wind and the tide, which both served them, pressed upon; and though their first ship stuck upon the chain, the second broke through it; and notwithstanding a stout resistance, in which our men showed infinite courage, with considerable loss to the enemy, yet they clasped their fire ships aboard the Matthias and the Unity, that lay at an anchor, as a guard to the chain, and then upon the Charles the fifth, all three of them Dutch ships, that had been formerly taken from them. The same day they possessed themselves of the Royal Charles, which was twice fired by our men, and as often quenched by the enemy.
On Thursday the 13th instant, about one o'clock, taking their advantage of the wind and tide, they advanced with six men of war, and five fire ships, and came up towards Upnor Castle, but were so warmly entertained by Major Scot, who commanded there, and on the other side by Sir Edward Spragg, from the battery at the shore, that after very much damage received by them in the shattering of their ships, in sinking several of their long boats manned out by them, in the great number of their men killed, and some prisoners taken, they were at the last forced to retire, having in this attempt spent in vain two of their fire ships, which attempted HMS Royall Oake, but were forced off, and burned down with effect; but a third had its effect, the two others coming also aboard HMS Royall James, and HMS Loyal London, which are much injured by the fire, but in probability may be again made serviceable, having been sunk before their coming up, and the greater part of the laid under water.
Since this they have not made any considerable attempt, and by some prisoners we have taken, we find that the loss we have received, has been hitherto so fully returned upon them, that they can have but little reason to brag of their success, and less encouragement to make any further attempts on these parts.
Part of the enemy's fleet had since this action continued about Musele-Bank, where on Friday were seen 24 sail, on Saturday only 14, which 'tis believed stay there only to get off HMS Royall Charles which is on shore.

1667. Friday 17th June (O.S.). About 30 more of their fleet were discovered between the Buoy of the Nore, and on Saturday only 12 in the Buoy of the Nore, the rest being fallen down, and it is thought will attempt no farther this way. However, our batteries are all in the necessary places, both in the Thames and Medway, very well perfected and furnished with cannon.
This day we are confidently told by a person arriving here from Chatham, that yesterday two Dutch men of war, whereof one of 80 guns, endeavouring to pass up towards Upnor Castle, ran ashore and were by a fire ship of their own party burnt, to prevent their falling into our hands. He says further, that eight of their man of war were yesterday endeavouring to tow off HMS Royal Charles from the Musele-Bank, and are their run aground; upon which news twenty of their men of war are returning to lie in the river, to prevent out fire ships, till they can find some way to bring them off, or otherwise to dispose of them.”

1667. Wednesday 20th June. Uniform. It was stated: “Yesterday the enemy was in sight off the North Foreland. Colonel Titus and the commander Captain John Poole are very active. In less than two hours, the townsmen, both seamen and landsmen appeared in the field in arms, 160 in all, besides Colonel Titus’ yellow company.” Colonel Titus was a Captain in the Admirals Regiment.

1667. Saturday 25th June. Burning of a French Squadron at Martinique by Harman.

1667. The Defeat of the Franco-Dutch by Captain Berry on board the HMS Nevis.

1667. Friday 1st July. The Dutch Admiral de Ruyter having withdrew from his recent success at Chatham, appeared during the evening along with the bulk of a Dutch invasion fleet anchored of the Aldeburgh coast (Suffolk UK).

1667. In the military town and port of Harwich (county of Essex) were garrisoned four companies Commanded by Cardinal Legge, Sir Chichester Wrey, Charles Lyttelton, and Captain Edward Roscarrock, while on the other side of the river entrance was Landguard Fort that was occupied by Captain Nathaniel Darrell and Captain Cartwright along with their companies of Marines. It had been pre-planned that the entrance to Harwich harbour was to be blocked by seven colliers and a ship of 20 guns, all disguised as men of war, while displaying Jack Ensigns and Pendants, which were moored between Landguard Fort and Harwich. Holes had been pre-cut in their hulls, ready to be scuttled and sunk in case the enemy attempted to sail up the river and approach the port of Harwich. Unbeknown to the English, the Dutch had decided to Capture Landguard Fort thus enabling them to bombard Harwich from across the river.

1667. Saturday 2nd July. At dawn the Dutch fleet raised anchor and headed south passing Orfordness at 7am. Its intention was to attack the military base at Harwich. By 1pm the major part of the force which consisted of forty seven ships and tenders, drew within half gunshot of the shore near Flistow Cliffs (Felixstowe), but out of reach of Landguard Fort. The ships took up their positions to bombard the Fort from all sides. Some of them were placed exactly to wind ward, so that the smoke of their guns swept along the beach and in doing so covered the landing of their troops from the sight of the Marines in the Fort. Once in position they lowered their boats and threw ashore about three thousand men. They wasted no time in delivering two successive assaults on Landguard Fort, in which 300 to 400 men took part. The first was repulsed after three quarters of an hour’s fighting. The second after only about a quarter of an hour. Finally the Dutch, after losing about one hundred and fifty men, left their scaling ladders behind them in their haste to escape the fighting. In the meantime the thousand to twelve hundred men who had been left near the place of landing were attacked by the trained bands under the command of the Earl of Suffolk. The struggle with them was continued in a desultory manner, when the routed Dutch returned from the attack on the Fort. They then managed, after considerable loss, to re-embark. Just after a detachment of five hundred foot soldiers, under command of Major Legge arrived from Harwich. However, the fight was already over. It was reported at the time that neither Legge nor the Earl of Suffolk could be credited with the honour of having saved Landguard Fort. That credit had to go to Captain Nathaniel Darrell of the Duke of York and Albany’s Regiment of Foot, and to his gallant Marines. Darrell the Governor of Landguard Fort, had only one month earlier received the post. However, he was slightly wounded during the attack. While the family of Darrell-Blount captured one of the painted ladders abandoned by the Dutch on the beach. The Dutch landing had been commanded by Colonel Dolman, an English man who had changed sides to assist the Dutch. The same person who had earlier helped the Dutch capture the Fort of Sheerness. It was later reported by a local newspaper that the Dutch losses were 150 killed wounded or captured, while the British suffered only about 4 killed and as many wounded. This invasion by the Dutch was also the first time the Admiral's Regiment of Foot saw action on land. It was also the last time an invasion force set foot on British soil.

Extract from a letter dated July 15th 1667 from an English Exile in Holland who was present at the attack. Landguard 1667: “From all accounts it seems clear that the honours of the day rested mainly with Captain Nathaniel Darell, the governor of the fort...To Darell, therefore, distinctly belongs the credit of having beaten off a determined assault in the face of overwhelming numbers, and with him and his garrison rests the honour of having saved the fort from capture, and of having thus in great measure restored the confidence in our fighting power which had been so rudely shaken by the disasters sustained at Sheerness and Chatham”. Author unknown.

Click photo to enlarge

1667. Sunday 31st July. The Second Dutch War (1665 - 1667) ended after the signing of the Treaty of Breda. The signing took place in the Dutch city of Breda, by England, the United Provinces (Netherlands), France, Denmark and Norway. It brought a hasty end to the hostility’s in favour of the Dutch.

1667. Saturday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

Colonel - Sir Chichester Wrey, Knt and Bart.
Lieutenant Colonel – Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
Major - Sir John Griffiths, Knt.
Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Sir Chichester Wrey
18th July 1665
Martin Gardiner
18th July 1665
Edward Harris
26th August 1667
Sir Charles Littleton
18th July 1665
George Littleton
22nd February 1667
Charles Palmer
26th August 1667
Sir John Griffiths
26th September 1667
William Legge
22nd March 1666
John Griffith
2nd December 1665
Nathaniel Dorrell
18th July 1665
Robert Thompson
30th April 1667
Alexander Frazier
28th August 1667
Thomas Bennet
18th July 1665
Phillip Bickerstaffe
18th July 1665
John Trevanyen
26th September 1667
Sylas Titus
2nd July 1666
John Titus
22nd November 1666
Francis Vincent
2nd July 1666
George Cartwright
3rd July 1666
William Morice
3rd July 1666
Robert Kilvert
8th May 1667
Sir Edward Carleton
4th July 1666
John Wise
4th July 1666
Richard Sheldon
4th July 1666
Thomas Bromley
7th July 1666
John Grove
7th July 1666
Percy Kirk
7th July 1666
Edward Roscarrock
8th January 1667
Richard Baggott
26th August 1667
Edward Chichester
26 Sep 1667
Henry Herbert
15th January 1667
Francis Izod
8th July 1666
William Heydon
5th July 1666
Roger Vaughan
21st September 1667
Roger Wise
21st September 1667
Roger Vincent
21st September 1667
Adjutant - William Pierson(June 1666).
Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1668. Sunday 1st April. A subsequent Order in Council, authorised the drawing of such numbers of soldiers from the Foot Guards, for His Majesty's service at sea, during the summer, as the Lord High Admiral might require.

1668. Monday 14th May. Within 3 years of the death of Sir William Killigrew the regiment lost its second commanding officer, who died on 14th May (1668) in London “of a long ague and fever contracted at Sheerensse”. The document from which this quotation is taken says further that “the regiment is bestowed on Sir Charles Littleton his Lieut Collon” (Note spelling copied correctly)

1668. Wednesday 26th September. A new establishment was sanctioned, to take effect on the 26th of that month. In connection with it here was published the strength of the “addicons since the dutch warre” from which we find that the two maritime regiments consisting of 26 companies contained 256 officers and 2,600 soldiers. The extraordinary disproportion of officers is accounted for by the fact that the non-commissioned officers of the two regiments were included. The 26 companies were composed of 12 companies of the Admirals’ Regiment and 10 of the Holland Regiment, and the two companies (No record exists of anyone being appointed to these new companies) added to each under the authority dated 13th June 1667, the total cost of them being set forth as £33,855. 18s. 8d.

The new establishment provided that the Lord High Admiral’s Regiment of Foot was to consist as before of 12 companies, but did not refer in any way to the strength. Another document, however, remedies this defect, and tells us that it was “seaven hundred and sixty soldiers in 12 companies of sixty in each, and the other company (being quartered in Guernsey) to consist of one hundred”. For the first time provision was made amongst the “Fielde and Staffe officers” for an adjutant with pay of 4s per diem. (Note spelling copied correctly).

1668. Monday 31st December. Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
Lieut Colonel - Sir John Griffiths, Knt.
Major - Nathaniel Dorrell.
Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Sir Charles Littleton
15th February 1668
George Littleton
10th June 1668
Charles Palmer
26th August 1667
Sir John Griffiths
15th February 1668
William Legge
24th March 1666
John Griffith
2nd December 1665
Nathaniel Dorrell
15th February 1668
Robert Thompson
30th April 1667
Alexander Frazier
28th August 1667
Thomas Bennet
18th July 1665
Phillip Bickerstaffe
18th July 1665
John Trevanyen
26th September 1667
Sylas Titus
2nd July 1666
John Titus
22nd November 1666
Francis Vincent
2nd July 1666
George Cartwright
3rd July 1666
William Morice
3rd July 1666
Robert Kilvert
8th May 1667
Sir Edward Carleton
4th July 1666
John Wise
4th July 1666
Richard Sheldon
4th July 1666
Thomas Bromley
7th July 1666
John Grove
7th July 1666
Percy Kirk
7th July 1666
Edward Roscarrock
8th January 1667
Richard Baggott
26th August 1667
Edward Chichester
26th September 1667
Henry Herbert
15th January 1667
Francis Izod
8th July 1666
Robert Markham
25th March 1668
Roger Vaughan
21st September 1667
Roger Wise
7th July 1667
Thomas Cutler
17th August 1668
Sir Boucher Wrey
15th May 1668
Martin Gardiner
18th July 1665
Edward Harris
21st August 1667
Adjutant - William Pierson(June 1666).
Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1669. Quarters of the forces, the garrisons at which several of the Companies were stationed.

Colonel Sir Charles Littleton Harwich
Captain Anthony Buller Harwich
Lt Col Sir John Griffith Hull
Captain Bennet Hull
Captain Middleton Hull
Major Nathan Dorrell Land Guard Fort
Captain Cartwright Garvesend
Captain Titus Deal and Walmer
Captain Vaughan Chepstow Castle
Captain Herbert Guernsey
Captain Sir Bouchier Wrey Sheerness

1669. Uniform. The Grand Duke of Tuscany, who visited England during 1669, and landed at Plymouth, gives the following account of what he saw and mentions the uniforms then worn: “The Governor is my Lord John Granville,  Earl of Bath and Sir [John] Skelton is his Lieutenant. Five companies of about seventy men each, officers and soldiers are on duty there, one of these belongs to the Duke’s Regiment. These men are very handsome and in excellent order, four companies wearing red jackets lined with yellow, and that of the Duke’s, yellow with red lining.”

1669. 8th December. The defeat of Algerine men of War, off Cadiz.

1669. Wednesday 18th - Thursday 19th December. A battle took place near Cadiz between the English frigate HMS Mary Rose under the command of Rear-Admiral John Kempthorne, escorting several merchantmen. When he was attacked by seven pirate ships operating out of Algiers (North Africa). The outcome was an English victory. Although 1 English ship was captured, 12 killed and 18 wounded.

1669. 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
Lieut Colonel - Sir John Griffiths, Knt.
Major - Nathaniel Dorrell.
Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Sir Charles Littleton
15th February 1668
George Littleton
10th June 1668
Charles Palmer
26th August 1667
Sir John Griffiths
15th February 1668
John Griffiths
10th December 1669
John Thorne
9th December 1669
Nathaniel Dorrell
15th February 1668
Robert Thompson
30th April 1667
Alexander Frazier
28th August 1667
Thomas Bennet
18th July 1665
Phillip Bickerstaffe
18th July 1665
John Trevanyen
26th September 1667
Sylas Titus
2nd July 1666
John Titus
22nd November 1666
Francis Vincent
2nd July 1666
George Cartwright
3rd July 1666
Francis Hoblin
10th December 1669
Robert Kilvert
8th May 1667
Thomas Bromley
7th July 1666
John Grove
7th July 1666
Percy Kirk
7th July 1666
Henry Herbert
15th January 1667
Francis Izod
8th July 1666
Robert Markham
25th March 1668
Roger Vaughan
21st September 1667
William Morrice
10th December 1669
Thomas Cutler
17th August 1668
Sir Boucher Wrey
15th May 1668
Edward Harris
12th May 1669
Edward Broughton
12th May 1669
Charles Middleton
1669
John Wise
4th July 1666
Richard Sheldon
4th July 1666
Colonel Anthony Buller
1669
Richard Baggott
26th August 1667
Edward Chichester
26th September 1667
Adjutant - William Pierson(June 1666).
Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1670. Wednesday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
Lieut Colonel - Sir John Griffiths, Knt.
Major - Nathaniel Dorrell.
Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Sir Charles Littleton
15th February 1668
George Littleton
10th June 1668
Charles Palmer
26th August 1667
Sir John Griffiths
15th February 1668
John Griffith
10th December 1669
John Thorne
9th December 1669
Nathaniel Dorrell
15th February 1668
Robert Thompson
30th April 1667
Alexander Frazier
28th August 1667
Thomas Bennet
18th July 1665
Phillip Bickerstaffe
18th July 1665
John Trevanyen
26th September 1667
Sylas Titus
2nd July 1666
John Titus
22nd November 1666
Francis Vincent
2nd July 1666
George Cartwright
3rd July 1666
Francis Hoblin
10th December 1669
Robert Kilvert
8th May 1667
Thomas Bromley
7th July 1666
John Grove
7th July 1666
Edmund Willson
9th September 1670
Henry Herbert
15th January 1667
Francis Izod
8th July 1666
Edward Harris
20th May 1670
Roger Vaughan
21st September 1667
William Morice
10th December 1669
Thomas Cutler
17th August 1668
Sir Boucher Wrey
15th May 1668
Edward Harris
12th May 1669
Broughton
12th May 1669
Charles Middleton
1669
John Wise
4th July 1666
Richard Sheldon
4th July 1666
Colonel Anthony Buller
1669
Richard Baggott
26th August 1667
Edward Chichester
26th September 1667
Adjutant - William Pierson(June 1666).
Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1671.Friday 16th January. The appointment of Captain Francis Digby (16th January 1671) to a commission in the Admirals Regiment is the first instance, of many to follow, of officers of the Navy having held commissions in the Marines. The practice did not become common during the command of Sir Charles Littleton, but, at the raising of the two marine regiments in 1690, a very large number of officers who held commissions in the Navy also held commissions as officers of Marines, and, as such, actually performed the regimental duties of their ranks.

With the retirement of Captain Silus Titus the regiment lost an officer who had played a not inconsiderable part in the history of his country. He had, in a very great measure, conduced to the restoration of his royal master, and with equal determination had voted for the exclusion of the Duke of York on account of his leaning towards the Church of Rome. He was a great supporter of Titus Oates and the Popish plot, had sat in parliament for close on 26 years, representing at various times Ludgershall, Lostwithiel, Herts, Hunts, and Ludlow and was afterwards sworn on the Privy Council (6th July 1688) by James II and retired upon the abdication of that monarch. He married Catherine, second daughter of James Winstanley and died at Bushey in 1704 aged 82 years.

1671. Thursday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieut Colonel - Sir John Griffiths, Knt.
    Major - Nathaniel Dorrell.
    Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    George Littleton
    10th June 1668
    Charles Palmer
    26th August 1667
    Sir John Griffiths
    15th February 1668
    John Griffith
    10th December 1669
    John Thorne
    9th December 1669
    Nathaniel Dorrell
    15th February 1668
    Robert Thompson
    30th April 1667
    Alexander Frazier
    28th August 1667
    Thomas Bennet
    18th July 1665
    Phillip Bickerstaffe
    18th July 1665
    John Trevanyen
    26th September 1667
    George Cartwright
    3rd July 1666
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    Robert Kilvert
    8th May 1667
    Thomas Bromley
    7th July 1666
    John Grove
    7th July 1666
    Edmund Willson
    9th September 1670
    Henry Herbert
    15th January 1667
    Francis Izod
    8th July 1666
    Bruce
    20th May 1670
    Roger Vaughan
    21st September 1667
    William Morice
    10th December 1669
    Thomas Cutler
    17th August 1668
    Sir Boucher Wrey
    15th May 1668
    Edward Harris
    12th May 1669
    Broughton
    12th May 1669
    Charles Middleton
    1669
    John Wise
    4th July 1666
    Richard Sheldon
    4th July 1666
    Colonel Anthony Buller
    1669
    Richard Baggott
    26th August 1667
    Edward Chichester
    26th September 1667
    Francis Digby
    16th January 1671
    John Titus
    22nd November 1666
    Samuel Scudamore
    16th January 1671
    Adjutant - William Pierson(June 1666).
    Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1672. March. The English captured three Dutch ships.

1672. Saturday 12th - 13th March. Holmes action with the Dutch Smyrna Fleet.

1672. Sunday 13th March. Third Anglo Dutch War was a military conflict between England and the Dutch Republic that took place from 1672 - 1674. It was part of the much larger Franco Dutch War. England's Royal Navy joined France in its attack on the Republic, but was frustrated in its attempts to blockade the Dutch coast by four strategic victories of Lieutenant Admiral Michiel de Ruyter. An attempt to make the province of Holland an English protectorate failed. The English Parliament fearful that the alliance with France was part of a plot to make England a Roman Catholic country, forced the king to abandon the costly and fruitless war. It also formed part of the general European War of 1672 - 1678. Although England and the Dutch Republic had been allied for a century, once again they went to war against each other.

1972. May. Sir Charles Littleton’s company was ordered to be increased, the Master General of the Ordnance receiving instructions that the company was to be armed “to make them upp nynety eight soldiers besides officers”. Early in May, Captains Cartwright and Middleton were each directed “to raise so many Voluntiers as he thinks convenient for the recruiting of his company to the Established number threrof, requiring him, if he beats his Drumms in London to Shew this order to the Major of the Citty; as the men are raised they are to be quartered.”

This is the first reference extant that connects the Admiral’s Regiment with the city of London, and by this it would seem that authority existed, or had been recently granted, to recruit within the city, provided that the order in question was shown to “the Major of the said Citty” (This comment made in 1893 by the original author)
Similar instructions were given to Sir Charles Littleton, who was directed to observe the said orders “if he should recruit in London”
Whether the privileges which the present corps of Royal Marines now enjoys in connection with the City of London date from the period, as has been already suggested, there is no evidence to show, but it is apparent that some sort of restriction existed within the city precincts, and that the “Major of the Citty” was in a position to relax it. (This comment made in 1893 by the original author)

1672. 2.30am Saturday 28th May. A French Frigate sailed into Southwold Bay in Suffolk (Sole Bay). Where the English fleet had also assembled earlier for a refit. Many seamen and soldiers had been sent from London to join the fleet, and most of the crews were enjoying shore leave with a battle the last thing on their mind. There was an urgent call to arms and at 5.30am when the English ships at anchor on the lee shore put to sea. The Anglo French fleet was commanded by James, Duke of York, later to become James II, and the Earl of Sandwich, both of whom had spent the night at their headquarters in Sutherland House in Southwold’s High Street. The fleet had 71 ships each with over 40 guns, plus frigates and fire ships, totalling 90 in all. It amounted to over 5,500 guns and 24,000 men. However the French fleet, whether through accident or design, steered south and left the area of the intended battle. This left the Dutch fleet of 61 warships to fight it out with the English, and the battle raged for much of the day. The Duke of York had to transfer ships twice, as his flagships HMS Prince Royal and HMS St Michael were both taken out of action. The flagship of Lord Sandwich HMS Royal James, the biggest and newest ship in the English fleet was set on fire. Sandwich drowned trying to escape and his body was washed ashore further down the coast and was only recognisable by the Star and Garter on his clothing. Losses were heavy on both sides. The Dutch lost two ships and about 1800 men. While the English also lost two ships and some 2000 men. The battle ended inconclusively at sunset. Predictably, both sides claimed victory. While the locals were left to deal with around 800 injured sailors, and many bodies that were washed up along the shoreline for many weeks after the battle. Later Captain Silas wrote of the Marines that they had behaved themselves.

1672. Saturday 28th May. Captain Carleton who served on board the HMS London during the Battle of Sole Bay wrote in his memoirs: of an incident that a cured on board the HMS Katherine when one of the crew received a considerable wound that could not be attended during the fighting. So he was carried out of the way and disposed of in the hold. They had some pigs on board under the care of a sailors who neglected to feed them. They were so hungry they wasted no time in eating the wounded seaman. After the battle all that was found of him was his skull. It’s believed that it was Captain (Hodge) Roger Vaughan of the Admirals Regiment.

1672. Saturday 28th May. The Battle of Solebay. The losses sustained on this occasion by the Admiral’s Regiment in officers alone was very heavy, no less than four captains being killed, namely Captain Digby, then in command of HMS Henry, “was shot with small shot in the brest”, Captain Thomas Bennet, Captain Roger Vaugham (of His Royal Highness’s Bedchamber), and Captain Thomas Bromely. Lieutenants John Grove and John Titus, and Ensign John Trevanion (His Royal Highness’s Gentleman Usher) were also killed.

1672. Saturday 28th May. A Company of Foot Guards served as Marines to augment the Marines of the Admiral's Regiment during the key sea battle, the Battle of Solebay in 1672. Marlborough's conduct as an Ensign in the Guards during the battle so impressed King James II that he commissioned him a Captain in the Admiral's Regiment after four Marine Captains died during the battle. Marlborough went on to served eight years in the regiment.

1672. 30th May. The name Marines first appeared in official records. A letter from Captain Sylas Taylor, addressed to Lord Arlington’s secretary, and referring to the Battle of Solebay, the writer concludes by saying Those marines of whom I soe oft have wrote to you behaved themselves stoutly. This is the first mention that can be traced of the word 'Marines' in connection with any armed force of the country, and the Corps, at present day cannot fail to feel proud of the fact that the first use of the name was associated with words of praise and respect for the regiments.

1672. August. The Admiral’s Regiment sustained another loss by the death, at Tinmouth of Captain George Cartwright.

1672. Saturday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieut Colonel - Sir John Griffiths, Knt.
    Major - Nathaniel Dorrell.
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    Francis Izod
    August 1672
    George Palmer
    10th June 1672
    Sir John Griffiths
    15th February 1668
    John Griffith
    10th December 1669
    John Thorne
    9th December 1669
    Nathaniel Dorrell
    15th February 1668
    Robert Thompson
    30th April 1667
    Alexander Frazier
    28th August 1667
    Henry Herbert
    15th January 1667
      Bruce
    12th May 1669
    Sir Boucher Wrey
    15th January 1667
    Edward Harris
    12th May 1669
    Broughton
    12th May 1669
    Charles Middleton
    1669
    John Wise
    4th July 1666
    Richard Sheldon
    4th July 1666
    Colonel Anthony Buller
    1669
    Edward Chichester
    10th June 1672
    Oliver Nicholas
    10th June 1672
    Richard Baggot
    10th June 1672
    Charles Palmer
    10th June 1672
    Fitzsimmons
    10th June 1672
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10th June 1672
    Windwood
    10th June 1672
    Humphry Cornwall
    10th June 1672
    William Morrice
    10th December 1669
    Samuel Scudamore
    16th January 1671
    John Churchill
    10th June 1672
    Thomas Cutler
    10th June 1672
    Henry Cornwall
    10th June 1672
    Phillip Bickerstaffe
    August 1672
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    Robert Kilvert
    8th May 1667
    Adjutant - William Pierson(June 1666).
    Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

John Churchill listed in the nominal above went on to become the Duke of Marlborough and is the distant direct ancestor of Sir Winston Churchill the noted British WW2 Prime Minister.

1672. A dispute arose on the subject of naval precedence, and other causes gave rise to another war with the Dutch. The formation of additional Corps of Marines took place upon renewal of hostilities. These companies were engaged in a sharp fight with the Dutch fleet on the Saturday 28th May 1672, in which upwards of two thousand men were killed. They were also engaged in several other actions during the war which ended in February 1674. The conflict became known as the third Anglo Dutch War, and also formed part of the general European War of 1672 - 1678.

1672. Tuesday 20th December. Four Dutch ships, led by Jacob de Gens, arrived off St. Helena from the Cape. A landing party came ashore at Lemon Valley but was repelled by English planters hurling rocks from the top of cliffs above. Returning after dark, a light was seen near another landing place, Bennetts Point close to Swanley Valley on the western side of the Island. A traitor named William Coxe, accompanied by his slave, had lit a fire and was waiting to guide the Dutch invasion force onto the island. Five hundred men came ashore and were led up the precipitous cliffs by Coxe and his slave, who was then murdered to keep the treacherous story secret. The Dutch met no opposition until they reached High Peak where they overpowered a small detachment of English troops stationed at the fort. The Dutch continued unchallenged to Ladder Hill where they looked down on James Fort, knowing that if they took James Fort, they took the Island. A detachment of Dutch troops made repeated advances towards James Fort but were driven back each time. However the small group in the fort were trapped, the Dutch were above them and also attacking them from the sea. Governor Anthony Beale realised the Dutch had the strategic advantage, being in possession of Ladder Hill Fort, and that he could not defend his weak position indefinitely. The governor spiked his guns, spoiled the gun powder and retreated with his entourage and their possessions to HMS Humphrey and HMS Elizabeth that were anchored in James Bay. They set sail for Brazil. According to Dutch records they gained little in monetary terms from their new possession, the most valuable items being an English slave ship, 220 slaves and 551 tusks of ivory. They repaired the fort and set a garrison of 100 men to defend the island.

1673. Monday 15th May. The re-capture of St. Helena in the South Atlantic. After reaching Brazil, Governor Beale hired a sloop and a crew, giving them orders to sail him back to St. Helena so he could warn English ships approaching the Island. By May 1673 he was back in St. Helena waters. Almost immediately he came upon Richard Munden’s English East India squadron. After being briefed by Beale, Munden immediately made plans to re-take the Island. Four hundred English troops sailed into Prosperous Bay. With them was Black Oliver, a slave who had sailed with Beale’s party to Brazil and back again. Black Oliver was chosen to guide the troops to James Fort. Captain Richard Keigwin commanded the English troops, among them was a sailor named Tom who was the first to climb a 1,000 foot cliff and drop ropes for the rest of the troops to follow. The plan was for Keigwin to attack from inland while Munden fired an off shore bombardment. Munden first bombarded James Fort as sailor Tom led the troops up the cliff, intending to continue the assault the following morning when Keigwin’s force should be in position to attack. Keigwin reached his position above James Fort as planned but found it was already in English hands the Dutch had surrendered after the first bombardment. At sunset on 15th May 1673, the English re-took possession of James Fort. Along with three Dutch East Indiamen vessels richly laden, that were anchored in the bay.

1673. Sunday 28th May. The first (of three) Naval Battles of Schoonveldt that were part of the Franco Dutch War. They were fought off the coast of the Nederland’s against the Dutch, between an allied Anglo French fleet Commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine, and the fleet of the United Provinces Commanded by Michiel de Ruyer, in which the Dutch were the victors.

1673. Sunday 4th June. Witnessed the 2nd Battle of Schoonveldt again involving the English and the Dutch in which they also won.

1673. Monday 21st August. The Naval Battle of Texel took place between the Dutch and the combined English and French fleets and was the last major battle of the third Anglo Dutch War, which was itself part of the Franco Dutch War (1672 - 1678), during which Louis XIV of France invaded the Republic and sought to establish control over the Spanish Netherlands. The English involvement came about because of the Treaty of Dover, secretly concluded by Charles II of England, and which was highly unpopular with the English Parliament. The Battle of Texel and its win by the Dutch also saved their country from an Anglo French invasion.

1673. Sunday 26th March. The King had been compelled by Parliament to withdraw the Declaration of Indulgence, and on the 26th March the Test Act, by which all professing the Roman Catholic faith were prohibited from holding office under the crown, was passed.In consequence of the passing of this statute, the Duke of York, against whom the act was practically directed, resigned his office of Lord High Admiral of England, as well as all other appointments, with the exception of the command of the Admiral’s Regiment, which, for some reason, he was allowed to retain.
This fact is gathered form a letter of Sir Charles Littleton’s dated 1st July, addressed to Mr Bridgman. In this Sir Charles says:- There being a Commission to be drawn for a Chaplain for the Dukes Regiment the Duke being no longer Admirall, I thought it convenient to ask His Royal Highness the last night how the Regiment should be styled, & his Highness was pleased to go to the King about it, & his Majesty did then order the Commissions for the future should be with the name of the Dukes or His Royal Highnesses Regiment”.
It will be thus seen, that the passing of the Test Act virtually changed the name by which the Regiment had been commonly known. It had hitherto been, both officially and otherwise, designated the Lord High Admiral’s Regiment, although its distinctive title was that of HRH The Duke of York and Albany’s Regiment of Foot. It was now, however, to be styled ”with the name of the Dukes, or his Royal Highnesses Regiment”.

1673. 4th June. The Second (of three) Naval Battles of Schoonveldt that were part of the Franco Dutch War. They were fought off the coast of the Nederland’s against the Dutch, between an allied Anglo French fleet Commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine, and the fleet of the United Provinces Commanded by Michiel de Ruyer, in which the Dutch were the victors.

1673. 11th August. The third (of three) Naval Battles of Schoonveldt that were part of the Franco Dutch War. They were fought off the coast of the Nederland’s against the Dutch, between an allied Anglo French fleet Commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine, and the fleet of the United Provinces Commanded by Michiel de Ruyer, in which the Dutch were the victors.

1673. 16th December. Orders were issued to Sir Charles Littleton that the “ten Companies of the Duke of York’s Regiment Quartered in and about the Countyes of Middlesex and Surrey pay off the Quarters of their Companies and have them in readiness to relieve the Duke of Albermarle’s Regiment at Rochester and adjacent places”.

1673. Saturday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with Commission Dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieut Colonel - Sir John Griffiths, Knt.
    Major - Nathaniel Dorrell.
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    Francis Izod
    August 1672
    Frederick Walker
    16th December 1673
    Sir John Griffiths
    15th February 1668
    Charles Palmer
    23rd December 1673
    John Thorne
    9th December 1669
    Nathaniel Dorrell
    15th February 1668
    Robert Thompson
    30th April 1667
    Alexander Frazier
    28th August 1667
    Henry Herbert
    15th January 1667
    Samuel Scudamore
    7th September 1673
    Bruce
    20th May 1670
    Sir Boucher Wrey
    15th January 1667
    Edward Harris
    12th May 1669
    Broughton
    12th May 1669
    Charles Middleton
    1669
    John Wise
    4th July 1666
    Richard Sheldon
    4th July 1666
    Colonel Anthony Buller
    1669
    Edward Chichester
    10th June 1672
    George Butler
    5th April 1673
    Richard Baggot
    10th June 1672
    Robert Crauford
    16th September 1673
    Fitzsimmons
    10th June 1672
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10th June 1672
    Windwood
    10th June 1672
    Humphry Cornwall
    10th June 1672
    William Morrice
    10th December 1669
    Henry Horner
    7th September 1673
    John Churchill
    10th June 1672
    Thomas Cutler
    10th June 1672
    Henry Cornwall
    10th June 1672
    Phillip Bickerstaffe
    August 1672
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    Robert Kilvert
    8th May 1667
    Adjutant - William Pierson(June 1666).
    Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1673. A complete redistribution of the companies of the Duke’s Regiment was ordered. As follows:-

    Colonel Littleton Landguard Fort
    Colonel Buller & Captain Bickerstaff Berwick on Tweed
    Captains Bouchier Wrey & Cornwall Plymouth
    Lt Col Griffith, Captain Herbert & Captain Lyttleton Portsmouth
    Captains Middleton & Baggot Hull

1673. It cannot be otherwise than with pride that the corps looks back and sees amongst the ranks of its officers two such distinguished men as John Churchill and George Rooke serving for a time side by side in its roll, for although the great victories of Marlborough do not reflect any lustre on the corps, except by indirect association, such is not the case as regards George Rooke, who, by his own distinguished gallantry, assisted by the personal valour of the Marines of his fleet, gained for the Empire one of its proudest jewels, and left emblazoned in after years on the colours of his old Regiment the word “Gibraltar”.

1674. January. The stations at which the companies of the Regiment were “quartered in our counties of Middlesex, Surrey and thereabouts is set forth in a list as follows: 10 Companies of his Royal Highness the Duke of York’s Regiment of Foot under command of Sir Charles Littleton at Kingston, Richmond, Brentford, Fulham, Parsons Green, Wandsworth, Putney, Chelsea, Knightsbridge, Kensington & Hammersmith. I Company (being Major Dorrell’s) at Sheernesse, and 1 Company in Flanders”.

1674. Friday 9th February. The Treaty of Westminster ends the war between England and Holland, and the Dutch return New York and Delaware to England. Two days later the King gave notice for the disbandment of all existing forces with the exception of the Horse & Foot Guards, The Duke of York’s and the Holland Regiment, and the 39 garrison companies which had existed before the war.

1674. April. John Churchill was appointed Colonel of a Marine Regiment. He then served with, and learnt from Marshal Turenne.

1674. Saturday 16th June. Battle of Sinzheim in France, assisting the French Viscount of Turenne against the Imperialists. The enemy’s cavalry had driven Turenne’s first line back upon his second, the British Infantry poured in such a furious fire on the enemy that they were unable to stand against it, and begun to retire. Undercover of this fire the French Cavalry rallied and were able to advance against the enemy. Later the French first line was again broken in several places, but the British fire was so effective as to prevent the enemy’s Cuirassiers from passing through the gaps which had been made. It’s believed that John Churchill 1st Duke of Marlborough was present during the battle. Although Charles II's anti-French Parliament had forced England to withdraw from the Franco-Dutch War in 1674, some English Regiments remained in French service. In April Churchill was appointed the colonelcy of one such Regiment, thereafter serving with, and learning from, the great Marshal Turenne. Churchill was present at the hard fought battles of Sinsheim in June 1674, and Enzheim in October; Turckheim in January 1675. He was also present at Sasbach in July 1675, where Turenne was killed.

1674. Thursday 4th October. The Battle of Entzheim near Strasburg in France. It’s reported that the steadiness and accuracy of the Marines fire saved their French allies. It is also the first account of a land engagement in which a large number of Marines participated. The 1st Duke of Marlborough led a Battalion into action.

1674. After a peace with Holland was signed about 500 Marines of the Duke of York’s Regiment remained in France.

1674. Monday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieut Colonel - Sir John Griffiths, Knt.
    Major - Nathaniel Dorrell.
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    Francis Izod
    August 1672
    Frederick Walker
    16th December 1673
    Sir John Griffiths
    15th February 1668
    Charles Palmer
    23rd December 1673
    John Thorne
    9th December 1669
    Nathaniel Dorrell
    15th February 1668
    Robert Thompson
    30th April 1667
    Alexander Frazier
    28th August 1667
    Henry Herbert
    15th January 1667
    Samuel Scudamore
    7th September 1673
    Bruce
    20th May 1670
    Sir Boucher Wrey
    15th January 1667
    Edward Harris
    12th May 1669
    Broughton
    12th May 1669
    Charles Middleton
    1669
    John Wise
    4th July 1666
    Richard Sheldon
    4th July 1666
    Colonel Anthony Buller
    1669
    Edward Chichester
    10th June 1672
    George Butler
    5th April 1673
    Richard Baggot
    10th June 1672
    Robert Crauford
    16th September 1673
    Fitzsimmons
    10th June 1672
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10th June 1672
    George Rooke
    1674
    Humphry Cornwall
    10th June 1672
    William Morrice
    10th December 1669
    Henry Horner
    7th September 1673
    John Churchill
    10th June 1672
    Thomas Cutler
    10th June 1672
    Charles Churchill
    1674
    Phillip Bickerstaffe
    August 1672
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    Robert Kilvert
    8th May 1667
    Adjutant - William Pierson(June 1666).
    Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1675. During the autumn of the previous year Sir John Griffith had tendered his resignation. He was succeeded on the 5th January as Lieutenant Colonel by Captain John Churchill, who thus superseded Major Darrell.

1675. Saturday 5th January. The Battle of Turckheim in Alsace France. A confrontation during the Franco Dutch War fought between the towns of Colmar and Turckheim in Alsace. The French army commanded by the Viscount of Turenne fought against the armies of Austria and Brandenburg, led by Frederick William Elector of Brandenburg. The enemy held a strong position with their left on Colmar and their right on the river Fecht, opposite the village of Turckheim. With their front covered by the Canal de Loeglbach. Turenne having deployed the whole of his cavalry moved away to the left under cover of his deployment, and screened by the winter mists and the forests of beer Vineyard poles on the hillsides, across the Fecht with the infantry, and storm a strong entrenchment held by the enemy in the cemetery of St Siphornienat the junction of the river and canal. After heavy fighting he threw in the British Battalions and the Gardes Francaises who poured in such a terrible fire that the enemy began to give way, and with the fire being more intense the Allied infantry could stand it no longer and fled.

1675. June. The Battle of Sasbach. John Churchill 1st Duke of Marlborough was present and witnessed his friend Marshall Turenne being killed.

1675. Thursday 20th June - Sunday Tuesday 12th April 1678. King Philip's War against North America involved an armed conflict between the Native American inhabitants of present-day New England and the English colonists and their Native American allies.

1675. December. The question of precedence of regiments was again under consideration by the King. Previously all regiments, with the exception of the Guards and the Admiral’s Regiment, took precedence according to the date of the commission of their Colonels, and thus the precedence of a regiment was virtually rearranged at the death of its Colonel. The King, at a court held at Whitehall on the 1st December directed that:-
“First, as to the Foot – The Regiments of Guards to take place of all other regiments, and the Colonel to be always reckoned, and take place as the first foot Colonel. The Coldstream Regiment of Guards to take place next. Our most dear and most entirely beloved James Duke of York’s regiment immediately after, and all other Colonels to take place according to the dates of their commission. 2nd That the several regiments that are not of our Guards, take place according to their respective seniority from the time they were raised, so as that no regiment is to lose its precedency by the death of their Colonel”

1675. Tuesday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieutenant Colonel - John Churchill
    Major - Nathaniel Dorrell.
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    Francis Izod
    August 1672
    Frederick Walker
    16th December 1673
    John Churchill
    6th January 1675
    Edmund Yarbrough
    31st December 1675
    John Thorne
    9th December 1669
    Nathaniel Dorrell
    15th February 1668
    Robert Thompson
    30th April 1667
    Alexander Frazier
    28th August 1667
    Henry Herbert
    15th January 1667
    Samuel Scudamore
    7th September 1673
    Bruce
    20th May 1669
    Sir Boucher Wrey
    15th January 1667
    Edward Harris
    12th May 1669
    Broughton
    12th May 1669
    Charles Middleton
    1669
    John Wise
    4th July 1666
    Edward Brett
    27th December 1675
    Colonel Anthony Buller
    1669
    Edward Chichester
    10th June 1672
    George Butler
    5th April 1673
    Richard Baggot
    10th June 1672
    Robert Crauford
    16th September 1673
    Fitsimmons
    10th June 1672
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10th June 1672
    Theoph Blechingden
    27th December 1675
    Phillip Bickerstaffe
    August 1672
    William Morrice
    10th December 1669
    Henry Horner
    7th September 1673
    James Graham
    6th January 1675
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    Robert Kilvert
    8th May 1667
    Thomas Cutler
    29th October 1675
    Charles Churchill
    29th October 1675
    Alexander Nowell
    30th October 1675
    Adjutant - William Pierson(June 1666).
    Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1676. The Virginia Rebellion, sometimes referred to as Bacon’s Rebellion, was an armed rebellion by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. The News of problems in the colony, led to a company of 1000 men of the Dukes Regiment being sent to assist with law and order. However, after two years of normality all but twenty men returned to England. After a further year they were also returned.

1676. The Colours carried by Captain Charles Middleton's Company ot the Lord High Admiral's Regiment in Vigginia Experdition. (taken from 'History of the Royal Marine Forces 1664 - 1701' by Major l. Edye 1893.)

Click photo to enlarge

1676. Thursday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieutenant Colonel - John Churchill
    Major - Nathaniel Dorrell.
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    Francis Izod
    August 1672
    Frederick Walker
    16th December 1673
    John Churchill
    6th January 1675
    Edmund Yarbrough
    31st December 1675
    George Churchill
    1st January 1676
    Nathaniel Dorrell
    15th February 1668
    Robert Thompson
    30th April 1667
    Alexander Frazier
    28th August 1667
    Henry Herbert
    15th January 1667
    Samuel Scudamore
    7th September 1673
    Bruce
    20th May 1670
    Sir Boucher Wrey
    15th January 1667
    Edward Harris
    12th May 1669
    Broughton
    12th May 1669
    Colonel Anthony Buller
    1669
    Edward Chichester
    10th June 1672
    George Butler
    12th June 1672
    Richard Baggot
    10th June 1672
    Robert Crauford
    16th September 1673
    Fitsimmons
    7th September 1673
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10th June 1672
    Theoph Blechingden
    27th December 1675
    Humphry Cornwall
    10th June 1672
    Henry Cornwall
    1676
    Henry Horner
    7th September 1673
    Phillip Bickerstaffe
    August 1672
    John Wise
    4th July 1666
    Robert Kilvert
    8th May 1667
    Thomas Cutler
    29th October 1675
    Charles Churchill
    29th October 1675
    Alexander Nowell
    30th October 1675
    Charles Middleton
    1669
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    John Thorne
    9th December 1669
      George Rooke
    1st January 1676
     
    Adjutant - William Pierson(June 1666).
    Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1677. Wednesday 19th January. The Guernsey engaged an Algerine Corsair.

1677. Friday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieutenant Colonel - John Churchill
    Major - Nathaniel Dorrell.
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    Francis Izod
    August 1672
    Edward Knott
    14th June 1677
    John Churchill
    6th January 1675
    Edmund Yarbrough
    31st December 1675
    George Churchill
    1st January 1676
    Nathaniel Dorrell
    15th February 1668
    Robert Thompson
    30th April 1667
    George Littleton
    11th December 1677
    Henry Herbert
    15th January 1667
    Samuel Scudamore
    7th September 1673
    Bruce
    20th May 1670
    Sir Boucher Wrey
    15th January 1667
    Edward Harris
    12th May 1669
    Broughton
    12th May 1669
    Colonel Anthony Buller
    1669
    Edward Chichester
    10th June 1672
    George Butler
    5th August 1673
    Richard Baggot
    10th June 1672
    Robert Crauford
    16th September 1673
    Fitsimmons
    7th September 1673
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10th June 1672
    Theoph Blechingden
    27th December 1675
    Humphry Cornwall
    10th June 1672
    George Butler10 Jan 1677 Henry Horner
    7th September 1673
    Phillip Bickerstaffe
    August 1672
    John Wise
    4th July 1666
    Robert Kilvert
    8th May 1667
    Thomas Cutler
    29th October 1675
    Charles Churchill
    29th October 1675
    Alexander Nowell
    30th October 1675
    Charles Middleton
    1669
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    John Thorne
    9th December 1669
      George Rooke
    1st January 1676
    John Jeffreys
    11th October 1676
    Adjutant - William Pierson(June 1666).
    Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1678. April. Orders were given to form eighty men of the Dukes Regiment, who had just returned from Virginia (America), into a Grenadier company.

1678. Two Marine Battalions were sent to Flanders to assist the Dutch fight against the French.

1678. Each Company of 100 men usually consisted of 30 Pike men, 60 Musketeers, and 10 men armed with light firelocks. This same year the King also added a company of men armed with hand grenades to each of the old British Regiments, which was designated the Grenadier Company. Daggers were so contrived as to fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets similar to those at present in use, were adopted about twenty years later.

1678. Saturday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieutenant Colonel - John Churchill
    Major - Nathaniel Dorrell.
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    Robert Crauford
    16th August 1677
    Edward Knott
    14th June 1677
    John Churchill
    6th January 1675
    Edmund Yarbrough
    31st December 1675
    Townsend
    16th January 1678
    Nathaniel Dorrell
    15th February 1668
    Robert Thompson
    30th April 1667
    George Littleton
    11th December 1677
    Henry Herbert
    15th January 1667
    Fitzgerald
    16th January 1678
    Man
    16th January 1678
    Sir Boucher Wrey
    15th January 1667
    Theoph Blechingden
    16th January 1678
    Broughton
    16th January 1678
    Colonel Anthony Buller
    1669
    Edward Chichester
    10th June 1672
    George Butler
    5th August 1673
    Richard Baggot
    10th June 1672
    William Bassett
    16th January 1678
    John Hill
    16th January 1678
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10th June 1672
    Richard Fowler
    16th January 1678
    Phillip Bickerstaffe
    August 1672
    John Wise
    4th July 1666
    Alexander Erwin
    21st March 1678
    Thomas Cutler
    29th October 1675
    George Churchill
    16th January 1678
    William Fitz
    1st May 1678
    David Legros
    30th April 1678
    John Jeffreys
    1st March 1678
    William B Morrice
    1st March 1678
    Edward Smith
    2nd May 1678
    George Rooke
    1st January 1676
    Simons
    13th April 1678
      Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    Philemon Powell
    1st May 1678
        Jasper Churchll
    16th January 1678
    Adjutant - Richard Beauvoir (14 March 1678)           
    Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1679. In consequence of the of the return of the Regiment to England (from Flanders) several changes took place at the quartering of the companies, which were shortly after posted as follows:-

    Lieutenant Colonel John Churchill Isle of Wight
    Sir Bouchier Wrey Hull
    Captain Bagot Hull
    Captain Churchill Hull
    Captain Bickerstaffe Tynemouth
    Captain Buller Portsmouth
    Captain Smith Portsmouth
    Lord Herbert Plymouth
    Captain Cutler Plymouth
    Captain Le Gros Plymouth

1679. Sir Charles Littleton was then issued orders that as soon as he was relieved to move to Sheerness with his company and to take over command of the fort there. Note: there was no mention of him becoming governor of the fort and replacing Major Dorrell.

1679. October. The Revenge engaged the Selvageee's Armanda.

1679. Sunday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieutenant Colonel - John Churchill
    Major - Nathaniel Dorrell.
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
     Francis Izod
    August 1672
    Marmaduke Greenham
    25th October 1679
    John Churchill
    6th January 1675
    Edmund Yarbrough
    31st December 1675
    George Churchill
    1st January 1677
    Nathaniel Dorrell
    15th February 1668
    Robert Thompson
    30th April 1667
    George Littleton
    11th December 1677
    Henry Lord Herbert
    15th January 1667
    Samuel Scudamore
    1st September 1673
    Thomas Man
    1st September 1679
    Sir Boucher Wrey
    15th January 1667
    Edward Harris
    12th May 1669
    Broughton
    12th May 1669
    Richard Baggot
    10th June 1672
    Robert Crauford
    19th September 1673
    William Pierson
    1678
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10 Jun 1672
    Theoph Blechingden
    27th December 1675
    Thomas Cutler
    29th October 1675
    Thomas Whaley
    1st September 1679
    Alexander Nowell
    3rd October 1675
    David Legros
    30th April 1678
    John Jeffreys
    1st March 1678
    Philemon Powell
    1st July 1678
    Edward Smith
    2nd May 1678
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    Jasper Churchill
    16th January 1678
    Charles Churchill
    1st September 1679
    Edward Chichester
    10th June 1672
    George Butler
    5th August 1673
    Edward Nott
    24th September 1679
    John Wise
    4th July 1666
    Alexander Erwin
    21st March 1678
      George Rooke
    1st January 1676
    William Paxton
    1st September 1679
    Adjutant - Richard Beauvoir (14 March 1678).           
    Quartermaster and Marshall - Henry Dereham (20th February 1679). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1679. October. The 'Revenge' engaged Selvagee's Armada.

1680. Wednesday 31st January. Sir Charles Lyttleton wrote: Major Dorrill died this morning; Sr Bowcher Wrey is now the Major, and Harris has the company. I am Govenor of Sheerness.

1680. Friday 20th September. The Battle of Tangiers in Morocco North Africa. The Moors were threatening the British possessions in Tangiers. A Marine Battalion was formed and sent out to help the locals. Upon their arrival the Battalion was augmented by extra Marines recruited from the fleet.

1880. Tuseday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieutenant Colonel - John Churchill
    Major - Sir Boucher Wrey.
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    Robert Crauford
    1680
    Philemon Powell
    12th October 1680
    John Churchill
    6th January 1675
    Edmund Yarbrough
    31st December 1675
    George Churchill
    1st January 1677
    Sir Boucher Wrey
    31st January 1680
    Charles Herbert
    31st January 1679
    George Littleton
    11th December 1677
    Richard Baggot
    10th June 1672
    John Packer
    1680
    William Pierson
    1678
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10th June 1672
    Theoph Blechingden
    27th December 1675
    Thomas Cutler
    1672
    Robert Lloyd
    1680
    John Hill
    23rd April 1670
    David Legros
    30th April 1678
    George Rooke
    1st March 1677
    Gilbert Simons
    1680
    Charles Churchill
    1st September 1679
    Thomas Whaley
    1st September 1679
    Francis Izod
    1680
    Edward Nott
    1st September 1679
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    Alexander Erwin
    21st March 1678
    Edward Smith
    2nd May 1678
    Samuel Scudamore
    1st September 1673
    Thomas Man
    1st September 1679
    Francis Izod
    1st January 1680
    John Thorne
    1680
    William Summers
    1st March 1680
    James Fortrey
    15th March 1680
    George Butler
    1680
    Jasper Churchill
    16th January 1678
    Adjutant - Richard Beauvoir (14 March 1678).           
    Quartermaster and Marshall - Henry Dereham (20th February 1679). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1881. The quarters for the His Majesties forces was given as follows:

Colonel Sir Charles Littleton Sheerness
Captain Charles Churchill Isle of Wight
Lieutenant Colonel Oliver Nicholl Portsmouth
Captain James Fortrey Portsmouth
Captain Edmund Harris Portsmouth
Captain Francis Izod Plymouth
Captain Thomas Cutler Plymouth
Capt David Le Gross Plymouth
Major Bouchier Wrey Hull
Captain Richard Baggott Hull
Captain Edward Nott Tynemouth
Captain George Littleton Guernsey

The changes for the year were few, but important in one instance, for after a service of close on nine years, Lieutenant Colonel John Churchill left the regiment to commence a career which was destined to be one of the most distinguished in the annals of our military history.

“Second son of Sir Winston Churchill; born at Ashe, Devon 24th May 1650. Page of honour to the Duke of York, Ensign, King’s Regiment of Guards, 14th September 1667. Served at Tangiers against the Moors, promoted to Captain in the Admiral’s Regiment for this service. Served in Flanders, present at the sieges of Nimeguen and Maastricht, promoted Lieutant Colonel Duke of York’s Regiment 17th February 1678, from which he retired early in 1681. Created Baron Churchill of Ayemouth, Co Berwick on 21st December 1682. Appointed Colonel of the 1st Royal Dragoons 19th November 1683. Sworn of the Bedchamber 25th April 1685, and raised on 14th May following the English peerage as Baron Churchill of Sandridge. Appointed to a command in the Royalist Army during Monmouth’s insurrection, and promoted Major General 3rd July and given the Colonelcy of 3rd Troop of Horse Guards for these services. Promoted Lieutant General 7th November 1688, and sworn a member of the Privvy Council 14th February 1689, after which he was made a Gentleman of the Bedchamber on 1st March 1689. Raised to the Earldom of Marlborough on 9th April 1689. Appointed in June 1689 to command a Brigade of English troops on the continent under the Prince of Waldeck. Commanded jointly with the Duke of Wertemberg in the expedition to Ireland in 1690, and present at the taking of Cork and Kinsale. Commander in Chief of the Allied Forces in Holland 1701 - 1701, and at the reduction of Venloo, Stevenswaert, Roermond and Liege, for which he was, on 14th December 1702 created Marquis of Blandford and Duke of Marlborough. Appointed Colonel of the 1st Guards 1704. Subsequently gained the battles of Blenheim (13th August 1704), Ramillies (23rd May 1706), Oudenparde (11th July 1708) and Malplaquet (11th September 1709). Created Prince of Mindelheim 1704. Married Sarah, daughter and co-heiress of Richard Jennings of Sandbridge near St Albans in 1678. Died 16th June 1722”.

Note: this man is the early ancestor of Sir Winston Churchill the noted WW2 Prime Minister.

1681. Tuesday 8th April. Capture of the Algerine Corsair Golden Horse.

1681. Thursday 22nd May. The HMS Kingfisher engaged seven Algerine pirates.

1681. Wednesday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieutenant Colonel - Oliver Nicholas
    Major - Sir Boucher Wrey.
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    Robert Crauford
    1680
    Philemon Powell
    12th October 1680
    Oliver Nicholas
    23rd February 1681
    Edmund Yarbrough
    31st December 1675
    George Churchill
    1st January 1677
    Sir Boucher Wrey
    31st January 1680
    Chichester Wrey
    21st July 1681
    George Littleton
    11th December 1677
    Richard Baggot
    10th June 1672
    Thomas Crowther
    3rd March 1681
    William Pierson
    1678
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10th June 1672
    Theoph Blechingden
    27th December 1675
    Sir Thomas Cutler
    August 1672
    Robert Lloyd
    1680
    John Hill
    23rd April 1670
    David Legros
    30th April 1678
    George Rooke
    1st March 1677
    Gilbert Simons
    1680
    Charles Churchill
    1st September 1679
    Thomas Whaley
    1st September 1679
    Francis Izod
    1680
    Edward Nott
    1st September 1679
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    Alexander Erwin
    21st March 1678
    Francis Izod
    1st January 1680
    Samuel Scudamore
    1st September 1673
    Thomas Man
    1st September 1679
     Edward Harris
    31st January 1680
    John Thorne
    1680
    William Summers
    1st March 1680
    James Fortrey
    15th March 1680
    George Butler
    1680
    Jasper Churchill
    16th January 1678
      William Cooke
    25th July 1681
     
    Adjutant - Richard Beauvoir (14 March 1678).           
    Quartermaster and Marshall - Henry Dereham (20th February 1679). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1682. Thursday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieutenant Colonel - Oliver Nicholas
    Major - Sir Boucher Wrey.
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    Robert Crauford
    1680
    Philemon Powell
    12th October 1680
    Oliver Nicholas
    23rd February 1681
    Edmund Yarbrough
    31st December 1675
    George Churchill
    1st January 1677
    Sir Boucher Wrey
    31st January 1680
    Chichester Wrey
    21st July 1681
    George Littleton
    11th December 1677
    Richard Baggot
    10th June 1672
    William Cooke
    25th July 1681
    William Pierson
    1678
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10th June 1672
    Theoph Blechingden
    27th December 1675
    Sir Thomas Cutter
    August 1672
    Robert Lloyd
    1680
    John Hill
    23rd April 1670
    Charles Churchill
    1st September 1679
    Thomas Whaley
    1st September 1679
    Francis Izod
    1680
    Edward Nott
    1st September 1679
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    Alexander Erwin
    21st March 1678
    Francis Izod
    1st January 1680
    Richard Butler
    11th August 1682
    Thomas Man
    1st September 1679
     Edward Harris
    31st January 1680
    John Thorne
    1680
    William Summers
    1st March 1680
    James Fortrey
    15th March 1680
    George Butler
    1680
    John Whaley
    1st May 1682
    Samuel Scudamore
    24th July 1682
    George Rooke
    1st March 1677
    Gilbert Simmons
    1680
    Adjutant - Richard Beauvoir (14 March 1678).           
    Quartermaster and Marshall - Henry Dereham (20th February 1679). Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1683. Friday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieutenant Colonel - Oliver Nicholas
    Major – Richard Baggot
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    Robert Crauford
    1680
    Philemon Powell
    12th October 1680
    Oliver Nicholas
    23rd February 1681
    Edmund Yarbrough
    31st December 1675
    George Churchill
    1st January 1677
    Richard Baggot
    1st May 1683
    Theoph Blechingden
    30st July 1683
    William Pierson
    1678
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10th June 1672
    Montarges
    30th July 1683
    Sir Thomas Cutler
    August 1672
    Robert Lloyd
    1680
    John Hill
    23rd April 1670
    Edward Nott
    1st September 1679
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    Alexander Erwin
    21st March 1678
    Francis Izod
    1st January 1680
    Richard Butler
    11th August 1682
    Thomas Man
    1st September 1679
    Edward Harris
    31st January 1680
    John Thorne
    1680
    William Summers
    1st March 1680
    Samuel Scudamore
    24th July 1682
    George Rooke
    1st March 1677
    Gilbert Simmons
    1st May 1682
    James Fortrey
    15th March 1680
    George Butler
    1680
    John Whaley
    1st May 1682
     Sir Chichester Wrey
    1st May 1683
    Henry Hughes
    1st May 1683
    George Littleton
    11th December 1677
    Charles Herbert
    31st August 1683
    Thomas Whaley
    1st September 1679
    Francis Izod
    1680
    Adjutant - Richard Beauvoir (14 March 1678).           
    Quartermaster and Marshall .- .Tobias le Grosse (30th June 1683)... Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1684. The third Regiment of the line was called the Maritime Regiment and also the Admiral’s Regiment. However, the system of having soldiers exclusively for sea service does not appear to have been carried into effect until the year 1698, when a draft of an establishment for two Marine Regiments was presented to William lll, who by his order of council, authorised their formation, subject to certain regulations.

1684. 5/8 January. Uniform. In the London Gazette, the uniform of the Regiment is described as “coats yellow, lined red, stockings red”, whilst in the London Gazette 9/13 April 1684/5 it is stated to be “coats yellow, breaches red, belt shoulder for sword.”

1684. Sunday 1st October. Uniform. Nathan Brooks describing the Regiment on Putney Heath at the Grand Review of the 1st October 1684 says, “The Admirals Regiment consists of twelve companies, without grenadiers, coated yellow, lined red” but this was twenty years after the first formation of the Regiment. There is, however, little doubt that yellow was the chosen colour for the uniform at the Corp’s formation. It was the favourite colour of its Colonel in Chief, the Duke of York, and it was the same as was worn by the Duke of York’s Horse, and by the Duchess of York’s Regiment of Foot.

1684. Sunday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

    Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.
    Lieutenant Colonel - Oliver Nicholas
    Major – Richard Baggot
    Captain Lieutenant Ensigns
    Sir Charles Littleton
    15th February 1668
    Robert Crauford
    1680
    Philemon Powell
    12th October 1680
    Oliver Nicholas
    23rd February 1681
    Edmund Yarbrough
    31st December 1675
    George Churchill
    1st January 1677
    Richard Baggot
    1st May 1683
    Theoph Blechingden
    30th July 1683
    William Pierson
    1678
    George Littleton
    10th June 1672
    Edmund Wilson
    10th June 1672
    Brounell
    4th January 1684
    Sir Thomas Cutler
    August 1672
    Robert Lloyd
    1680
    John Hill
    23rd April 1670
    Edward Nott
    1st September 1679
    Francis Hoblin
    10th December 1669
    Alexander Erwin
    21st March 1678
    Francis Izod
    1st January 1680
    Richard Butler
    11th August 1682
    Thomas Man
    1st September 1679
    Edward Harris
    31st January 1680
    John Thorne
    1680
    William Summers
    1st March 1680
    Samuel Scudamore
    24th July 1682
    George Rooke
    1st March 1677
    Gilbert Simmons
    1st May 1682
    Edward Plowden
    1st January 1684
    William Oglethorpe
    14th June 1684
    John Whaley
    1st May 1682
     Sir Chichester Wrey
    1st May 1683
    Henry Hughes
    1st May 1683
    George Littleton
    11th December 1677
    Charles Herbert
    31st August 1683
    Thomas Whaley
    1st September 1679
    Francis Izod
    1680
        James Man
    1st May 1684
    Adjutant - Richard Beauvoir (14 March 1678).           
    Quartermaster and Marshall .- .Tobias le Grosse (30th June 1683)... Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666).Lieutenant Col – Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1885 - 1887. Uniform. The yellow coat gave way to red as in the London Gazette 30th January / 2nd February 1687 which gives details of a deserter from the Regiment who was wearing a red coat lined with yellow”.

1685. Tuesday 6th February. The Monmouth Rebellion (civil war) was an attempt to overthrow James II, who had become King of England, Scotland and Ireland upon the death of his elder brother Charles II. James II was a Roman Catholic, and some Protestants under his rule opposed his Kingship. James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of Charles II, claimed to be the rightful heir to the throne and attempted to over throw him.

1685. Tuesday 6th February. James II ascended the throne of England. The Regiment was given to Prince George of Denmark the King’s son-in-law. It was during this time that the uniform colour changed to red coats with white stockings. Renamed Prince George of Denmark's Regiment but later they were disbanded.

1685. An Ordnance Regiment was raised by order of King James II, to guard the artillery, and was designated the Royal Fusiliers (later the 7th Foot). This Corps, and the Companies of Grenadiers, did not carry pikes.

1685. It was customary at this time to call regiments by the names of their Commanding Officers. A practice which has always been a thorn in the side of historians. In accordance with this custom, it went on that the Duke of York upon becoming King James II in 1685, his Marine Regiment was handed over to Prince George, Hereditary Prince of Denmark, it then became known by his name. In the following year possibly because of the Princes taste in fancy waistcoats did not coincide with that of his predecessors in command. The men of the Marine Regiment were clad in redcoats, with yellow facings, dark grey breeches, and white stockings.

1687 - 1698. There were several Maritime Regiments raised Commanded by Colonels Mordaunt, Colt, Seymour, and Brudenell, also Sir Cloudesley Shovel's, Lord Torrington, and the Marquis of Carmarthen's, all of which were disbanded during 1697 and 1698. The expenses incurred by the maintenance of the maritime troops were classed with the estimates of the navy, and money was issued from time to time, by warrant from the Lord High Treasurer to the Treasurer of the Navy, who placed it in the hands of a person especially appointed to receive and pay it. Under this system, the Admiralty and Navy Boards were subjected too much trouble, in forming and directing its different arrangements.

1688 - 1697. The Nine Year War between the England, Spain, Germany, Portugal and Holland against King Louis XIV of France.

1688 - 1697. King William’s War was the first of six North American colonial wars.

1688 - 1691. The Williamite War in Ireland was a conflict between the Jacobites (supporters of the English Catholic King James II) and Williamites (supporters of the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange) over who would be King of England, Scotland and Ireland. It is also known as the Jacobite War in Ireland.

1688 - 1746. The Jacobite Rebellions were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in England and Ireland. The uprisings had the aim of returning James VII of Scotland and II of England, and later his descendants of the House of Stuart, to the English throne.

1689. Officers commanding his Majesty’s ships were ordered to deposit perfect copies of their journals with the secretary of the admiralty.

1689. King William III incorporated the Admirals Regiment which was then considered the third Regiment of Infantry, into the Second, now the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards. Two Marine Regiments were about the same time, established for service on board the fleet, which were later disbanded in 1698.

1689. May. The Railleuse and Serpente were captured by Nonsuch.

1689 – 1697. England and France declared war against each other.

1689. Wednesday 11th May. The Battle of Bantry Bay was a naval engagement fought during the Nine Years’ War. The English fleet was commanded by Arthur Herbert, 1st Earl of Torrington, the French fleet by François Louis de Rousselet, Marquis de Château Renault. Apart from the inshore operations at La Rochelle in 1627 - 1628, the Battle of Bantry Bay was the first time English and French navies had met in a fleet action since 1545. The battle near the southern Irish coast was inconclusive but the French, endeavouring to supply King James II in his attempt to re-establish his throne, had managed to unload their supplies for James’s Irish campaign. However, the French failed to follow up their tactical success with a strategic gain, Château Renault had inflicted considerable damage on the English fleet. During the wars with France, Marine Battalions and ships detachments were seldom away from the fighting.

1689. Monday 28th July. Relief of Londonderry.

1690. Britain was at war with France and two Regiments of Marines were raised under the command of the Earl of Torrington and Pembroke, later Lord Berkeley's. Each had twelve companies (948 men) and a Grenadier company (237 men) and again there were no pikemen, each man carrying a Dutch snaphance musket. In addition each Marine carried a bayonet, which was unusual at that time.Their main role was for service with the Fleet in which they succeeded in participating in all major sea battles of that time. (Both Regiments were later disbanded in 1696).

The Marine Regiment which according to another account published in 1691, was a detachment of the frigates, numbering 400 strong, would seem to be what we should now call a Naval Brigade, but on the other hand, one would hardly expect the men to be called Marines. Probably both seamen and Marines acted together as they had constantly done on other occasions. Captain Keigwin though here called a sea commander, had a commission in a Marine Regiment. However, in those days it would not have debarred him from a Naval Command, it was rather a reason for giving it to him. He took part in the capture of St. Helena as a Commander of our Land Forces.

1690. Wednesday 21st June. The capture of St. Christopher's in the West Indies, by a 400 strong Battalion of Marines, formed from the detachments of a number of frigates in the area. During this action 130 men were killed and wounded, including Captain Keigwin a sea Commander, who was appointed Colonel of the Marines Regiment consisting of about 230 seamen was shot through the thigh, of which he died before he could be carried on board. Captain Brisbane who acted as 1st Captain of the Marines also received a shot through the body and died the next morning on board HMS Bristol.

1690. Friday 30th June. The French were sighted off the Lizard making their way eastwards up the Channel. Lord Torrington, commanding the combined fleets, was reluctant to commit to battle in the face of superior French numbers, but was given the order for battle from HMS Queen Mary on Sunday 9th July off Beachy Head. With the wind from NE three divisions of the combined Anglo-Dutch fleet bore down upon three divisions of the French fleet to the westward, with both sides arranged in a line of battle formation.

1690. Monday 10th July. The Battle at Beachy Head along the Sussex coast was a naval engagement fought during the Nine Years War, approximately 12 or more miles off Beachy Head, between a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet and the French fleet. The battle raged from around 8am until nightfall. It took place in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution when William and Mary of Orange replaced James II on the throne, and French involvement at this battle was intended to support the return of James II, as well as being part of the wider war known as the War of the Grand Alliance.

The battle was the greatest French tactical naval victory over their English and Dutch opponents during the war. The English and Dutch lost around 11 ships in total, whereas the French did not lose a single vessel, but although control of the English Channel temporarily fell into French hands, Admiral Tourville failed to pursue the Allied fleet allowing it to escape to the river Thames. Tourville was heavily criticised for not following up his victory and was relieved of his command. English Admiral Torrington who had advised against engaging the superior French fleet was overruled by Queen Mary, and her minister was court-martialled for his performance during the battle. Although he was later acquitted, when King William dismissed him from the service.

1690. Tuesday 11th July. The Battle of Boyne took place in Ireland, between the Catholic James II of England and VII of Scotland and the Protestant William III of England and II of Scotland, who, with his wife, Mary II (who was his cousin and James's daughter), had overthrown James in England in 1688. The battle took place across the river Boyne near the town of Droghedaon on the east coast of Ireland, and resulted in a victory for William. This turned the tide in James's failed attempt to regain the British crown and ultimately aided in ensuring the continued Protestant ascendancy in Ireland. William's forces defeated James's army, which consisted mostly of raw recruits. The symbolic importance of this battle has made it one of the best known battles in the history of the British Isles and a key part of the folklore of the Orange Order. Marines were at one time involved in the fighting. It was also the last battle between two rival claimants for the throne.

1690. James II of England (James VII of Scotland) and Ireland departed for France from Kinsale, following his defeat at the battle of the Boyne by William III of England also William III of the House of Orange.

1690. Prince George of Denmark's Maritime Regiment (1984 - 1689) proposed uniform for the 1st and 2nd Marines. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

Click photo to enlarge

1690. Wednesday 12th July. The Siege and Capture of Jacobite controlled Cork in Ireland, was taken by the same two Marine Regiments led by John Churchill 1st Duke of Marlborough, who had fought at Beach Head earlier in the year. Marlborough reached Cork by sea on Thursday 21st September. His English forces were 5,000 strong and he also had at his disposal a fleet which blockaded the port of Cork. While entering Queens Town Harbour the British fleet was fired upon by an eight gun battery near the entrance, and after a few broadsides went on to capture Cork. He landed his troops at Passage West on Sunday 24th September and set up his base at Red Abbey, to the south of the walled city. Approaching from the northern landward, side were 4,000 Danish troops under the Duke of Württemberg.

The Williamites took the forts (such as Elizabeth Fort) which commanded the hills around Cork and commenced a bombardment of the city from the heights. When a breach was opened in the city walls, the towns garrisoned opened surrender negotiations, asking to be allowed to leave Cork and join the main Jacobite army at Limerick. Marlborough refused the request, although Württemberg was in favour of granting the terms. A few days later, the Williamites mounted a joint English-Danish assault of the breach from the south. When the Williamites reached the walls, the Governor of Cork, McElliot, opened new surrender talks and agreed that the garrison would become prisoners and would surrender their arms and stores. Marlborough accepted and the town surrendered. In spite of this, the Williamite troops, sacked the city, and carried out a great deal of damage looting property and abusing the Catholic inhabitants. Many civilians were killed before Württemberg and Marlborough could restore order.

1690. Sunday 15th October. The Capture of Skinsdale along the South East Coast of Ireland. The Williamites went on to take nearby Kinsale which was strongly defended by two forts, the Old Fort, also known as James Fort, and the New Fort or Charles Fort. Marlborough assaulted these fortifications but was unable to take them by storm. The Old Fort, defended by the Governor Colonel Cornelius O'Driscoll, fell after an assault was made possible by an accidental explosion in its gunpowder magazine, which killed 40 of his men. After some 200 others were slain in the following assault including Colonel O'Driscoll, the rest surrendered. However, Charles Fort held out for a further ten days and surrendered only after receiving guarantees that its 1,200 strong garrison could march away to Limerick. It was defended by the elderly and experienced Governor Sir Edward Scott, and his Deputy Governor Colonel Daniel O'Donovan.

1691. Wednesday 21st February. Commodore Wrenn engaged M. de Blenac.

1691. Thursday 12th July. The Battle of Ashram on the East Coast of Ireland.

1691. Sunday 22nd July. The Battle of Aughrim was the decisive battle of the Williamite War in Ireland. It was fought between the Jacobites and the forces of William III near the village of Aughrim in County Galway. The battle was one of the more bloody recorded fought on Irish soil. With over 7,000 people killed. It meant the effective end of Jacobitism in Ireland, although the city of Limerick held out until the autumn.

1691. The Marine Regiment which according to another account published in 1691, was a detachment of the frigates, 400 strong, would seem to be what we should now call a Naval Brigade, but on the other hand, one would hardly expect the men to be called Marines. Probably both seamen and Marines acted together as they had constantly done on other occasions. Captain Keigwin though here called a sea commander, had a commission in a Marine Regiment. However, in those days would not have debarred him from a Naval Command, it was rather a reason for giving it to him. He went on to take part in the capture of St. Helena as a Commander of our Land Forces.

1692. Two Foot Regiments were raised Comanded by General John Mordaunt and Brigadier-General William Seymour.

1692. May. The French fleet of 44 ships of the line under the command of Admiral Anne Hilarion de Costentin, Comte de Tourville, was preparing to transport an invading army of Franco Irish troops to restore James II to the English throne. Despite Tourville being in command of the fleet, strategic decisions were to be taken by James II, François d'Usson de Bonrepaus and Bernardin Gigault de Bellefonds. The French victory at the Battle of Beachy Head two years earlier, in June 1690, had opened up the possibility of destroying the allied fleet and landing an invading army. Tourville boldly engaged the 82 vessel Anglo-Dutch fleet at Barfleur. After a fierce but indecisive clash that left many ships on both sides damaged, Tourville disengaged. He slipped off into light fog and for several days tried to escape the superior forces. The French fleet scattered, and fifteen were lost, three at Cherbourg and a further twelve at La Hougue. The threat of invasion of England was lifted.

1692. Monday 19th to Wednesday 4th June. The Marines played a major role in the related naval battles of Barfleur and La Hogue off the Coast of France. When the Anglo Dutch fleet defeated the French. Forcing its ships into La Hogue where four days later, two hundred boats manned by Marines and seamen continued the rout, in which the French lost 15 ships.

1692. September. Detachments were drawn out of the two Marine Regiments to go with Colonel Faringdon’s Regiment to Jamaica.

1692. November. Colonel’s Lillington and Norcutts were sent to Jamaica each with 100 Marines. While a further 500 Marines were sent to Admiral Russell in Jamaica for duty’s afloat.

1693. Saturday 27th June. The Battle of Lagos was a sea battle that took place during the Nine Years' War off the Coast of Portugal during the Nine Years' War. When a French fleet under Anne Hilarion de Tourville defeated an Anglo-Dutch fleet under George Rooke. Rooke's squadron was protecting the 'Smyrna Convoy', and it is by this name that the action is sometimes known. During the spring of 1693, a large convoy was organised to transport English and Dutch merchant ships which were bound for Spain and the Mediterranean.

1693. Thursday 29th June. The Battle of Landen in Belgium, took place during the Nine Years' War, fought in present-day Belgium between the French Army of Marshal Luxembourg and the Allied Army of King William III of England. The French assaulted the allied position three times before the French cavalry finally penetrated the allied defences and drove William's army from the field in a rout. The battle was costly on both sides, with the French losing 9,000 men and the Allies 19,000. The French failed to follow up on their victory, allowing William to escape.

1693. Thursday 26th November. The attack on St. Malmo south of Jersey off the coast of France. 6 Officers, 25 Sergeants and 250 Marines embarked for this service, including the Grenadier Company.

A fleet of 30 English and Dutch ships appeared off Cap Frehel. They cannonaded Fort-la-Latte and Ébihens Island, and then sailed towards Saint Malo. Three days later, the Anglo Dutch force captured Fort de la Conchée and Cézembre Island. For their attack on Saint Malo the English had brought a vessel packed with gunpowder to use as a floating mine against the city's defences, but it ran aground short of its target. The crew of the vessel were able to set off their bomb, but it was too far from its target to do any harm.

1694. Sunday 3rd - 4th January. The Capture of the Nonsuch and the Falcon by the Francois.

1694. Wednesday 27th January. The Capture of the Content and the Trident by an English Squadron.

1694. Thursday 14th February. An order was issued to all officers commanding Marine Regiments: “You are also required to cause your men to be frequently exercised at the Great gun for the better instructing them in that matter. "

1694. Sunday 2nd May. Capture of the Diligente by an English Squadron.

1694. Tuesday 8th June. An English squadron under Lord Berkeley, was defeated in its attack on Brest on the French coast. As soon as the Monk came within range of the enemies mortars, the enemy began to  fling their bombs at her from the Point des Fillette, and the Western Point of Camaret Bay, in so much that when she came within three quarters of a mile of the latter one of the bombs broke just above her, with a large piece of it striking through the poop and two lower decks, before flying out of the side and into the water near one of the stern ports, near one of the standard ports, and killed two of the Marines Company and wounded a third, who stood closed by him on the Poop.

1694. Friday 18th June. The Battle of Camaret was an amphibious landing at Camaret Bay by the English and Dutch in an attempt to seize the French port of Brest and destroy part of the French fleet stationed there, during the Nine Years' War. It was successfully opposed by Vauban (in his only ever field command.

1694. Tuesday 15th June. The Bombardment of Havre de Grace.

1694. Monday 12th July. The Bombardment of Dieppe off the coast of France. The castle Château de Dieppe.

1694. Sunday 18th July. The capture of the HMS Scarborough by the Comte de Revel.

1694. Sunday 12th to Monday 13th September. The Bombardment of Dunkirk on the coast of France.

1694. Tuesday 27th July. The Bank of England is chartered after its founders lent the government £1.2 million to help cover its soaring war debts.

1695. A Brass boxed compass was first supplied to most ships of the Royal Navy.

1695. The Battle of Sardinia in which HMS Plymouth Commanded by Captain James Killigrew, who was also a Captain in the first Marines helped defeat two French ships.

1695. Thursday 27th January. The Battle off Messina in Sicily. Captain James Killigrew a Captain in the 1st Marines then in command of the HMS Plymouth carrying 60 guns, defeated the French ships Content with 60 guns and the Trident with 52 Guns. He was killed during the action and buried in Messina with full military honours.

1995. Saturday 16th April. The Capture of the Hope by Duguay-Trouin.

1695. Sunday 3rd July. The Battle off Jamaica in the West Indies.

1695. Monday 4th - 5th July. The Bombardment of St. Malo.

1695. Monday 1st August. The Bombardment of Dunkirk.

1695. Wednesday 17th August. The Bombardment of Calais.

1696. Tuesday 3rd July. The Landing on Isle of Groy to the North of France. 700 Soldiers and Marines were landed and burnt twenty villagers. It was intended to attempt a landing on Belle-Isle at the time, but the Admiral abandoned the idea as he only had 240 men lead by Colonel Norcutt. Knowing that the enemy had 25 Companies of the Regiments of Picardy and 3000 armed islanders.

1696. Thursday 12th July. The Battle of Aughrim in Galway Ireland.

1697. Tuesday 28th May. HMS Nevell engaged De Pointis off Cartagena.

1697. Half pay was first granted to the Officers of Marines.

1697. Friday 20th September. With The peace agreement with France two foot Regiments raised in 1692, Mordaunt's Regiment and Seymour's Regiment were converted into Marines.

1698. Friday 18th July. An order was issued for the two Regiments of Marines that must have been considerably reduced in numbers, were combined in to one, and placed under the command of Colonel Thomas Brudenall. At the same time the three Regiments commanded by Colonel Edward Dutton Colt, William Seymour, and Henry Mordaunt, were turned into Marine Regiments and placed upon the naval establishment. These Regiments had a strength of 754 Officers, N.C.O.S. and men, so that the whole tour of them together were barely stronger than the one of the original Regiments whose place they had taken. Like the previous Marine Regiments, the new establishment was made the subject of various attacks by the pamphleteers of the day, and the transference of three of them from the line gave one of their most virulent assailants the pretext for alleging that “Their Land Methods have mightily interfere with the Navy Rules, and introduced pernicious notions into the Fleet Officers, such as Misratings, false musters, and other Abuses which Sea Officers formally were ignorant of, had all of them entered the service since the year 1668, when that monarch who “never said a foolish thing but never did a wise one,” remarked to the Duke of York: If ever you intend to man the fleet without being cheated by the Captains and Pursers, you may go to bed and resolve never to have it maned.”

1698. The advantages arising from the Corps being trained to the use of arms on board of ship, as well as on the land, were found when the British navy acquired superiority over that of other nations of Europe, and as the safety of Great Britain, from its insular position, chiefly depended on the efficiency and excellence of her fleets, the importance and value of Marine Forces have consequently been at all times acknowledged and appreciated by the Sovereign, as well as by the Nation at large.

1699. Four Regiments of Marines were recruited. However, because of the peace of Ryswick they were later ordered to be disbanded.