Royal Marines

Historical Time Line  

1700

By the early 18th century the role of the Marines had been resolved.
They were totally under the control of the Admiralty.
Their roles consisted of:
1. Guard and sentry duties.
2. The maintenance of discipline and enforcement of regulations aboard ship.
3. Marines quarters aboard ship were kept separate from the seamen.
4. They stood guard when punishment was being carried out.
5. At friendly ports they performed guard duties, maintained order and ensured that sailors did not desert their ship.
6. To Guard Garrison captured fortresses until relieved by the infantry.
7. To act as sharpshooters and gunners on board ship.
8. To act as boarding parties to seize ships and assist in sailing captured ships to friendly ports.
9. When occasion arose to fight in land battles.

1702. Wednesday 8th March. With the death of King William III. His policy was adopted by his successor Queen Anne, who entered into treaties of alliance with the Emperor of Germany, the State’s General of the United Provinces, and other Princes and Potentates, for preserving the liberty and balance of power in Europe, and for defeating the ambitious views of France. The measures for increasing the efficiency of the fleet had occasioned the suggestion of raising Corps of Marines, capable of acting on land as well as at sea. Several Regiments of the regular army were appointed to serve as Marines, and six additional Regiments were especially raised for that service.

1702. Tuesday 14th March. A Royal Warrant was issued, authorising Colonel George Villiers to raise a Regiment of Marines, which was to consist of twelve companies, of two Sergeants, three Corporals, two Drummers, and fifty-nine private soldiers each, with an additional Sergeant to the Grenadier Company.

1702. Thursday 4th of May. The declaration of hostilities against Spain and France was announced. The ‘War of the Spanish Succession’ as it became known with England, Scotland, Germany, Portugal and Holland all fighting against Spain and France. Triggered by the death of the last Habsburg King of Spain, the infirmed and childless Charles ll. The War of the Spanish Succession was primarily fought in Europe. and was to continue until 1713.

1702. Thursday 1st June. Upon the declaration of war with France and Spain, of which both nations possessed powerful fleets as well as numerous armies. The British Parliament felt the expediency of enabling the Queen to increase the efficiency of her navy, by forming Corps of Marines, which could act at sea as well as on land. Six Regiments were accordingly added to the regular Army as Marine Corps, and six others of the regular Regiments of Infantry were appointed for sea service The Regiments of Marines were commanded by Colonel Thomas Saunderson's, now thirtieth foot. Colonel George Villiers's, now thirty first foot. Colonel Edward Fox's, now thirty-second foot. And Colonel Harry Mordaunt's. They were to fight in Spain, France and in North America alongside Dutch Marines. The six Regiments of Foot for sea-service were, Commanded Colonel Ventria Columbine's, now sixth foot. Colonel Thomas Erie's, now nineteenth foot. Colonel Gustavns Hamilton's, now twentieth foot. Colonel Lord Lucas's, now thirty-fourth foot. Colonel Earl of Donegal's, now thirty-fifth foot. Colonel Lord Charlemont's, now thirty-sixth foot. Her Majesty's Order for levying this body of men was contained in the following Royal Warrant, dated Thursday 1st of June 1702: Anne R. “Our pleasure is, that this establishment of six Regiments of Marines, and six other Regiments for Sea-Service, do commence and take place from the respective times of raising”. "And our further pleasure is, that the order given by our dearest brother the late King, deceased, and such orders as are, or shall be, given by us, touching the pay or entertainment of our said forces, or any of them, or any charges thereunto belonging, shall be duly complied with, and that no new charge be added to this establishment without being communicated to our High Treasurer, or Commissioners of our Treasury for the time being. Given at our Court at St. James's, on the first day of June in the first year of our reign." By Her Majesty's Command.

Its interesting to note that the Marine Regiments had 2nd Lieutenants whilst those Regiments designated for sea service had ensigns.

1702 - 1713. ‘Queen Anne’s War’ was fought mainly in North America was the second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought between France and England, for the control of the Americas. The war also involved numerous Native American tribes allied with each nation. At that time Spain was also allied with France.

1702. The 30th Regiment the 31st Regiment, and the 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine Corps, and were employed as such during the wars of the reign of Queen Anne.

1702. Saturday 1st July. Rules and Instructions for the better government of the Marine Regiments were issued by the authority of Her Majesty Queen Anne, in which it was directed, "That when on shore they were to be quartered in the vicinity of the dock yards, in order to guard them from embezzlement, or from any attempt that might be made on them by an enemy. Full instructions were also given as to their pay, subsistence, and clothing, which directed that the same deductions should be made for clothing as was usual in the land forces. Also that one day's pay in every year be deducted from officers and soldiers for the Hospital. When on board ship they were to have an equal proportion of provisions with the seamen, without any deductions from their pay, the soldiers receiving short allowance money like the seamen. In order to render such portions of the Marine regiments as might be on shore, useful on all occasions when their services might be required, Her Majesty directed, that it should rest with herself, or with the Lord High Admiral, the Prince George of Denmark, to dispose of them at such places nearest to the several dock-yards as might be judged most convenient, and as there might be occasion for labourers to despatch necessary public works. Her Majesty empowered the High Admiral, or the Commissioners for executing that office, to cause to be employed in the dock yards so many of the Marine soldiers as might be judged fitting, and to make them such daily allowance for their labour, besides their ordinary pay, as should seem reasonable. The Marine forces being thus placed under the control of the Lord High Admiral, His Royal Highness was pleased to nominate Colonel William Seymour (of the fourth Regiment of Foot) to superintend the whole, with the rank of Brigadier General, whose peculiar duties were to observe, that the men were comfortably quartered, that the officers were attentive in their respective departments, and that the Marine soldiers, when embarked on board of ship, were supplied with proper sea-clothes and other suitable necessaries. When the Marines were serving afloat, they were to be under the command of the Naval Officers of the ships.”

1702. The uniform of the Marines at that time consisted of high crowned leather caps, covered with cloth of the same colour as the facings of the Regiment, and ornamented with devices, the same as the caps worn by the grenadiers scarlet frock coat, buff waist belt, black pouch carried in front, with bayonet belt attached and buff gaiters.

1702. July. Colonel Villiers's Corps of Marines, now the Thirty First Regiment, soon after its formation was called upon to supply five Companies for embarkation for active service on board the fleet destined against Spain, these Companies embarked in the latter part of May from Plymouth, and proceeded to join the fleet at Portsmouth, from whence the expedition sailed to Cadiz during the month of July. The heavily armed fleet arrived off Cadiz on Saturday 12th August, and the Duke summoned the place, but his terms being refused, he landed on the Tuesday 15th at the Bay of Bulls, between Rota and Fort St. Catherine under great disadvantages and a well conducted opposition. He then marched upon Rota, where the horses and stores were disembarked. Two days later he advanced towards the town of St. Mary. Rota was retaken by a coup and the British garrison of 300 men were captured. However, the attempt on Cadiz eventually failed, and the troops were re-embarked, and sailed from Cadiz on the Saturday 30th September. In alluding to this expedition, Bishop Burnet remarks, "It is certain our Court had false accounts of the state the place was in, both with relation to the garrison, and to the fortifications, the garrison was much stronger. While the fortifications were in a better state, than was represented." 10,000 Marines and Foot Soldiers had been unsuccessfully in an attempt to capture Cadiz.

1702. Wednesday 16th August. The Battle off Portobello took place in the West Indies.

1702. Saturday 19th August (OS). The Action took place between an English squadron under the command of Vice Admiral John Benbow and a French under command of Admiral Jean du Casse, off Cape Santa Marta on the coast of present-day Colombia South America, a little to the east of the mouth of the Rio Magdalena, during the ‘War of the Spanish Succession’. Benbow vigorously attacked the French squadron, but the refusal of most of his captains to support the action allowed du Casse to escape. Benbow lost a leg during the engagement and died of illness about two months later. While two of the captains were convicted of cowardice and shot. Benbow's determination to pursue the French, in what proved to be his last fight, proved irresistible to the public imagination. The events of the fight inspired a number of ballads, usually entitled Admiral Benbow or Brave Benbow, which were still favourites among British sailors more than a century later.

1702. Wednesday 11th - 12th October. The Attack on the Treasure ships at Virgo, during the War of the Spanish Succession. The English and Dutch forces surprised and captured the Spanish defended harbour and shared part of the silver from a treasure fleet that was being unloaded. However, the Spanish sailors had already unloaded most of its cargo.

1703. Saturday 6th January. Seven companies of the Regiment were stationed at Plymouth, and on the Saturday 27th four companies were ordered for embarkation on board of the ships Suffolk and Grafton, which proceeded on service to the coast of Spain, to join the fleet under the command of Admiral Sir George Rooke, During December Colonel Villiers, who was in command of the Regiment on board of the fleet drowned. On Saturday 6th December he was succeeded by Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Lutterell.

1703. February. Hovenden Walker at Guadaloupe.

1703. Wednesday 7th March. The Battle and Siege of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean was a failed attempt by English forces led by Christopher Codrington to capture the French controlled isle, during the ‘War of the Spanish Succession’. The English struggled to gain a foot hold owing to a shortage of supplies, while Guadeloupe’s Governor Charles Auger received reinforcements from Martinique which contributed to the English eventually lifted the siege.

Colonel Codrington, Governor off H.M. Leeward Islands, came with the Land Force, under his command, on board a squadron of H.M. Ships, with divers Privateers, and other vessels, receiving several shots from the shore without doing any other mischief other than killing one man, and a boy. The Colonel stood off till the 10th March, waiting for the Maidstone and the other small vessels that carried the provisions and ammunition. On the 12th March, Colonel Byam with his own Regiment, and 200 of Coronel Whethan’s men, landed at the break of day at a place called Les Petite. About nine in the morning Coronel Whetham landed in a bay to the Northwest of the town called Les Bailiff, where he met with a vigorous resistance from all the enemies forces in very good and advantageous fortifications. Yet not withstanding all their fire, the English marched up to their entrenchments, with their muskets shouldered, not firing a shot at them until they could lay the muzzles of the guns upon the enemy’s breast works. The English had three Captains killed before they could make themselves masters of the enemy’s entrenchments, which they did around noon, and an hour later of La Bayliffe, and of the Jacobine Church, which the enemy had fortified, with 10 of their Cannon.

About 2 pm the English took a platform with three of their Canon, and the Marines Regiment attacked the Jacobine plantation and Breast Work all along the Jacobine River, which the enemy quit upon the firing of two volleys off small arms upon them. The following day the English pressed on to the town of Basse Terre, where they sent parties ahead to burn and destroy the enemy’s houses, works, Sugar Canes, and provisions, lying Siege to the Fort and Castle of the same place. However, after all their endeavours they had not been able to master the main Fort, which was both naturally and artificially very strong, they were forced to quit the whole island.

1703. Sunday 18th March. Montague engaged a french Squadron.

1703. Friday 27th July. Dilkes destroyed French ships off Graville.

1703. Friday 31th August. The Landing at Althea. The whole fleet came inside to Althaea in search of fresh water. HMS Flamborough was sent close to the shore to cover the descent of their Regiments of Marines, who landed without any manner of confusion, and were actually drawn up in Battalia on the shore, before half the fleet had come to anchor. Brigadier General Seymour landed with the first detachment, and gave such orders that a more orderly descent could not have been made in an enemy country. This done they set up a camp, and the Spaniards upon seeing this brought plenty of provisions for them, for which they paid them. The fleet left without anybody on both sites being injured.

1703. Friday 16th November. The Great Storm, 13 men of war ships lost.

1703. Monday 26th November. HMS Oxford. HMS Warspite and HMS Lichfield captured the Hauardeux.

1704. A second attempt to Capture Cadiz was abandon in favour of all Marines and Foot Soldiers being diverted and used to take the grand prize that of Gibraltar.

1704. February. The Thirty First Regiment at that time was a Marine Corps serving under Admiral Sir George Rooke. During February the fleet headed towards Lisbon, and from there it proceeded on to Barcelona, where the troops were landed under the Command of Major General the Prince of Hesse Darmstadt, on the Monday 19th May. However, the force being inadequate for the purpose intended, was re-embarked the following day.

1704. February. During the reign of Queen Anne (Friday 6th February 1665 - Wednesday 1st August 1714) certain Independent Companies of Marines were raised for the soul purpose of aiding in the defence of the British possessions in the West Indies. The first important service on which the Marine Corps were employed during her reign was on board the fleet Commanded by Admiral Sir Cloudesly Shovel. He was instructed to make every possible arrangement by conciliation or by conquest, among the dependencies of the French and Spanish monarchies. In order to ensure a cordial reception of the Archduke Charles of Austria in opposition to Philip, Duke of Anjou of France, to the throne of Spain. After some delays, the Archduke finally arrived at Lisbon under Admiral Sir George Rooke on the Monday 25th February in order devise a plan of future operations with his ally the King of Portugal.

1704. Friday 12 March. Rear-Admiral Dilkes captured three Spanish ships.

1704. April. Sir George Hooke, after cruising with his fleet along the coast of Portugal, returned to Lisbon and welcomed the Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt on board. Later on Sunday 20th April they sailed towards Barcelona. Upon the arrival of the fleet, the Prince of Hesse sent a letter to Don Vclasco the Governor of Bar, requiring him to surrender the town, but he declined. Sixteen hundred Marines were landed under the command, of Major General the Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt, on Monday 19th May. This force, was found to be inadequate for the purpose, and was re-embarked the following day. The next object of attack was to be the Rock of Gibraltar where the Prince of Hesse landed during the afternoon of the Monday 21st July with 1800 British and Dutch Marines. Acting upon the decision of a council of war. His Highness proceeded to cut off all communication with the mainland, to bombard the place, and to reduce it to the obedience of Charles III King of Spain. The governor, on being summoned, refused to surrender, alleging that all the garrison had taken an oath of allegiance to King Philip V.

Admiral Sir George Rooke having directed a strong force to proceed against the South Mole, had driven the enemy from their guns, several boats manned and armed, were then detached under the command of Captain Whitaker, of the Navy, who soon obtained possession of the great platform. About one hundred of the besiegers, whose impetuous bravery had carried them within the effects of a mine connected with the fort, were killed or wounded by the explosion. The rest advancing rapidly, gained a redoubt half way between the mole and the town. The Governor at the urgent insistence of the inhabitants, was induced to capitulate, and the Prince of Hesse took possession of the garrison on the evening of Thursday 24th July. The loss in effecting the capture of this important fortress was Sixty one killed, and two hundred and six wounded. The attack of the seamen was one of the boldest and most difficult ever made, with them being obliged to climb up rocks and precipices. Thus it was taken in three days, a fortress since made impregnable to all assaults. The loss of Gibraltar disconcerted the measures of Philip V, and of his grandfather Louis XIV. Eight thousand men, under the Marquis dc Villadarias, were immediately detached from the Spanish army to retake the fortress, and the French Admiral received orders to engage the British and Dutch fleets, and to cooperate in the recapture of Gibraltar. The hostile fleets engaged on the Sunday 24th August, about eleven leagues south of Malaga, after each had suffered severely, they were separated in the night. The enemy retired to Toulon, and Sir George Rooke sailed to Gibraltar. Once there and after having held a Council of War, it was determined to return home, and the confederate fleet sailed for England, arriving at Spithead on the Thursday 25th September. Sir John Leake and Admiral Vander-dussen were left at Lisbon to protect the coast of Portugal, and relieve Gibraltar, if it should be besieged as was anticipated.

The Marquis de Villadarias commenced the siege of Gibraltar on the Wednesday 22nd October, and the garrison, composed of Marines under the command of the Prince of Hesse, sustained a siege by seven thousand men. The purpose of the enemy was to have stormed from the South Mole, united with the desperate attempt of a Spanish forlorn hope climbing the rock, and a general attack from the mainland. The fortress was maintained against very superior numbers, and the fire power of the enemy's batteries having caused a lot of damaged. A body of men was landed from the fleet to assist in the defence. Brigadier Fox and several other officers and men, having been killed on the Friday 5th December, while aid was solicited from the army in Portugal. Admiral Sir John Leake accordingly sailed from Lisbon on the Wednesday 10th of December, with a fleet, having on board a battalion of the first and second foot guards, Barrymore's Regiment, now thirteenth foot, Donegal's Regiment, now thirty-fifth foot, the Dutch Regiment of Waes, and a Portuguese Regiment, amounting in all to upwards of three thousand men. On their passage they fell in with the enemy's squadron under Monsieur de Pointi, but they succeeded in arriving at Gibraltar, although some of the transports had separated. These Corps were safely landed on the Thursday 18th December, and the Prince, strengthened by this reinforcement, made a sortie on the Tuesday 23rd, and destroyed the lines, that had been erected within a hundred and sixty paces of the palisade.

1704. Sunday 24th August. The Battle of Malaga Southern Spain, was the largest naval battle during the ‘War of the Spanish Succession’.

1704. Wednesday 29th October. Leake captured six French ships at Gibraltar.

1705. Monday 2nd February. Having received considerable reinforcements, placed at his disposal the Marquis de Villadarias made an attempt to storm the Bound Tower, to ascertain what might be effective by a larger force. Where upon on Saturday 7th February the enemy attacked with five hundred chosen Grenadiers, French and Walloons, Commanded by Lieut. General Thouy, supported by one thousand Spanish troops. They ascended the hill in perfect silence at daybreak, and again attempted to storm the Bound Tower, which was defended by Colonel Borr of the now thirty second Regiment. The assailants were throwing from above great stones and grenades on his men, at last obliged him to retire into that part of the works where the foot guards were posted. Flushed with success, they advanced too far, when they were gallantly charged by Colonel Moncall, of Barrymore's thirteenth Regiment, and driven from the Bound Tower. Colonel Rivett, of the Coldstream guards, having got up the rock on the right of the covered way with twenty grenadiers, favoured very much Colonel Moncalfs success. The garrison by this time had assembled, and kept up so destructive a fire that although the enemy was obliged to make a precipitate retreat, losing seventy men killed on the spot, upwards of two hundred wounded, and one Captain, four Lieutenants, and forty men taken. The loss on the part of the garrison was twenty seven men killed, and one hundred and twenty wounded.

Marshal de Tcsse arrived with additional troops to carry on the siege, the garrison also received fresh reinforcements from Portugal, besides supplies of every description. Admiral Sir John Leake sailed from the Tagus on the Friday 6th March, and his arrival in the Bay of Gibraltar on the Tuesday 10th, was again so sudden, that he completely surprised the Baron de Pointi, together with the whole of his squadron, consisting of five ships of the line, three of which were captured, and two were driven on shore, and burnt by the enemy. After a siege of seven months the enemy retired, in April, giving up all hopes of being able to make any impression on the fortress, his efforts were then confined to a very feeble blockade. The fortress of Gibraltar, seated upon the territory of Spain, was thus rendered subject to the British. 1,900 British and 400 Dutch Marines prevented Spanish reinforcements from reaching the fortress. Later, British ships bombarded the city while Marines and seamen stormed the defences. After which they later withstood a nine month siege. Today the Royal Marines display only the battle honour Gibraltar on their badge, while their close relationship with the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps who fought alongside them continues to this day.

1705. Tuesday 10th March. Leake destoyed or took five French line-of-battle ships.

1705. Sunday 12th July. The Surrender and Capture of Carthagena, having been garrisoned by 600 Marines under Major Hedge, The town and castle of Alicant had also fallen.

1705. Wednesday 29th July. The Capture of Alicant.

1705. Wednesday 23rd September. Barcelona capitulated.

1706. Tuesday 23rd March – 30th April. The Defence of Barcelona.

1706. Tuesday 20th April. The Resolution burnt in the presence ot the French squadron.

1706. Monday 26th April. The relief of Barcelona.

1706. Friday 25th June. The capitulation of Ostend.

1706. Thursday 12th August. The Siege of Barcelona and its capitulation to.

1706. Tuesday 14th September. The Capture of Majorca.

1706. September. Leake at the Balearic Isles.

1706. December. HMS Romney cut out a French Ship at Malaga.

1706. Sunday 26th December. HMS Romney and consort destroyed Content.

1707. January. HMS Romney captured the Mercure.

1707. Saturday 15th January. The Battle off St. Estevan. The Marines had a considerable share in the Victory of St. Estevan. Colonel Wills and his Regiment and other English and Dutch troops, was attacked with a great superior force by the advanced guard of the French Army. Wills who was posted on high ground, repulsed his assailants, who were driven to the plain below in great confusion. The following day reinforcements came up under Lieutenant General Conyngham, who assumed command. The same day the French, who were commanded by the Chevalier D’Asfeldt, returned to the attack in still greater strength, having been also reinforced. However, again they suffered a most signal defeat, though the British had to mourn the loss of General Conyngham, who fell mortally wounded. St. Estevan was perhaps the most complete British Victory in the War.

1707. Sunday 1st May. The Scottish Parliament and the English Parliament each passed an Act of Parliament to simultaneously dissolve and form the new combined Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The new Parliament would sit at the Palace of Westminster, the home of the old English Parliament. Previous attempts at union had been made, but this was the first time there was sufficient support on both sides to make it happen. Put simply, Scotland needed financial support from England, and the English wanted to ensure that Scotland would not choose a different monarch. It was not, however, a universal popular move and many teething troubles had to be overcome as the two different sets of traditions and practice were merged into one parliament. The few ships belonging to the Scottish Navy became British and the already blended national ensigns of the two counties were by proclamation of Friday 8th July ordered to be worn by the ships of all British subjects in the form of a cannon on a red flag, the Jack its self being reserved as the peculiar distinction of Queens ships. The union with Scotland revived an arrangement which had already existed for a short time under the Commonwealth, but had ceased during Restoration.

1707. Monday 2nd May. A Portuguese convoy was defeated by Claude de Forbin.

1707. Tuesday 28th June. The Var. “The enemy had entrenched themselves very strongly on the other side of the Var, a river that was a league distant from Nice, by extending their Works above Four Miles from the shore, and these Intrenchments were guarded by 6 Battalions of Foot, and 800 horses, while Lieutenant General Dillion, an Irish man, was marching with all expedition to re-inforce them with 12 Fresh Battalions.”  “Sir Cloudsley Shovel commanded 4 British Men of War, and one Dutch, to sail into the Mouth of the Var, attended by 600 Seamen and Marines in open boats, under the conduct of Sir John Norris. The men of War came within Musket shot of the enemy’s works, which lay so exposed to our fire, that their Cavalry and many of their Foot gave way. The Admiral himself followed Sir John Norris to the place of action, and observing the disorder of the enemy, commanded him to put to land, and flank them in their intrenchments. His men advanced in such an undaunted manner, and seemed so intrepid and fearless, by tossing up their hats in the air, and their loud Halloo’s that the enemy had not courage enough to stay for them, but fearing to be surrounded, fled from their works and retired with great Precipitation.”

1707. Friday July 29th - 21th August. The Battle of Toulon took place in France during the ‘War of the Spanish Succession’. In which a French and Spanish force defeated one from Austria, the Dutch Republic, Savoy and Britain. Prince Eugene tried to take the French naval port of Toulon. Eugene had crossed the river Var although hampered by the negligence and inefficiency of Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, had reached Frejus. He was in touch with the British fleet under Admiral Shovell. However, Victor Amadeus' procrastination caused further delays, and gave time for the troops which the Duke of Berwick was sending home from Spain to reinforce Marshal René de Froulay de Tessé at Toulon before the arrival of the Allies. Tessé retook the crucial heights of Santa Catarina, which the Allies had stormed a week earlier; and Eugene, finding his retreat menaced and little chance of taking Toulon, had to abandon his attempt of Monday 22nd August, and fall back across the Var, having lost 10,000 men in this ill fated attempt. Before Shovell evacuated he bombarded the French harbour and was able to sink two French ships of the line and severely damage two others. The campaign's only success was that, in order to prevent their ships falling into the enemy's hands, the French had sunk their whole squadron of more than forty six ships of between fifty and 110 guns in the harbour. King Louis XIV gave orders that they be sunk and later be re-floated. He was concerned that the Royal Navy would burn the ships, the three deckers would lie with only their upper decks showing above the water. However, much of the damage sustained was irreparable. It’s believed that the French Navy lost 15 ships of the line during this operation.

1707. July. Part of a convoy from Baltic captured by Claude de Forbin.

1707. August. Four french ships captured off Newfoundland.

1707. Monday 10th October. The Cumberland, Ruby and Chester captured by Claude de Forbin.

1707. Sunday 23rd October. The loss of the Association, Eagle, Romney and Firebrand.

1708. Saturday 12th May. Leake's Fleet took a french frigate and convoy.

1708. Monday 28th May. Wager's action off Cartagena.

1708. Thursday 2nd August. The Capture of Cagliari the capital of Sardinia. Marines participated in the capture and occupation of Caliari in Sardinia, which surrendered after a night time bombardment.

1708. Friday 14th September. The Capture of Port Mahon. An Anglo-Dutch naval force under the command of Lieut. General James Stanhope landed on the island of Minorca and laid siege to the town of Mahon. Which was taken after a short investment, capitulating on the Tuesday 18th September.

1708. Tuesday 30th October. The surrender of fort Mahon.

1709. Saturday 2nd March. The Assurance and consorts engaged Duguay-Trouin.

1709. Monday 8th April. The Bristol captured by Duguay-Trouin.

1709. Tuesday 9th April. Lord Dursley defeated Duguay-Trouin, and re-took the Bristol.

1709. Monday 6th May. HMS Portland re-captured HMS Coventry.

1709. Saturday 18th May. HMS Falmouth defended a convoy against 4 French vessels.

1709. June. The Fowey taken by two French Frigates.

1709. Monday 23rd September. HMS Plymouth captured the Adriadne.

1709. A plan was formed to attack Port Royal in the province of Nova Scotia, at that time in possession of the French. For this purpose a body of 400 Marines was embarked, and the expedition was entrusted to the joint conduct of Colonel Nicholson of the land-forces, and Captain Martin of the navy. The squadron proceeded to Boston, where they were to be reinforced by some ships, and such provincial auxiliaries, as might be ready, or were necessary for this intended conquest. Here a Council of War was held, which arranged the future operations of a body, now consisting of 2000 men. They reached their destination upon the 24th of September, and the proper ground for landing having been reconnoitred, the debarkation took place on the following day. The enemy opened a heavy fire upon the boats from their guns and mortars, but with little effect. A bomb vessel drifting up with the tide of flood within reach of the Fort, rendered important service during the two first days, which was spiritedly aided by the military exertions on shore. Upon the first day of October, the Governor of the Fortress having expressed an inclination to surrender upon terms, they were taken into consideration and agreed to. Here a Garrison of Marines was left. Having thus reduced the place, it was now named Annapolis Royal, in honour of her Majesty, under whose auspices it was conquered.

1709. October. HMS Gloucester captured by duguay-Trouin.

1709. December – Monday 7th April 1710. The Defence of Alicant.

1710. Saturday 3rd May. HMS Suffolk captured the Gaillard.

1710. Medals were very sparingly distributed, and there seem to have been no instance whatsoever of their having been officially given to sea men. For Rear Admiral Dilkes’s destruction of the French shipping near Grandville in 1703 the Queen ordered gold medals to be struck for presentation to the Admiral and Officers, but this is almost the sole example of the kind.

1710. Sunday 13th July. An expedition was planned and executed against the Isle of Crete in the province of Languedoc and troops and Marines were landed. The enemy put up a feeble resistance and the fort upon which was mounted eighteen Cannons, surrendered the same day. The Regiment of Stanhope, and three hundred Marines later advanced against Adge, and the town surrender without resistance. The Isle of Crete was later recovered by the French Army under the Duke of Roquetaine, after the British troops had previously left.

1710. Tuesday 29th July. HMS Kent captured the Superbe.

1710. August. HMS Seven and HMS Portland destroyed French settelments in Newfoundland.

1710. Sunday 5th - Monday 13th October. The Siege of Port Royal also became known as the Conquest of Acadia. During the early part of the year a plan had been hatched to attack Port Royal in the province of Nova Scotia, at that time in possession of the French. Under the command of Daniel d'Auger de Subercase. For this purpose a body of six hundred Marines were embarked, and the expedition was entrusted to the joint conduct of Colonel Nicholson of the Marine forces, and Captain Martin of the Navy. The squadron proceeded to Boston, where they were reinforced by some more ships, and provincial auxiliaries. For this intended conquest a council of war was held, and arrangements were made for the debarkation of a body consisting of two thousand five hundred men which took place on the Wednesday 24th September. There followed a siege that lasted nine days, before the Governor finally surrendered the fortress, and a garrison of Marines took possession on the Sunday 13th October. The fortress was also re-named Annapolis Royal, in honour of Queen Anne in whose reign it was conquered. The siege was the third British attempt during ‘Queen Anne's War’ to capture the Acadian capital.

1710. Monday 29th December. HMS Pembroke and HMS Falcon taken by French Squadron.

1711. In the early part of the year it was agreed to make an attack on the town of Quebec, the capital of the French possessions in Canada, for which service Admiral Sir Hovenden Walker and Major General John Hill were appointed Commanders in Chief, a large fleet of ships of war formed part of the armament, which was to be further strengthened by troops from the American colonies, they were directed to proceed to Boston in New England, and to make arrangements for this undertaking. They reached Naerlaskel near Boston on the Wednesday 24th June, and having collected the provincial Corps, and withdrawn the Marines from Annapolis Royal, which had been occupied by these Corps since its surrender during 1709, they eventually sailed after many delays on Thursday 30th July. The expedition did not reach the St. Lawrence river until Friday 21st August, when it encountered storms, and being furnished with pilots who were unacquainted with the navigation of that river, eight transports, a store ship, and a sloop were lost by shipwreck, and upwards of eighty persons, including officers, soldiers, and women, principally belonging to Colonel Kane's fourth Regiment, and Colonel Clayton's thirty-seventh Regiment, perished in this fatal service. A scarcity of provisions had arisen, and it was then determined by a council of war that further operations should be abandoned. Some of the Corps proceeded to Annapolis Royal, and the squadron returned to England during October.

1711. Friday 20th March. Sir John Jennings arrived at Barcelona in order to assume the command of the British Fleet. To watch the enemies ports, to distress their trade, and to keep open the communication of intelligence and supplies for the detached forces and Allies, were all that he could now attempt in the tottering cause of King Charles. About this time Joseph Emperor of Germany died whose bequeath of all his dominions to the Royal Competitor compensated for past struggles, and averted that blow to his pride which must soon have ensued from the desperate state of his affairs, by a total dereliction of his object. That event called upon him to fill the throne of his country; to obey which, his Majesty soon after embarked on board the English fleet, and was escorted to Italy, His Royal Consort still remained behind, with a view to inspire a motive for farther efforts, but the suspension of arms between Great Britain and France put a period to every active co-operation. The Empress, with her retinue, embarked at Barcelona, early in 1712, and landed at Genoa upon the 26th March, from where she pursued her journey towards the destined seat of her power.
After a tedious negotiation, the stages, and detailed terms, of peace was restored by the Treaty of Utrecht, on the 3lst March 1713. Britain retained possession of Gibraltar, Minorca, and Nova Scotia, each conquered during the war, and in effecting all of which the Marine forces, established during the reign of Queen Anne, very essentially contributed. The extraordinary expenses of this long war, notwithstanding its duration, did not exceed forty-four millions, which, considering the immense forces kept on foot, and the subsidies granted to so many of the Continental Powers, appear but a small sum.

1711. Friday 27th March. HMS Exeter and HMS Lion re-captured HMS Pembroke.

1711. HMS Hampton Court captured the Toulouse.

1711. June. HMS Advice captured by privateers.

1711. Monday 27th July. Commodore Littleton captured a Spanish Galleon.

1711. Thursday 15th October. HMS Edgar blown at Spithead.

1713. The Marines were reduced to three Regiments who were transferred to the line to become the 30th of Foot (a predecessor of the Royal Anglian Regiment), and the 32nd Foot. Only four Companies of Marine Invalids remained.

1713. Wednesday 1st March. Peace was restored between Britain and France after signing the treaty of Utrecht. By this treaty it was settled that Britain should retain possession of Gibraltar, Minorca, and Nova Scotia. However, the Marines which had been formed during the Reign of Queen Anne, were ordered to be disbanded. They were considered to be part of a war establishment, and a spirit of public economy was needed after the termination of hostilities. However, the consequence was that the whole of the Marine Regiments were disbanded by the end of the year.

1713 - 1739. It must be noted that during this time all sea, and land battles involved Marines.

1714. Saw the formation of four invalid companies under the establishment of the Army. Apart from these four Company’s there was no Corps until the outbreak of hostility with Spain during 1739.

1715 - 1719. The first Jacobite Rebellion was a political movement in Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland.

1715. HMS August and HMS Garland were wrecked in the baltic.

1716. Operations against the Barary Corsairs.

1718 - 1720. The War of the Quadruple Alliance was a result of the ambitions of King Philip V of Spain, his wife Elisabeth Farnese, and their chief minister Giulio Alberoni to retake lost territories in Italy and to claim the French throne. It saw the defeat of Spain by an alliance of Britain, France, Austria, and the Dutch Republic. Savoy later joined the coalition as the fifth ally. Although fighting began as early as 1717, war was not publically declared until December 1718. It was brought to an end by the Treaty of the Hague during 1720.

1718. Thursday 11th August. Byng's Victory off Cape Passaro.

1719. October. The Seizure of Vigo.

1720's -1830's. Long Land Pattern Musket was standard issue for the British Empire's land forces.

1722. April. HMS Swallow destroyed Roberts Piratical vessels.

1726. Hosier in the West Indies.

1727. Wager's Relief of Gibralta.

1729. The Dursley Galley took Guarda- Costa.

1731. The Episode of Jenkins Ear.

1733. Operations against the Barary Corsnirs.

1739 - 1748. England declared war on Spain that became known as the War of Jenkins' Ear. A conflict between Britain and Spain that grew out of the commercial rivalry of the two powers and led to involvement in the larger War of the Austrian Succession. Its unusual name, is thought to have been coined by Thomas Carlyle 1858, and refers to an ear severed from Robert Jenkins Captain of a British merchant ship. The severed ear was subsequently exhibited before the British Parliament. The tale of the ear's separation from Jenkins following the boarding of his vessel by Spanish coast guards during 1731. Provided the impetus to war against the Spanish Empire, ostensibly to encourage the Spanish not to renege on the lucrative Asiento contract (permission to sell slaves in Spanish America).

1739. Marine Commissions were purchased and sold, although they always bore an inferior value to those of the Army. A perquisite arose to the Colonels from the disposal of the appointments of second Lieutenants, when their recommendations were approved of by his Majesty, and such commissions usually produced to those officers from £250 to £280, while ensigncies in the line sometimes yielded as much as £400. The great expense which had accrued in the maintenance of the land forces and Marines, led to the appointment of a committee of inquiry. In this investigation it appeared that the Colonel of a Marine Regiment had a greater emolument than an officer commanding a Regiment of the line, arising from the comparative superiority in their numbers, and the articles of clothing being of an inferior quality.

1739. Sunday 4th October. Marines landed on the peninsula of Quiberon, and took possession of a fort mounting eighteen cannons. After destroying all the forts and guns, as well as those on the islands of Houat and Hedic, the army re-embarked, and the expedition sailed for Ireland. In the gradual increase of the army during the present war, the Marines became incorporated with the line, and the 44th Regiment was styled the 1st Marines.

1739. Tuesday 6th October. A French fleet of merchant men under Commodore Letendeur sailed from the Isle of Aix for the West Indies, under convoy of nine ships of the line and several frigates. On the 14th while off Cape Finisterre, they came upon a British squadron Commanded by Rear Admiral Hawke, of thirteen ships of the line, including two of fifty guns. The Commodore, finding it impossible to avoid an action, directed a sixty gun ship and the frigates to proceed with the convoy, and then formed his squadron in order of battle. The action commenced at noon, and was continued until night fall, by which time six sail of the line ships had surrendered. The Commodore on board HMS Tonnant of 80 guns, and HMS Intrepid of 74, made their escape. The British had 154 killed, and 558 wounded. The enemy's loss amounted to 800 killed and wounded. The order of the Bath was conferred on Rear Admiral Hawke, and the thanks of Parliament voted to the officers, seamen, and Marines of the squadron.

1739. Tuesday 17th November - Sunday 22nd November. Six Marine Regiments (1st to 6th Marines, 44th to 49th Foot) were raised for the War of Jenkins' Ear, with four more being raised later. One large Marine Regiment (Spotswood's Regiment later Gooch's Marines, the 61st Foot) was formed of American colonists and served alongside British Marines at the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia and Guantanamo, Cuba in the War of Jenkins' Ear (1741). Among its officers was Lawrence Washington, the half-brother of George Washington. In 1747, the remaining Regiments were transferred to the Admiralty and then disbanded in 1748. Many of the disbanded men were offered transportation to Nova Scotia and helped form the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia.

1739. Saturday 21st November. Vernon's capture of Porto Bello.

1739. Saturday12th December. After the declaration of war with Spain Council Orders were issued for augmenting the land forces, and also for forming six Regiments of Marines, each to consist of ten companies of seventy privates in each company, and to be commanded by 1st Colonel Edward Wolfe from the 3rd Foot Guards, 2nd Colonel W. Robinson from Handasyd's 22nd Regiment, 3rd Colonel Andrew Lowther from the 2nd Foot Guards, 4th, Colonel John Wynyard, from Tyrrell's Regiment; 5th Colonel Charles Douglas from Howard's Regiment, 6th Colonel Lucius Ducic Moreton, from the 3rd Foot Guards. In order to facilitate the speedy formation of these Corps, and to render them effective, five men from each company of the Regiments of foot-guards were appointed Sergeants and Corporals, and further that they might be rapidly completed, a bounty of thirty shillings per man was allowed to 1800 men who volunteered from the Regiments of Infantry to the Marine Corps by these energies, the whole of the Marine Regiments were soon raised and disciplined. On the prospect of the commencement of hostilities Admiral Vernon had sailed for Jamaica, where he arrived in October 1739, with a fleet of five ships, having 200 Marines on board, and proceeded to Porto Bello, the destined object of his attack, which was at that time the greater part for the wealthy commerce of Chili and Peru, the attempt was fraught with many difficulties.

1739. Upon the repetition of Spanish cruelties and aggression towards the industrious and defenceless subjects of Britain, that the system of Marine Regiments was renewed. The sword was again drawn upon the 19th October of that year, and an Order of Council of the 12th December, determined upon the immediate levy of six of this description. The Colonels who were nominated to command them was, 1. Edward Wolfe esq. from the 3rd Foot Guards. 2. William Robinson esq. Lieutenant Colonel from Handyside's Regiment of Foot. 3. Anthony Lowther esq. from 2nd. Foot Guards. 4. John Wynyard esq. from Colonel Tyrrel's Regiment of Foot. 5. Charles Douglas esq. from Colonel Howard's Regiment of Foot. 6. Lewis Ducie Morton esq. from the 3rd Foot Guards.

1740. January. The six Regiments raised in late 1739 received an effective augmentation of 2,640 men.

1740. An additional Regiment, of four Battalions, was authorised to be raised in America, and the Royal Standard was erected at New York. The field officers and subalterns were appointed by the King, and the captains of companies were nominated by the American provinces. Colonel Spotswood of Virginia, was appointed over all Colonel Commandant. It was believed that the natives of that continent, knowing the area and climate were better for service than Europeans. Their uniform was cumblet coats, brown linen waistcoats, and canvas trousers. This regiment, which was afterwards commanded by Colonel Gooche, was considered as the forty-third Regiment of infantry of the line.

1740. February. The town of Carthagena being the capital of an extensive and wealthy province in Terra Firma in South America was bombarded, and an attack was made upon a fort situate upon the mouth of a river of that name a little to the north-west of the Gulf of Darien. The latter surrendered, after a sharp contest, on Thursday 24th March, when the castle, situated on a rock, and the custom-house under its protection, were demolished and burnt to the ground.

1740. Sunday 6th - 9th March. Vernon bombarded Cartagena.

1740. Monday 18th April. HMS Lennox and consorts capture Princesa.

1740. June. Unsuccessful attempt on St. Augustine.

1740. Sunday 18th September. The departure of HMS Anson on voyage of circumnavigation.

1740. October. A large number of ships of war assembled at Spithead under the Command of Rear Admiral Sir Chalaoner Ogle, along with a large land force consisting of Harrison’s 15th Regiment. Wentworth’s 24th Regiment and part of Cavendish’s 34th Regiment was collected in the Isle of White and held in readiness with six Regiments of Marines to be embarked for service under the orders of General Lord Cathcart, a nobleman of approved courage and experience. The fleet with a British armament consisting of one hundred and seventy ships sailed from St. Helen’s heading for Jamaica. However, its progress was badly affected by server bad weather in the Bay of Biscay, the fleet was dispersed. The greater part of the vessels sort refuge by anchoring at the neutral island of Dominica, in order to obtain a supply of wood and water.

1740. Friday 16th December - 18th October 1748. The War of the Austrian Succession involved most of the European countries over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg. The war included King George's War in North America, the War of Jenkins' Ear, the First Carnatic War in India, and the First and Second Silesian Wars. It was fought between Britain, Austria and the Dutch Republic against. France and Germany. The war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle signed in 1748.

1740 - 1748. The Ten Regiments of Marines uniforms of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI.)

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Click photo to enlarge

1740. While Commander in chief of the West Indies squadron, Admiral Vernon ordered his captains and surgeons to make recommendations regarding the rum issue. The resulting mixture is called grog after the nickname of the admiral, 'Old Grog'. In 1850 the ration was once again reduced to half gill.

1741. January. Admiral Sir Chalaoner Ogle’s fleet eventually arrived in Jamaica and joined a force under Vice Admiral Vernon who was placed at the head of the most formidable fleet and army which were employed in the Caribbean. The fleet now consisted of twenty nine ships of the line, with nearly an equal number of Frigates, Fire Ships, and Bomb Ketches, well manned and with a plentifully supply of provisions, stores. The number of seamen amounted to 15,000. Plus a land force that included the American Regiment of four battalions belonging to Colonel Spotswood and a body of Negroes enlisted at Jamaica, making a grand total of around 12,000 men. The whole force sailed from Irish Bay in Hispaniola, and anchored on the evening of the Saturday 4th March in the Grande Playa, to the windward side of the town of Carthagena, the intending objective.

1741. Thursday 9th March - 16th May. The Battle of Cartagena de Indias in Colombia. Was an amphibious military engagement between the forces of Britain under Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon and those of Spain under Admiral Blas de Lezo. It took place at the city of Cartagena de Indias, in present day Colombia. The battle was the most significant of the War of Jenkins' Ear and one of the largest naval campaigns in British history. The battle resulted in a major defeat for the British Navy and Army. The battle marked a turning point in South American history, as Spain preserved her military supremacy in that continent until the nineteenth century. The defeat caused heavy losses for the British, that included 50 ships lost, badly damaged or abandoned, and losses of 18,000 soldiers and sailors, mostly due to disease that also took a heavy toll among the Spanish forces, especially yellow fever.
According to Gillespie the casualties among the officers of the Marine Regiments at Cartagena amounted to 61, of whom 13 were killed in action, the remainder dying of wounds or disease. However, he does not apparently include Colonel Moore, Grant and Daniels, which brings the total up to 64. Who Colonel Moore was is not clear, unless it means Colonel Moreton, but Grant and Daniels were successively appointed to the 5th Marine from Cavendish’s and Harrison’s. No exact details are forth coming as to the casualties among the rank and file. However, of six Marines Regiments with an original strength of 1,000 apiece, must have landed at least landed 5,000 men, and yet only re-embarked 3,382, of whom 1,103 were sick or wounded, it is evident that they must have had a very heavy Butchers Bill.

1741. Sunday 9th April. The Repulse at St. Lazar. At 4am in the morning a body of men consisting of 500 Grenadiers, supported by1,000 European Marines and Jamaican soldiers march towards the Enemy’s lines by the Fort St. Lazar, and  were followed at considerable distance by a large body of American, laden with wool packs, scaling ladders, and hand grenades. The enemy had entrenched themselves breast high under the walls of the fort, observing their advance, and fired upon them with great fury as soon as they came within reach of their small arms. Which was returned by brave Grenadiers with equal smartness, but as the Spanish had the advantage of cover, it was impossible for the advancing force to be as accurate. Therefore it was resolved to push forwards up to the mouths of their pieces and storm their entrenchments, in doing so they suffered extremely. The assault failed with a loss of 600 casualties. The attack had been planned to help isolate Cartagena from the land side by an assault of Fort St. Lazar. The assault failed with a loss of 600 casualties.

1741. Tuesday 18th July. In consequence of the heavy losses sustained by Admiral Sir Chalaoner Ogle’s fleet at Cartagena, and the mortality which continued to prevail after the troops returned to Jamaica, it was not until the beginning of July that the fleet and army were in a condition to renew their operations. It had always been the objective to proceed against the Island of Cuba, where they anchored on the 18th July in Waltenham Bay, about eighteen leagues to windward of St. Jago, the first object of their intended attack. The troops were landed on the Monday 24th consisting of nearly 4000 men, including1000 Negroes raised by the Island of Jamaica. They did not try to establish a foot hold on the country, although there were several treks to find food and water. After establishing a position on the side of a river nearly three leagues from the mouth of the harbour, the General pushed some detachments into the country, which beat back the out posts of the enemy, and in a few days returned back to the camp with plentiful provisions. Eventually the fleet returned to Jamaica. Upon which it was revealed that they had sustained a total loss of officer amounting to One Commander in Chief, five Colonels, ten Lieutenant Colonels, seven Majors, fifty five Captains and one hundred and sixteen Subalterns and fourteen staff officers. The heavy casualties in the Marine Regiments are shown when it is stated that these six Regiments consisted of more than one thousand men each and that only 2654 survived.

1741. December. During 1741 the total loss of Officers, amounted to one Commander in Chief, five Colonels, ten Lieutenant Colonels, seven Majors, fifty five Captains, one hundred and sixteen Subalterns, and fourteen Staff Officers.

1741. Spotswood's Regiment was re-named Gooch's Marines, later becoming the 61st Foot (a predecessor of the Rifles) was raised from North American colonists.

1741. HMS Rupert captures four large Privateers.

1741. HMS Superb captured a galleon worth £200,000.

1741. The number of Marine Regiments was augmented to ten, and the sums voted to maintain them were £201,752 13s 0d. If the same force had been established before the peace of Utrecht, they would not have exceeded the estimate of £186,666 Is 8d, as the following indigenise were granted, and annual allowances made subsequent to that period. For servants allowed to Officers £7,786 13s 4d. Allowance to the Widows of Officers £2,433 6s 8d. To Colonels, for clothing lost by deserters £2,129 3s 4d. To Captains, for recruiting their Companies £1,825 0s 0d. To Agents of different Regiments £912 10s to £l5,086 13s 4d.

At this time the whole Half pay Establishment of Great Britain, including Horse, Dragoons, Foot, Invalids, and Marines, consisted of only five hundred and fifty one Officers, and the annual expenditure upon the whole was £34,492 10s, being at the rate of £94 10s per day, and so considerate and economical were the public measures, that the House of Commons addressed his Majesty, praying, that those upon this list, if fit for service, might be appointed to the first vacant commissions which occurred in the different Regiment?. But an ill judged parsimony, as to the number of Officers attached to Corps, seemed also to exist, and the same spirit was constantly urging the conversion of the Land (Forces into bodies of Marines. The regulations for this establishment were nearly similar in their principles to those framed for the line. The Colonels of Marine Regiments clothed their respective Corps, and had the liberty of recommending for commissions. Excepting that the whole battalion was destined for a particular service, none of the Field Officers were embarked. The greatest number of men on board the largest ships did not exceed one hundred under a Captain, three Subalterns, and the smallest was not less than twenty under an Officer. The Commanders of Marine detachments were enjoined to forward effective returns of them every two months to the Commissary General of Marines, attested by the Captains and Pursers of each. This was necessary, in order to conduct the musters of the Regimental Companies, and to guide the recruiting service on shore. The same deductions were made from them as the Army, for clothing and the Chelsea Hospital, whether embarked or not. When attached to any ship, their indigence’s were equal to those of the Seamen, as to the receiving provisions without any deductions from their pay on that account, they had short allowance money, and the benefit of Naval Hospitals. When sent there, either sick or wounded, they were deemed effective in the musters ashore, if producing a certificate from the Surgeon of the Ship to which they belonged, and another from the Commanding Officer at head-quarters, when in Great Britain. The Paymaster General of Marines issued the pay, upon receiving it, to the Colonels of Regiments, or their Agents, and the Pay master of each settled all their accounts agreeably to the muster rolls they had from the Commissary General. These muster rolls, with the receipts of the different Colonels or their Agents, were esteemed sufficient vouchers for passing the Pay master's accounts, and for making out warrants or debentures for clearings, which terms shall undergo a more particular discussion, under the head of Examples. When brigaded abroad, they were paid exactly in the same manner as the Army, but the arrears of Marine Officers were much longer withheld, and the Captains of Companies were exposed to very peculiar hardships, which will be explained more at length in a subsequent stage of the narrative. It is enough at present to remark, that the Officers of these Regiments, when abroad, were often obliged to assign that branch of their pay, at fifty per cent discount, in order to answer their temporary exigencies. What a contrast does this sytem present to the reforms, which have been recently established, in favour of this class of men

1742. Friday 5th January. Nearly 3000 men that included 2000 Marines arrived in Jamaica to replace the fleet’s losses.

1742. Thursday 12th April. HMS Eltham and HMS Lively engaged three spanish ships.

1742. June. HMS Kingston and consorts destroyed five Spanish ships.

1743. Tuseday 15th January. HMS Sapphire sank two Spanish Privateers and destroyed three.

1743. Monday 18th February. The attack upon La Guira a town in the area of Catacas was a second attempt by the British trying to capture some of the Spanish controlled parts of South America, along its east coast. Captain Knowles lead a squadron that included 1400 of Dalzels 34th Regiment and 100 Marines. Owing to a heavy swell, the ships could not approach the shore. Therefore a heavy cannonade bombarded the town took place and was only ended by the onset of night. Eventually the British ships were forced to withdraw from the combat. While the town suffered extremely, with many breaches being made in their fortifications, and a loss of more than 700 men. The British squadron also suffered considerable damage to its ships and a loss of around 400 men killed and wounded.

1743. Monday 15th - 16th April. After a refit Captain Knowles ships set sail and anchored to the east-ward side of the town of Porto Brava. Two ships commenced a flanking fire and after the shore batteries were silenced, it was decided to land the troops in order to take possession, and to turn the guns towards the castle, their retreat being secured by a ship of war within a pistol shot of the shore. By sunset the ships had accomplished their objective, and by dusk a force of 1200 sailors, soldiers, and Dutch volunteers, was disembarked under the command of Major Lucas. About eleven at night they had gained one of the fascine batteries but the garrison having been pre-warned and prepared for the attack managed to push the British back to their boats.

1743. Wednesday 20th March. Unable to restrain her views, France declared war, which was answered by a similar proclamation of the 31st March, on the part of England. Followed by the destruction of many of the French transports and troops at Dunkirk, while at sea they chased their covering fleet from the English coast.

1743. Saturday 20th April. HMS Cenurion took the N.S. de Covadonga worth £4000.000.

1743. April. Knowle's unsuccessful attack on Porto Cavallo.

1743. Friday 23rd August. The occupation of the Island of Rattan.

1743. Wenesday 27th November. The Parliament met and granted a vote of £206,253.-15s. to support an establishment of eleven thousand five hundred and fifty Marines during the ensuing twelve months.

1743. HMS Revenge and the Anne Gallery destroyed the San Yeidro.

1743. During the following three years the strength of the Marine Regiments was maintained at 11,550 men.

1744. Impressed men were allotted to each Regiment, and to those who entered voluntarily were given £4. Along with the power to claim heir discharge at the end of three years.

1744. Tuseday 11th February. Mathew's engagement off Toulon.

1744. Saturday 22nd February. The third Naval Battle of Toulon took place in the Mediterranean off the coast of Toulon France. A combined Franco Spanish fleet fought off Britain's Mediterranean fleet. The French fleet, not officially at war with Britain, only joined the fighting late, when it was clear that the greatly out numbered Spanish fleet had gained the advantage over its foe. With the French intervention, the British fleet was forced to withdraw. In Britain the battle was regarded as the most mortifying defeat. The Franco-Spanish fleet successfully ended the British blockade and inflicted considerably more damage to the British than they received, causing the British to withdraw to Minorca in need of heavy repairs.

1744. Thursday 9th - 11th April. Villefranche. Detachments of the 3rd, 4th, 7th and 9th Marines were landed to assist the Sardinians to defend their lines against the French and Spanish. Detachments were also landed from the 2nd, 7th, 10th, 29th and the 45th of the line who were serving as Marines on board the fleet. The detachments of the Royal Artillery from bomb vessels had been landed some days previously, but had all been captured during the early hours of the 9th April.

1744. Wednesday 29th April. HMS Dreadnought and HMS Grampus captured the Medle.

1744. Friday 8th May. HMS Northumberland captured by a French Squadron.

1744. Sunday 4th October. The Loss of HMS Victory, along with Admiral Balchen and 1,100 men.

1744. Tuesday 20th October. Eight men- of-war wrecked off Jamaica.

1744. HMS Seaford, HMS Sole Bay and HMS Grampus captured by De Rochambcau.

1744. Parliament granted that the establishment of Marines be increased to 11,550 men.

1745. Two Regiments were formed for service at Cape Breton, by Colonel William Shirley and Sir William Pepperell, each consisting of ten companies of 100 men per company. These were numbered the 50th and 58th Regiments of infantry of the line.

1745. Saturday 20th February. HMS Chester and HMS Sutherland captured the Elephant.

1745. Monday 5th April. Seven years after the last Marine Regiment had been disbanded, it was determined to raise a Marine force on a permanent basis. The order to raise the force was issued. With this in mind, fifty companies of Marines were authorised divided into three divisions based at Chatham, Portsmouth and Plymouth. The companies were known as Marine Forces. A Colonel Commandant commanded each division. The main staff officer was the Adjutant General.

1745. Friday 26th March. Admiral Martin captured the Panther and convoy of five sails.

1745. Thursday 22nd April. The Anglesea captured by the Apollen.

1745. Wednesday 19th May. Commodore Warren captured the Vigilante.

1745. Tuesday 1st June. The British Marines and American provincials succeeded in gaining an entrance into the harbour of Louisburg and they eventual capitulated, and with it the whole of Cape Breton. The British loss was about 100 men.

1745. Monday 28th June. The Capitulation of Louisbourg.

1745. Friday 9th July. Action between HMS Lion and the HMS Elizabeth.

1745. Sunday 31st October. Admiral Towsend took a great part of a large French convoy.

1745. HMS Rose captured Concepciogt. (spelling?)

1745. Sunday 19th December. The Clifton Moor Skirmish took place between forces of the British Hanoverian Government and Jacobite rebels. The Commander of the British forces, the Duke of Cumberland, was aware of the Jacobite presence in Derby. The Jacobite leader Prince Charles Edward Stuart decided to retreat north back towards Scotland.

1745. The men of the battalion companies of infantry ceased to carry swords.

1745. The following was the list and effective strength of the Marine Regiments.

Regiments Number of effective Men Wanting to complete
Churchill's 878 122
Frazer's 864 136
Lowthers 884 152
Byng's 797 203
Cochran's 945 55
Cotterell's 843 157
Cornwall's 845 155
Duncombe's 784 216
Powlett's 916 84
Jeffrey's 882 118
Totals 8,602 1,398

Besides 1,550 Commissioned and Non-commissioned Officers.
At this time, and indeed since their institution in 1739, Commissions were purchased and sold in the Regiments of Marines, although they always bore an inferior value to these in Old Corps. A perquisite frequently arose to the Colonels from the disposal of Second Lieutenancies, when his Majesty was pleased to accept of their recommendation. Such usually produced from £250 to £280, while Ensigncies in the Line sometimes yielded £400.

1746. Wednesday 9th February. HMS Portland captured the Auguste.

1746. Saturday 16th April. The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the Jacobite Rising. The Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart fought loyalist troops commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland near Inverness in the Scottish Highlands. The Hanoverian victory at Culloden decisively halted the Jacobite intent to overthrow the House of Hanover and restore the House of Stuart to the British throne, Charles Stuart never mounted any further attempts to challenge Hanoverian power in Great Britain.

1746. Friday 20th May - 3rd September. The Orkney Islands. Captain Benjamin Moodie sent with a detachment to Orkneys by Admiral Smith. S.N.O. Coast of Scotland “in search of rebels, and to secure those Islands, pursuant, to H.R.H. the Duke’s orders.”

1746. Saturday 25th June. Peyton engaged La Bourdonnais in East indies.

1746. Thursday 4th August. HMS Pembroke captured the Ferme.

1746. Tuesday 20th - 30th September. The Expedition against L’Orient. One hundred Marines landed at Quimperle bay. While the remainder that included three 3 pounder guns under Colonel Holmes marched with the rest of the army on to L’Orient. Seamen and Marines afterwards brought up two 12 pounders and furnace for red hot shot. 7 Marines drown during re-embarkation.

1746. Saturday 1st October. HMS Exeter and consorts captured and burnt the Ardent.

1746. Saturday 8th October. HMS Weazel Captured the Feantic anf the Fortune.

1746. Tuseday 11th October. HMS Nottingham captured the Mars.

1746. October. The Distruction of Forts in Quiberon Bay.

1746. Friday 11th November. HMS Portland Captured the Subtile.

1746. Very serious complaints were made of the neglect and delay which had occurred in the settlement of the accounts of the Marine Corps, and a committee was appointed to investigate the grievances which had been represented. The cause of the delay was alleged to arise. In the first instance from the absence of regular and periodical muster rolls, according to the practice in Regiments of the regular Army. This system, it was stated, could not easily be acted upon in the Corps of Marines, who were employed by detachments in the several ships of war. However, the investigation produced, the effect of a large balance in the hands of the Pay Master General being repaid into the Bank of England, for the benefit of those who were justly entitled to it. The privations and inconveniences which this meritorious body of troops had continued to endure for several years, did not affect their loyalty and steady allegiance, and they still remained the useful Corps, in periods of emergency, they had always proved in former years.

I746. A Committee was appointed to investigate the state and grievances of the Land Forces and Marines. A considerable increase of expense had accrued in the maintenance of both, which was one of the objects of this inquiry. Such as affected the Marine Regiments already detailed, and assigned the causes of the additional charges in this establishment since the peace of Utrecht. The same are applicable to the Army at large, in the allowance which was made to Commission Officers in lieu of servants, in 1713, in a similar indulgence granted to the Quarter masters in marching Regiments in 1718, and the annuities to Officers Widows, to Colonels for clothing lost by deserters, to Captains for recruiting, and to the Agents of Corps, which were all the newly adopted establishments of the latter year. These additional grants, while they meliorated the situation of the Officer, cost the nation but little. It appears, in the course of this inquiry, that the perquisites of a Colonel, in clothing a Marine Regiment, exceeded those of the Foot, from the comparative superiority in their numbers, and the articles being of an inferior quality.

1746. The Marines gained the privilege of marching through the City of London with drums beating, Colours flying, and bayonets fixed, this privilege, shared with other certain regiments, stems from the formation of the first Maritime Regiments in 1664 from the Trained Bands of the City of London (from whom the Marines derive the nickname of Jollies).

1746. For their service nearly 12,000 Marines were included in the parliamentary vote of the military establishment.

1746. HMS Defance captured the Ambuscade.

1746. HMS Namur captured the Mercure.

1746. HMS Albany captured by the Caster.

1746. HMS Seven captured by M. de Conflane

1747. At that time the Marines strength was at 11,160, and the establishment for each ship fixed at the following numbers. Ships of 100 and of 90 guns, to have 100 Marines, of 80 guns to have 80 Marines, of 70 guns, to have 70 Marines, of 60 guns to have 60 Marines, of 40 guns to have 50 Marines, of 20 guns 30 Marines, and Sloops to have 20 Marines. It was proposed that the Marines Regiments should be placed altogether under the orders of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. Although this arrangement was not finally adopted until the year 1763.

1747. Hannah Snell (1723 - 1792) was a British woman who served in the Royal Marines as a man. Snell was born in Worcester, married in her late teens and gave birth to a daughter. While still an infant her daughter died and her husband absconded, Snell borrowed some men’s clothing and on Monday 23rd October 1747 enlisted in the Marines using the name James Gray. In 1748 Snell was deployed to India and later fought in the battle of Devicotta during June 1749. Where she saw heavy combat and received twelve wounds, to her arms and legs and one to her groin area. She either managed to treat her groin wound without revealing her sex or she may have used the services of a sympathetic local Indian nurse. Although legend has it that she extracted the ball herself, in order to prevent her sex being discovered. Snell’s gender concealment is even more remarkable considering that she was flogged twice during her three years in the Marines and both times was stripped to the waist. In 1748 Snell was charged with dereliction of duty and publicly whipped in Carlisle. Snell later told biographers she avoided detection because her “breasts were but small”. “Her arms were drawn up, the protuberance of her breasts was inconsiderable and they were hid by her standing close to the gate upon which she was flogged.” Snell received a second whipping on board a Royal Navy ship, where she prevented the discovery of her sex by tying a handkerchief around her neck and spreading it over her breasts. It’s reported that during this second flogging Snell’s breasts were spotted by the ship’s bossun, who said “they were the most like a woman’s he ever saw”. However, he was not concerned enough to raise the alarm. Although with the use of hind sight this may have been added to the story at a later date, some somebody wanting to cash in on the story. On her return to England during 1750 and leaving the Marines Snell confessed her true gender. She was given an honourable discharge and, later, a military pension and went on to run a pub. During 1791 she developed a mental condition and was admitted to Bethlem Hospital on Saturday 20th August. She passed away on Wednesday 8th February 1792.

1747. An expedition that included 880 Marines, under the command of Admiral Boscawen attacked French controlled positions in the Indian Ocean. At Mauritius the French were too well emplaced so the British fleet moved to the Coromandel coast of India in preparation of laying a siege at Pondicherry.

1747. HMS Surprise and HMS Jamaica capture the Superbe.

1747. HMS Enterprise captured the Vestale, worth £15.000.

1747. Rear-Admiral Griffin destroyed the Neptune.

1747. Tuesday 28th of February. His Majesty King George II. directed, that the several Regiments of Marines, which were then existing, should be placed under the entire Command of the Lords Commissioners for executing the office of High Admiral of Great Britain and Ireland.

1747. Wednesday 3th May. Admiral George Anson commanding 14 British ships of the line attacks a French 30 ship convoy commanded by Admiral de la Jonquière in what became known as the First Battle of Cape Finisterre, during the War of the Austrian Succession. The British captured 4 ships of the line, 2 frigates and 7 merchantmen, in a five hour battle in the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Finisterre in northwest Spain. However, 1 French frigate, 1 French East India Company warship and the other merchantmen escaped. The British suffered 520 killed or wounded. While the French losses were 4 ships of the line, 4 frigates, 4 corvettes, 6 merchantmen captured, 800 killed or wounded, and 3000 captured.

1747. Friday 2nd June. HMS Fortune captured the Charon.

1747. Wednesday 21st June. Sir William Warren destroyed the L'Etoile.

1747. Wednesday 21st June. Captain Fox took 48 sail of a French Convoy.

1747. June. HMS Viper and HMS Hunter burnt 28 sail in Sodiere Bay.

1747. Friday 14th July. HMS Warwick engaged the Glorioso.

1747. Wednesday 13th September. HMS Dover captured the Renommbe.

1747. Tuesday 8th August. An officer and 20 Marines were ordered from Maidstone to Goudhurst to protect it from a threatened attack by smugglers.

1747 Tuesday 8th August - October. The Siege of Pondicherry took place in India against the French East India Company garrison under the Command of Governor General Joseph François Dupleix at the Indian port of Pondicherry. It was the last major action of the First Carnatic War. The siege was lifted with the arrival of the monsoon rains. A sizable British army and fleet fail to capture the main French stronghold in southern India.

1747. Sunday 8th October. HMS Dartmouth blown up in action with the Glorioso.

1747. Monday 9th October. HMS Russell captured off Finisterre.

1747. Saturday 14th October. Rear Admiral Sir Edward Hawkes Victory over the French off Finisterre (the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre). A British fleet of fourteen ships of the line intercepted a French convoy protected by eight French ships of the line commanded by Admiral Desherbiers de l'Etenduère. The battle took place in the eastern Atlantic, roughly halfway between Ireland and Cape Finisterre in northwest Spain. It was a decisive British victory that has been described as ‘the most brilliant naval action of the war’. It put an end to French naval operations for the remainder of the war, eliminating any threat of an invasion of Britain and threatening the very existence of France's empire overseas. The British captured 6 ships of the line, and 7 ships of the convoy, along with 4000 seamen while 800 were killed. Their own losses were 154 killed and 558 wounded.

1747. The fouled anchor, incorporated into the emblem during 1747, is the badge of the Lord High Admiral and shows that the Corps is part of the Naval Service.  

1747. December. The following is the details of the Field Officers and Agents of each Corps, all of which were quartered in Great Britain, and in the vicinity of the principal sea ports, at the close of the year.

44th Regiment or First Marines.
Colonel George Churchill.
Lieutenant Colonel N. Mitchell.
Major James Macdonald.
J. Winter, Dartmouth-street Westminster, Agent.

45th Regiment or Second Marines.
Colonel Robert Frazer.
Lieutenant Colonel J. Leighton.
Major T. Mathews.
T. Paterson Conduit-street, Agent.

46th Regiment or Third Marines.
C. H. Holmes
Colonel. P. Damar.
Lieutenant Colonel. W. Brown.
Major. T. Fisher.
Privy-gardens, Whitehall, Agent.

47th Regiment or Fourth Marines.
Coronel C. George Byng.
Lieutenant Colonel B. Hutchison.
Major J. Read.
T. Paterson, Conduit-street, Agent.

48th Regiment or Fifth Marines.
Colonel C. James Cochran.
Lieutenant Colonel C. Whiteford.
Major J. Stuart.
Maynard Guering, St. James's-park, Agent.

49th Regiment or Sixth Marines.
Colonel vacant??.
Lieutenant Colonel C. Gordon.
Major C. Leighton.
William Adair, Pall-mall, Agent.

50th Regiment or Seventh Marines.
Colonel H. Cornwall.
Lieutenant Colonel J. Paterson.
Major R. Bendish
T. Fisher, Privy-gardens, Whitehall, Agent.

51st Regiment or Eighth Marines.
Colonel J. Duncombe.
Lieutenant Colonel J. Cunningham.
Major J. Brewse.
Maynard Guering, St. James's-park, Agent.

52d Regiment or Ninth Marines.
Colonel C. Pawlett.
Lieutenant Colonel G. Walsh.
Major vacant??
Mr. Guering, Agent.

53d Regiment or Tenth Marines.
Colonel Sir Andrew Agnew.
Lieutenant Colonel C. Pawlett.
Major C. Durand.
Mr. Guering, Agent.
These Regiments, when complete, were supposed to consist of one thousand Rank and File each, and every battalion of ten Companies. At this period the whole forces upon the British Establishment amounted to eighty five thousand six hundred and eleven men.

1748. Cape Breton was restored to the French after the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was settled. However, it was retaken in 1758 by Admiral Boscawen and General Sir Jeffery Amherst, and finally given back to Great Britain at the peace deal of 1763.

1748. Captain Pocock took 25 sail of Martinique.

1748. Unsuccessful attack on Pondicherry.

1748. Wednesday 31st January. HMS Nottingham and HMS Portland captured the Magnanime.

1748. Thursday 7th March. Captain Cotes captured 5 sail of a Spnaish Convoy.

1748. Wedneday 8th May. Admiral Knowles reduced Port Louis.

1748. Tuseday 1st October. Admiral Knowles' Victory off Havana.

1748. Thursday 10th - 12th October. Mutinary and re-capture of HMS Chesterfield.

1748. Friday 18th October. After the signing of the Peace Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle by Great Britian, France, and the Dutch republic. Two follow up implementation treaties were also signed at Nice on Wednesday 4th December 1748 and Tuesday 21st January 1749 by Austria, Spain, Sardinia, Modena, and Genoa. After the signing all ten Marine Regiments were eventually disbanded.

1749. Friday 12th April. Wreck of Namur and Pembroke.

1750. Up to the 19th century. A Punishment of twelve lashes on board all naval ships was the maximum authorised for any one offence. However, for two offences the punishment was 24 lashes.

1850. The Rum Ration was once again reduced to half gill.

1754 - 1763. The French and Indian War took place in North American. The war was fought between the colonies of Britain, America and New France, with both European sides supported by military units from their parent countries, as well as their Native American allies. At the start of the war, the French North American colonies had a population of roughly 60,000 European settlers, compared to 2 million in the British North American colonies. The war was also part of the world wide Seven Years' War that saw Great Britain, Hanover, Portugal, and Prussia fighting against Austria, France, Russia, Sweden, and Spain.

1755. Sunday 8th June. HMS Boscawen took the Alcide and the Lys.

1755. Saturday 5th April. The Marines underwent another name change that of the Corps of Marines. At that time there were fifty Independent Companies divided into three Marine Divisions. With their headquartered at the major naval bases of Chatham, Portsmouth and Plymouth. An arrangement that became permanent for the Corps. This is also the first date of Marine Commissions not being purchased, and of the officers rising in regular rotation only. On its establishment, the Corps consisted of 3 Lieutenant Colonels, 3 Majors, 50 Captains, 50 first Lieutenants, and 100 second Lieutenants, who were taken from the line and former Marine Regiments. The field officers were, Major Generals Patterson and Drury, and Colonel Gordon, to be Lieutenant Colonels, and Lieutenant Colonel Bendyshe, with Majors Leighton and Burleigh, to be Majors. The intercourse by exchange to the army was open to the officers of Marines, and in the course of a few years twelve of the first appointed Captains returned to the line, eight of whom were Lieutenant Colonels, and four of them were Majors. Amongst that number were Sir Robert Abercrombie, Alexander Leslie, William Picton, Henry Orame, Charles Grey, and John Johnstone.

1755. Whenever the Marines serve with the army, they took precedence in seniority after the 49th Regiment of Foot. The Marine seniority is only calculated from its formation in 1755, and not by any previous service of the disbanded Marine Regiments.

1755. Friday 14th November. The Espirance was captured by the Orford.

1755. His Majesty's Marine Forces raised. The oldest predecessor to which the Royal Marines can trace a direct lineage.

1755. Plymouth (Uniform). Coats ordered to be worn always hooked up and white stockings to be worn by both Officers and men. The former when under arms were to wear Stiff topped buff coloured gloves.

1755. HMS Mars lost off Halifax.

1755. HMS Blandford taken by the Duguay-Trouin.

1755 - 1770. The Marines uniform of the day. (Taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI.)

Click photo to enlarge

1756. The Marines strength grew to 9,138 men, adding thirty companies to the establishment of the previous year.

1756. Thursday 12th February. Watson and Pocock took Geriah.

1756. HMS Warwick taken by a French Squadron off Marinique.

1756. Saturday 8th May – Monday 28th June. The Defence of Port St. Phillip. Minorca. A French force under the Command of the Duke de Richelieu landed on the island and besieged the British garrison at St. Philip's Castle manned by 110 Officers and Marines, forcing them to surrender after a lengthy siege. A British relief force under the Command of Admiral John Byng sailed with the purpose of saving the island, but after the naval Battle of Minorca Byng withdrew to Gibraltar, and the resistance of the garrison finally collapsed. Byng was later blamed for the loss of Minorca, and executed by firing squad.

1756. Monday 17th May. HMS Colchester and HMS Lyme engaged the Aquilon and the Fidle.

1756. HMS Dunkirk destroyed Forts at Chausey.

1756. HMS Tartar took the Cerf, Grand Guidom, heros, and the Rose.

1756. HMS Dispatch engaged the Prince de Soubiser

1756. HMS Adventure captured by a French privateer.

1756. Thursady 20th May. Byng's action of Minorca with La gullissoniere.

1756. Fortunatus Wright in the St. George with a xebec.(?)

1756. Thursday 20th May. The following order was given that no man was to appear in the streets  with his hat flapped, and that the Sergeants and Corporals of each Company to take care that the men all keep their

1756. Thursday 20th May. Chatham (Uniform). Orders were given that No man was to appear in the streets with his hat Flapped, and that the Sergeants and Corporal of each Company were to take care that the men all keep their hats well cocked. Probably because the cloth Fusilier caps were not allowed to be worn when walking out.

1756. Monday 12th July. HMS Litchfield and HMS Warwick captured the Arc en Ciel.

1756. Tuseday 27th July. Holmes action off Louisbourg with De beauzier.

1756. Friday 3rd December. Plymouth (Uniform).Corporals ordered to wear Shoulder Knots.

1756. Thursday 23rd - 28th December. HMS Terrible, HMS Alexander and Vengrance.

1756. Autigallican captured the Due de Penthicure.

1756. Tuseday 28th December. Watson at Calcutta captured Forts.

1757. January. HMS Tartar captured the Mont Ozier.

1757. Sunday 2nd January. Watson at Calcutar.

1757. February. HMS Tartar captured the Vicloire.

1757. Friday 4th March. Chatham (Uniform). The complement of necessaries of each man of the Division is three shirts, two pair of shoes, and three pairs of stockings.

1757. Monday 14th March. Byng evaculated.

1757. Friday 18th March. HMS Greenwich taken by a French Squadron off Domingo.

1757. Wednesday 23rd March. Watson at Chandernagore.

1757. Wednesday 30th March. Chatham (Uniform). The Officers are to observe the length of the mens shirts to be to the top of the knee pan.

1757. May. HMS Tartar took the Pentlope.

1757. Monday 25th July. HMS Southamton engaged five French Privateers.

1757. Thursday 22nd September. HMS Southampton captured the Emeraude.

1757. Friday 23rd September. Knowles attacked the Isle of Aix.

1757. Saturday 24th September. HMS Tilbury lost off Louisbourg.

1757. September. The Raid on the port of Rochefort (some times referred to as the Descent on Rochefort) was a British amphibious attempt to capture the French Atlantic port. An important but second rate military and naval base essential for the efficiency of Brest. The raid pioneered a new tactic of ‘descents’ on the French coast, championed by William Pitt 1st Earl of Chatham. Pitt is best known as the wartime political leader of Britain during the Seven Years War. Especially for his single minded devotion to victory over France, a victory which ultimately solidified Britain's dominance over world affairs. Although viewed as a failure positive lessons were learned about ‘desents’, notably by Wolfe, who two years later captured Quebec. Desents, refer to climbing of rocks and cliffs.

1757. Friday 21st October. HMS Forrest engaged De Kersaint off Cape Francois.

1757. October. HMS Tartar took the Gramont.

1757. Wednesday 23rd November. HMS Hassar and HMS Dolphin destroyed the Alcvon.

1757. November. HMS Tartar captured the Milampe.

1757. Friday 16th December. HMS Augusta captured nine armed merchantmen.

1757. Twenty companies were added to the Corps, making 110 companies, and the total number of men established at 11,419.

1757. The alleged scalping of British Soldiers by the Rebels (America). General Amherst forwarded the following intimidation to Montcalm the Governor of Canada: “No scouting party or others in the Army are to scalp women and children belonging to the enemy. They are, if possible to take them prisoners, but not to injure them on any account. The General being determined, should the enemy continue to murder and scalp women and children, who are the subjects of the King of Great Britain, to revenge it by death of two men of the enemy for every woman or child murdered by them. C. V. F. Townsend 7th Fusiliers and formally of the R.M.L.I. reports that: “Warfare in this part of the world between the English and French was carried on in a revolting cruel and bloody manner, but the French were the worst offenders. Scalps were taken even by regular soldiers on both sides following the example of their Indian allies.” The Canadians threw in their lot with the French, sending in men and supplies, and scalping without mercy all the English stragglers who fell into their hands. General Wolf sent a letter to Montcalm to stop this, but he either could not, or would not, because it continued. Therefore Wolf was obliged to retaliate, and accordingly the following order was issued to the troops: “The General strictly forbids the inhuman practice of scalping, except when the enemy are Indians, or Canadians dressed like Indians.

1757. HMS Unicorn took Invincible and Comtesse de Nosailles.

1757. HMS Unicorn took the Hermione.

1757. HMS Chichester took the Bien Acquis.

1757. HMS Eagle and HMS Medway took the Due d' Aquitaine.

1757. HMS Antelope destroyed the Aquilon.

1757. HMS Happy took the Infernal.

1757. HMS Defiance captured the Prlvst de Paris.(?)

1757. HMS Ambuscade captured the Vainqueur.

1757. HMS Experiment captured the Telemagne.

1757. HMS Fortune captured a French ship.

1758. Sunday 1st January. HMS Adventure captured the Machault.

1758. Sunday 8th January. HMS Hussar captured the Vengeance.

1758. Sunday 19th February. HMS Invincible lost on the Owers.

1758. Tuesday 28th February. HMS Revenge captured the Orphce.(?)

1758. Tuesday 28th February. HMS Monmouth captured the Foudroyant.

1758. Tuesday 28th February. HMS Monarque and HMS Monmouth destroyed the Oriflmme.

1758. Wednesday 5th April. Hawke at Isle of Aix.

1758. HMS Essex and HMS Pluto capture the Galathle.

1758. Thursday 13th April. The burning of HMS Prince George.

1758. HMS St, Albans and HMS Favorite took Loire.

1758. HMS Monmouth and HMS Lyme destroyed the Rose.

1758. The Boreas took the Diane.

1758. Friday 28th April. HMS Triton and HMS Bridgewater were destroyed by a French Squadon.

1758. Saturday 29th April. Pocock and D'Ache in the East Indies.

1758. Tuesday 2nd May. The Capture of Fort Louis in Senegal. A small British squadron under the Command of Captain Henry Marsh sailed from Plymouth, despatched against the French settlements in West Africa. On Sunday 30th April Marsh landed 700 Marines, and a detachment of 25 Artillerymen with 10 guns and 8 mortars under Captain Walker to attack Fort Louis. A French deputation soon surrendered the fort which was garrisoned by 232 French officers and soldiers. However, the actual handing over of the Fort was delayed, owing to the action of the local natives, who, not thinking that their interests had been sufficiently secured, blockaded the French. The expedition is reported to have cost roughly a million pounds.

1758. Friday 26th May. HMS Dolphin and HMS Solebay with Marechal de Belleisle.

1758. Monday 26th May. HMS Dorsetshire and HMS Achilles captured the Raisonnable.

1758. Tuesday 6th June. Howe at St. Malo

1758. Sunday 25th June - 26th July. The Siege of Louisburg was a pivotal Battle of the ‘Seven Years War that ended the French colonial era in Canada and led directly to the loss of Quebec in 1759. On Sunday 25th June 500 Marines landed and took up a position at Kennington Cove.

1758. Thursday 29th June. HMS Renown captured the Guirlande.

1758. Sunday 2nd July. 100 Marines sent ashore to join General Wolfe’s Army.

1758. Wednesday. 5th July. General Orders. As soon as it is dark the Highlanders are to draw the 2 Light 6 pounders and place them in a battery prepare for them upon the right redan. One of the Artillery and some Marines are to serve those two pieces, and their ammunition is to be deposited the redan The  Colhorn Mortars are not to play any more at the shipping, but the 5 Royals may be employed a day  or two in the redoubt constructed by Anstruthers and Marines. The Marines are to do their duty with the Corps of Artillery, by that means they will be able to keep their own batteries in constant repair.

1758. Saturday 15th July. A Sergeant of Marines was taken prisoner by the Light Infantry, he was some distance from his post without arms.

1758. Tuesday 25th July. The Prudente was set on fire and the Bienfuissant towed off to the North East Harbour by the boats of the fleet which carried about 450 seamen and Marines, commanded by Captains Laforey and Balfour, boarded the ships without opposition from them, but from the town, who, having the services, fired Grape and Musketry, did not kill above seven and wounded as many. The Prudente being on ground they were obliged to set fire to her, eleven officers, mostly Marines and about 122 sailors out of the two were made prisoners.

1758. Thursday 3rd August. Pocock and D'Ache togther in their second action.

1758. Monday 7th August - Wednesday 16th August. A raid on Cherbourg took place during the ’Seven Years War’ during which a British force was landed on the coast of France by the Royal Navy with the intention of attacking the town of Cherbourg as part of the British government's policy of ‘Descents’ on the French Coast.

1758. Tuseday 15th August. Howe destroyed the Cherbourg.

1758. Saturday 2nd September. HMS Shrewsbury destroyed the Calypso.

1758. Wednesday 27th September. Disaster at St. Malo.

1758. Monday 2nd October. HMS Lizard captured the Due d' Hanovre.

1758. HMS Torbay captured the Rostan.

1758. Tuesday 31st October. HMS Antelope captured the Belliqucnxr. (?)

1758. Friday 3rd November. Buckingham and Floristssant.

1758. Wednesday 24th November. Plymouth (Uniform). Brown linen Spatterdashes ordered for the Guard.

1758. Tuesday 28th November. HMS Lichfield was lost.

1758. Tuesday 12th December - 16th February 1759. The Siege and Defence of Madras was part of the ‘Third Carnatic War’ against the French. The British garrison was able to hold out until it was relieved. The British are reported to have fired 26,554 cannon balls and more than 200,000 cartridge rounds in defence of the town. The failure to take Madras was a huge disappointment for the French and a big setback to their campaign in India. The French also lost 1200 men.

1758. Wednesday 20th December. The Capture of Goree.

1758. The Corps was further increased to 140 companies, amounting to 14,845 men.

1758. A Battalion of 24 Officers, 1 Surgeon 21 Drummers and 540 Marines left Plymouth to assist in the Capture of Quebec in Canada.

1758 - 1761. The ‘Anglo Cherokee War’ was a conflict between British forces in North America and Cherokee Indian tribes during the French and Indian War. The British and the Cherokee had been allies at the start of the war, but each party had suspected the other of betrayals. Tensions between British American settlers and the Cherokee increased during the 1750s, culminating in open hostilities during 1758.

1759. Monday 22nd January - May. The Capture of Guadalupe from the French. It was part of the ‘Seven Years War’. A large British force had arrived in the West Indies, intending to seize French possessions. After a six-month long battle to capture Guadeloupe they finally received the formal surrender of the island, just days before a large French relief force arrived under Admiral Maximin de Bompart.

1759. Wednesday 21st February. HMS Vestal took the Bellone.

1759. Monday 19th March. Aiolus took Mignone.

1759. Thursday 27th March. HMS Winsor took the Due de Chartres.

1759. Friday 28th March. HMS Southampton and HMS Milampe captured the Danal.

1759. Wednesday 4th April. HMS Achilles captured the St. Florentine.

1759. Wednesday 15th April. HMS Favorite captured the Valeur.

1759. Tuseday 1st May. The Capture of Guadaloupe.

1759. Friday 18th May. HMS Thames and HMS Venus took the Arithuse.

1759. June - September. Sanders at Quebec.

1759. Wednesday 1st August. The Battle of Minden in North Germany. Anglo Hanoverian forces under the Command of Ferdinand of Brunswick defeat the French army lead by Duc de Broglie, but due to the disobedience of the English cavalry Commander Lord George Sackville, the French were able to withdraw unmolested.

1759. Monday 13th August. HMS Crescent took the Berkeley.

1759. HMS Dreadnought took the Hermione.

1759. Saturday 18th August - Sunday 19th August 1759. A Naval Battle off Lagos between Britain and France took place, during the ‘Seven Years War’ off the coasts of Spain and Portugal, and is named after Lagos in Portugal. It ended in a victory for the British led by Sir Edward Boscawens While the he French lost 2 ships of the line that were destroyed and a further 3 were captured.

1759. Saturday 18th August. Boscawen and De la Clue.

1759. Sunday 2nd September. Pocock and D'Ache, third action.

1759. Thursday 13th September. The Capture of Quebec from the French. The British lead by General James Wolfe (1727 - 1759) achieved a dramatic victory when they scaled the cliffs overlooking the city of Quebec, defeating the French forces under the command of Louis Joseph de Montcalm. During the battle, which lasted less than an hour, Wolfe was fatally wounded. Montcalm was also wounded and died the next day. However, Wolfes Victory ensured British supremacy in Canada. During the operations the Marines were encamped at Point Levi on the south side of the St. Lawrence, but on the 26th July, two companies of them were sent over to General Wolf’s camp, at Montmorenci, as a reinforcement. Later 600 men of the Marines and Major Hardy’s Corps were sent over to defend the Island of Orleans in the middle of the river between Montmorenci and Point Levi. Some of those must have been sent from the ships as the Battalion was only 540 strong, or was entirely a ships battalion.  When the real attack on Quebec took place the line of battle ships which lay in the river below Quebec made a demonstration in front of the French lines to the north east of the city in order to divert attention from the landing at Sillery to the west of Quebec. They stood in as close to the shore as the depth of the water would allow. They then lowered the boats and filled them with Marines to deceive the enemy into expecting a landing at this point. The British lost 58 killed and 600 wounded. While the French had 116 killed and the same as the British 600 wounded. It’s also worth noting that Wolf used what was known in those days as ‘Descents’ to approach the city from what was thought to be impregnatable cliffs. Something he had witnessed a few years earlier while a junior Officer at the Raid on Rochefort.

1759. Tuesday 20th November. The Battle of Quibecon Bay of the Coast of France near St. Nazaire. The British Admiral Sir Edward Hawke along with 24 ships of the line caught up with a French fleet with 21 ships of the line under the Command of Marshal de Conflans and, after some hard fighting, sank, captured, or forced aground six of them and dispersed the rest, giving the Royal Navy one of its greatest Victories to date.

1759. Friday 28th December. The Battle and Capture of Goree in West Africa. After having made a short stay at Santa Cruz, in the Canary Isles, a British squadron led by Augustus Keppel approached Goree, and at 3:00 pm anchored in about 18 fathoms of water just outside the bay. The transports containing the troops were sent into the bay between Point Goree and Point Barrabas. Early on 29th December the troops were disembarked in to boats in readiness to land on the island upon a signal being made by the Commodore. Most of the ships gradually took up their assigned positions to the west or leeward side of Goree and moored head and stern under a heavy fire: At 9:00 am, the attack was begun by the HMS Prince Edward. However, the cannonade was not general until about noon, while some of the vessels experiencing difficulty in taking up their stations. The bombardment was then rapidly effective. In a few hours, the British ships silenced the French batteries and created havoc within the garrison. At nightfall, M. de Saint Jean surrendered the fortress and the island. Keppel landed his Marines to take possession. The garrison consisting of about 300 men, many of them Africans became prisoners of war. 110 guns and mortars were captured, while British losses were very low.

1760. Friday 4th January – 15 January 1761. The Siege and Capture of Pondicherry, part of the ’Third Carnatic War’. British land and naval forces besieged and eventually compelled the French forces defending the French colonial outpost of Pondicherry to surrender. 422 Marines were involved.

1760. Wednesday 6th January. 422 Marines along with other Europeans and Native Troops finally Captured Pondicherry the largest French strong hold in India.

1760. Friday 15th February. The loss of HMS Ramillies.

1760. Thursday 28th February. Elliot and Thurot off the Isle of Man.

1760. Friday 28th March. HMS Penguin taken by the Malicieus and the Opale.

1760. Saturday 5th April. The Capture of Carical in the East Indies, involving Major Manson and 300 Marines.

1760. Friday 16th May. Swanton at Quebec.

1790. Destruction of Pontone and the Atalante.

1760. The loss of HMS Lowestoft.

1760. The Marines strength was 18,355 men, being more than one fourth of the naval force. In consequence of a representation from the Commandants of divisions, that more field officers were required for the better discipline of the service, three naval Captains were appointed Colonels of Marines, with forty shillings per day, and the only Marine Colonel General Patterson, was placed on retirement with £700 per annum, thus banishing all hopes of higher preferment than the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. This arrangement created such dissatisfaction in the Corps that a memorial, expressive of their deep sense of the injustice, in placing officers over them so perfectly incapable to command troops in the field, or conducting the details of military discipline on shore, was presented to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. In addition to this humiliating measure, the circumscribed establishment on the peace of 1763 produced so much discontent, that many officers, seeing their prospects thus destroyed, quit the Marines and entered the army, where some rose to a higher rank.

1760. Friday 4th July. Fire at Portsmouth Dockyard.

1760. Tuesday 8th July. HMS Byron in the Bay of Chaleur.

1760. Monday 8th September. The Capture of Montreal or the Fall of Montreal as it’s sometimes known, took place when the British occupied Montreal the largest remaining centre of French Canada effectively completing their Conquest of Canada. Under the overall direction of Jeffrey Amherst British forces converged on the settlement from three separate directions closing in on the outnumbered French garrison. The French military commander Francis de Gaston, Chevalier de Levis was resolved to make a last stand at Montreal despite the apparently overwhelming odds. However, he was over ruled by Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil Cavagnal the French civilian Governor who persuaded Levis to surrender. Levis tried to negotiate a surrender with the Honours of War. Although the British refused to accept it, and the French were forced to make an unconditional surrender. As they had at Quebec, the British offered generous terms in regard to the French Canadians which were later to become enshrined by law in the Proclamation of 1763 and the Quebec Act.

1760. Thursday 16th october. HMS Borcas captured the Sirine.

1760. Saturday 18th October. HMS Lively captured the Valeur.

1760. December. The loss of HMS Cumberland.

1761. Thursday 1st January. The loss of HMS Newcastle and HMS Queenborough in the East Indies.

1761. Thursday 8th January. HMS Unicorn captured the Vestale (re-named HMS Flora)

1761. Wednesday 14th January. The Capture of Pondicherry.

1761. Friday 23rd January. HMS Richmond captured the Felicite.

1761. Friday 23rd January. Minerva took Warwick.

1761. Friday 30th January. HMS Venus and HMS Juno captured the Brune.

1761. Tuseday 10th February. The Mahe surrendered.

1761. Friday 13th March. HMS Vengeance captured the Entreprenant.

1761. Wednesday 1st April. HMS Isis captured the Oriflamme.

1761. Tuseday 7th April - Monday 8th June. Marines were involved in an amphibious expedition to capture the French controlled Belle lsle off the Brittany Coast, during the ‘Seven Years War’. After an initial British attack was repulsed, a second attempt lead by General Studholme Hodgson forced a beach head. A second landing was made, and after a six week siege the island's main citadel at Le Palais was stormed, consolidating British control over the island. A French relief effort from the nearby mainland was unable to succeed because of British control of the sea. Later the Marines were allowed the honour of featuring a ‘Laurel Wreath’ around their Badge.

1761. Tuseday 7th April - Monday 8th June. Among the surgeons attending the military wounded and dying at the Battle of Belle lsle was the soon to be famous John Hunter who made several medical discoveries including the treatment of battle shock by not attempting any treatment until the victim had been allowed some time to recover. He also attempted to instigate a system of non-treatment for minor bullet and shrapnel injuries and so laid the foundations for modern day treatments for such trauma injuries. Mentioned in 'Brother Surgeons' by Garet Rogers and 'The Knife Man' by Wendy Moore.

1761. Thursday 4th June. The Capture of Dominica.

1761. Friday 5th June. Holmes captured St. Anne.

1761. Monday 8th June. After more than a month's siege of Le Palais, Sainte Croix acknowledged he was unlikely to receive any rescue and he agreed to capitulate. Sainte Croix was allowed, through the British lines, to march his men out through the breach with the honours of war. His men were then repatriated to nearby Lorient. The British occupied the island for two years before returning it to France during 1763 following the Treaty of Paris.

1761. Monday 15th June. Chatham (Uniform). Captain Davidson, First Lieutenant Davis and 2nd Lieutenant Davidson to appear in their uniform Fuzees, Sashes, Corselets and Boots. The rest of the Officers in their Uniforms with White Stockings.

1761. July. Parker destroyed fortifications at Aix.

1761. Thursday 16th July. HMS Thunderer and HMS Thetis took Achelle and Bouffon.

1761. Friday 7th August. Lord Anson in Royal Charlotte yacht hoisted the Unicn flag.

1761. Thursday 13th August. HMS Bellona captured the Coutageux.

1761. Tuesday 20th October. According to the Annual Register. A young woman dressed in men’s clothes was impressed at Plymouth, and sent to Captain Toby in the town. On arrival she was committed to Prison, but not liking confinement, she disclosed her sex and was discharged. She gives the following account of herself. “That her name was Hanna Witney that she was born in Ireland, had been on board different ships upwards of five years, and would not have disclosed herself is she had been allowed her liberty.

1761. HMS Albany captured the Faisan.

1761. HMS Blonde took a large French ship.

1761. The coppering of ships bottoms was first introducrd.

1761. The Loss of Faisan (re-named Pheasant), along with all hands.

1762. Wednesday 6th January. HMS Venus captured the Boulogne.

1762. Tuesday 16th February. The Capture of the Redoubts on Morne Tortenson (Port Royal) Martinique, from the French. Britain captured the island during the ‘Seven Years War’, holding it from 1762 to 1763. The Marines of the expedition had previously landed and with the aid of a few seamen captured a fort at Grand Ance, and held it till relieved by a Line Battalion, landing again with the rest of the Army in Cas de Navires Bay. The Marines formed in two battalions of 450 men each, took part in three days of fighting which resulted in the capture of the Redoubts, on Morne Tortenson, Mone Garnier, and the attack on the Citadel of Port Royal. On the fall of this place the Marines of the fleet, with 500 seamen were landed, and the whole Island of Martinique submitted to the British Crown.
Following Britain's Victory in the war there was a strong possibility the island would be annexed by them. However, the sugar trade made the island so valuable to the Royal French Government that at the Treaty of Paris signed during 1763, which ended the ‘Seven Years War’, they gave up all of Canada in order to regain Martinique as well as the neighbouring island of Guadeloupe.

1762. Tuesday 7th March. HMS Milford captured the Gloire.

1762. May. The loss of HMS Hussar.

1762. Friday 21st May. HMS Active and HMS Favorite capture the Hermoine Spanish treasure ship was taken off Cadiz by the 28 gun frigate and 18 gun sloop Favourite. The ships net proceeds of its cargo were valued at £519,705 -1s - 6d, the prize to each Private Marine amounted to £484.

1762. Wednesday 2nd June. HMS Alarm and HMS Echo took the Thitis and the Phenix.

1762. Monday 7th June - 13th August. The Siege and Capture of Havana was a military action that took place during the ‘Seven Years War’. When British forces besieged and captured the city. At the time it was an important Spanish naval base in the Caribbean. Its capture dealt a serious blow to the Spanish navy located in that area. Havana was subsequently returned to Spain under the 1763 Treaty of Paris that ended the war between them. The Marines were placed in the boats and made to look like they were going to land 4 miles to the westward of the city, while the remainder of the army effected its disembarkation without opposition between The Rivers Boca Nao and Coximar some way to the East. Being checked at the latter river by a castle at its mouth, the army halted while the Dragon stood in and silence its guns in about an hour, after which her Marines went on shore and took possession of it. On the evening of the 10th the Marines were in the boats again while the Belleisle, Cerberus, Bonetta, Mercury, and Lurcher bombarded the castle of Chorea at the entrance to the river of the name on the East side of the city. The Castle and adjoining batteries were taken on the 11th, and some of the Marines landed for its security.
During this time the Marines who were about 800 strong, and were formed into two Battalions and placed under the Command of Majors Campbell and Collins. On the 15th June they were landed and encamped near Chorea under the command of Colonel the Hon. William Howe. The main attack was directed against the Morro Castle, the Citadel of Havannah which occupied a high and steep rock on the East side of the entrance to the harbour. For a long time it defied all the effort of the besiegers while disease decimated the ranks. On the 5th and 6th July it was found necessary to draw on the Marines for reinforcements, and during these two days 400 of them were transferred in the front of Morro. A portion of them were employed in the mining operations which were very difficult to carry out on account of an immense ditch cut in the solid rock,80 feet deep and 40 wide. However, on the 20th July the miners totally uncovered and managed to cross the ditch by a narrow ridge of rock which had been left to cover it towards the sea, and soon buried themselves in the wall. On the 30th the mines were sprung, breaching the wall and partially filling in the ditch, and the British stormers soon made themselves masters of the Citadel. Its fall was very shortly followed by that of Havannah itself, and the Marines, who it is reported, had proved very serviceable, were re-embarked. Much booty fell to the victors including a great deal of gold and silver pieces which arrival in London was conducted to the Tower in Eleven wagons, each guarded by 4 Marines and surmounted by a Union Jack flying above a Spanish Ensign. Each Private soldier’s prize money amounted to £4 1s. 8d. while the total amount was valued at £368 11s. 6d.

1762. Saturday 24th July. The loss of HMS Chesterfield.

1762. Friday 13th August. Havana capitulated.

1762. Wednesday 1st September. HMS Lion captured the Zephyre.

1762. Sunday 2nd September. Aeolus destroyed the St. Joseph.

1762. Wednesday 15th September. The Battle of Signal Hill was the last battle of the North American theatre of the ‘Seven Years War’. The British commanded by Lieutenant Colonel William Amherst forced the French to surrender St. John's, which they had seized earlier that year in a surprise attack. During 1762 France and Britain had been fighting for eight years, and both were now contemplating a peace agreement. Britain's long blockade of the French coast had forced the French economy into a decline and had prevented the French navy from going to the aid of France's colonies around the globe, leading to a large number being captured.

1762. September. Dianna and Chester with Dutch frigate

1762. The Corps strength at that time was 19,061 men.

1762. Tuseday 5th October. The Capture Manila in the Philippines from the Spanish. A small Military expedition under the Command of Colonel Sir William Draper was transported in a squadron under Admiral Cornish that anchored in Malilla Bay on the 23rd September. The Admiral contributed 500 seamen and 270 (some say 300) Marines to the landing force. After sending in an ineffectual summons to the town, and reconnoitring the coast, no time was lost in commencing operations. The ideal spot, was located two miles to the south of Manilla. It having been pre-selected for the debarkation of the 79th Regiment of Marines and the Artillery .Along with a howitzer and a few fields’ pieces that were placed in the boats which were formed in 3 divisions, under the sterns of 3 frigates which had been detailed to cover the landing. A numbers of Spanish Indians had assembled on the shores to dispute our landing, the men of war opened fire, which compelled them to retire. In spite of a violent surf which dashed many of the boats to pieces, and wet and damaged the muskets, the troops effected their landing. During the night of the 24th they succeeded in establishing themselves in a village called Malata, little more than a mile from the enemy’s works. The day following they pushed forward to occupy Fort Polverista which had been abandoned by the enemy. While Major Monsoon along with the Marines advanced and took possession of the Hermita Church which was close to the city and of considerable strategical importance. Moreover the rainy season having set in, it was necessary to get under protective cover. This point was further reinforced by the 79th Regiment. The Marines garrisoned Forts Polverista and that at Malata which protected the line of communications with the squadron and to guard the stores and heavy Artillery. The Port of Cavite with other dependencies of Manilla were included in the Capitulation, and Captain Champion with 100 Marines and a party of Sepoys were sent as garrison to the former. The total loss was 4 Officers, 2 Sergeant and 25 Privates killed, 1 Lieutenant drowned. 6 Officers, 3 Sergeants and 102 Rank and file were wounded. Among the first were 5 Marines, while Lieutenant Spearing and 6 Private Marines were wounded during these operations. Captain Richard Bishop of the Marines distinguished himself by his bravery and professionalism that Sir William Draper appointed him Governor of the Town of Cavite.

1762. Saturday 23rd October. The Brune took the Oiscau.

1762. Sunday 31st October. The Panther and Argo took the Saintissima Trinidada.

1762. Jane Mace was another lady who attempted to enlist for a Marine. However, she was not as fortunate as Hannah Snell in evading discovery of her sex. Its reported that a lady wearing men’s clothes went to a recruiting party at the ‘Plume and Feathers’ public house and enlisted, she wanted the whole bounty money in hand, but being in want of clothing and other necessaries, they would give her only one shilling till morning, but had a few more drinks and they all ended up in bed. Awaking the next morning she was seen without wearing top clothes. Her correct name was Jane Meace and was well known in the area.

1762. Terpsichore took the Marquise de Marigny.

1762. The loss of HMS Raisonnable.

1762. The loss of HMS Temple and HMS Marlborough.

1762. Forvey took the Ventura.

1763. Saturday 26th March. Lord Hood was appointed Commander of the Chatham division of Marines.

1763. Colonels of Marines received forty shillings per day.

1763. By this time all of France’s allies in Europe had either made a separate peace deal with Prussia or had been defeated. In addition, Spanish attempts to aid France in the Americas had failed, and France also suffered defeats against British forces in India.

1763. Because of the peace the establishment the Marines were reduce to a force of 4,287 men.

1764. Tuseday 3rd July. HMS Dolphin and HMS Tamar sailed on a voyage of Distcovery.

1764. Tuesday 23rd October. The Battle of Buxar was fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company led by Hector Munro, and the combined army of Mir Qasim the Nawab of Bengal: the Nawab of Awadh and the Mughal King Shah Alam II. The battle took place within the territory of Bengal, and the town of Buxar was located on the banks of the river Ganges, about 130km west of Patna. The British troops engaged in the fighting numbered 7,072 comprising of 857 British, 5,297 Indian Sepoys and 918 Indian Cavalry, and 30 cannons. The alliance army's numbers were estimated to be over 40,000men and 140 cannons. It was a decisive victory for the British East India Company that had a casualty list of 1,847 killed or wounded, while the enemy had 10,000 killed or wounded and 6,000 captured and taken prisoner.

1764. Monday 29th October. Plymouth (Uniform). Officers ordered to have Uniform Frocks lapelled with White Cloth with a Deaths Head Button. Waistcoats White with Plain Buttons. Frocks to have a stand up Cape (Collar). Breeches to be of leather and Hats plain with Gilt Buttons and Double Gold Loop. Officers were to agree on a Shoulder Knot.

1764. November. The Nabobs were defeated at Cutwa (Katwa) in West Bengal India.

1764. A Board of General Officers recommended that the Grenadiers should lay aside their swords, as that weapon had never been used during the ‘Seven Years War’. Since that period the arms of the infantry soldier have been limited to the musket and bayonet.

1765. Friday 5th April. The Marines underwent another name change and their roll within the navy. Their new title was changed to His Majesty's Marine Forces and they became the Marine Infantry for the Royal Navy. The Corps was finally established as an integral part of the Royal Naval. After which the Marine force consisted of fifty companies that were split into three Divisions. Each division's headquarters were based in Chatham, Portsmouth and Plymouth, all under the Admiralty's control. In which they took part in many landings and battles all over the world.

1765. Thursday 29th August. Plymouth (Uniform). At an inspection by the Duke of Gloucester, Officers were ordered to wear their Laced Uniforms, Coats, Waistcoat and Hat, White Breeches and Boots. The men to have on Spatter-dashes and their Caps, Tops perfectly clean and well dressed.

1766 - 1769. The First Anglo Mysore War was fought in India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the British East India Company.

1766. Wednesday 9th July. HMS Dolphin and HMS Tamar returned from trip around the world.

1766. Sunday 20th July. Plymouth (Uniform). The men were ordered to wear White Stockings and Short Spatterdash tops.

1766. August. HMS Dolphin and HMS Swallow on a voyage of discovery.

1767. Twenty companies were added to the Corps, making 110 companies, and the total number of established at 11,419 men.

1767. Monday 12th January. The Royal Marines Band was formed at Plymouth (3rd Grand Division).

1767. Monday 25th May. Plymouth (Uniforms). The Officers to make Uniform Frocks with White Lapels, and Cuffs, the White of the lapels to be each a full three inches depth. The Cuff to be close and round, with four buttons and four button holes. The same number of holes to be on the Pocket of the Coat and Waistcoat. On the hip and Side Plates four Buttons. A White turned down Collar, the waistcoat and Breeches White Cloth. The lining of the Coat and waistcoat, White Shaloon. A plain double gilt Button of the same pattern as may be seen at the Adjutants Office. Each officer’s Coat of the Battalion to have a Gold Fringe Epaulet on the right shoulder and the Grenadier Officers to have one on each shoulder.

1768. The Corps was further increased to 140 companies, amounting to 14,845 men.

1768. May. HMS Dolphin returned from voyage of discovery.

1768. Friday 3rd June. Plymouth (Uniform). Officers ordered to wear their Frocks with Skirts turned back, short Spatterdashes and hair queued. The men to wear White Breeches and Short Spatterdashes, their New Hats and their hair plaited and turned inside their Hats.

1768. Saturday 11th June. The Band was ordered to wear white breeches and stockings with black buckled garters at Guard Mounting. The first dated reference to a Marine Band at Portsmouth (The 2nd Grand Division) although it is believed that a band was formed there in 1765.

1768. July. HMS Endeavour sailed on a voyage of discovery.

1768. Friday 26th August. Captain Cook and his ship HMS Endeavour left Plymouth carrying 94 men and 18 months of provisions. Cook had been chosen to lead an expedition to the South Seas to observe the Transit of Venus and to secretly search for the unknown Great Southern Continent (terra Australis incognita 1768 – 1771). HMS Endeavour travelled via Madeira (September), Rio de Janiero (November-December) and Tierra del Fuego (January 1769) to Tahiti.

The Marine detatchment joined HMS Endeavour at Plymouth Tuesday16th August 1768.

Edgcumbe. John Sergeant
Truslove. John Corporal
Rossiter. Thomas Drummer
Judge. William Private
Paul. Henry Private
Bremer. Michael Private
Preston. Daniel Private
Wilshire. William Private
Greenslade. William Private
Gibson. Samuel Private
Dunster. Thomas Private
Webb. Clement Private
Bowles. John Private

1769. Friday 17th March. Chatham (Uniform). No Military compliments to be paid by the Marine Guards or Centinels when on duty to any officer of the Land Force or Marines, unless such officers are dressed in Scarlet with swords, nor to any officers of H.M. Fleet unless they are dressed in Blue with swords.

1769. March. HMS Swallow returnd from a voyage of discovery.

1769. Monday 15th May. Plymouth (Uniform). Officers ordered to wear their White Coats without and lace or embroidery, Hats with New Pattern Lace two Epaulets with no distinctions of rank. Gorgets when ordered

1769. June. A French ship made to Salute in the Downs.

1769. Tuesday 12th September. Plymouth (Uniform).  Officers to get New Uniform Gorgets (Silver).

1769. Sunday 1st October. Plymouth (Uniform). Men to wear Red Breeches and Long Spatterdashes to mount a Guard in.

1770. The afternoon of Sunday 29th April. A small detachment of 13 Marines landed with Captain Cook at Botany Bay in New South Wales Australia. There have always been stories that spoke of a Marine being first out of the boat as it beached, to hold it steady. However, it was Isaac Smith, who became the first European to set foot on Eastern Australian soil. As the ship's boat touched the shore, Cook is reputed to have said "Jump out, Isaac". Isaac Smith was a very young man at the time, but a month later on Wednesday 23rd May 1770, he was promoted to midshipman following James Magra's suspension on suspicion of having assaulted Captain Cook's clerk.

1770. July. Fire at portsmouth Dockyard.

1770. While in the Americas, affairs of a very serious aspect caught the attention of the British government to the disturbed state of her American colonies, in consequence of a real or pretended right on the part of Great Britain to impose internal taxes. The stamp act was so exceedingly unpopular, that its repeal was absolutely necessary to appease the people, and the tax on tea imported into America was so obnoxious, that every means of opposition was resorted to help get it abolished.

1770. October. Ships laden with tea having arrived at Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Charlestown, and Rhode Island, conveying altogether 2200 chests, the people assembled at different places to concert measures that would prevent the importation, and to compel the consignees, at the risk of their lives and property, to relinquish their employments. In these assemblies, resolutions were passed derogatory to the legislative power of Great Britain, and on the Wednesday18th December a number of armed men, under the disguise of Mohawk Indians, boarded the ships, and threw their valuable cargoes into the sea, but at New York the tea was landed under the protection of the men of war.

1770 - 1780. The Marines uniform of the day. (Taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI.)

Click photo to enlarge

1771. Thursday 7th of March, his Majesty sent a message to Parliament requiring immediate measures for securing the execution of the laws, and just dependence of the colonies upon the crown of Great Britain. The Minister at the same time introduced a bill to take away from Boston the privilege of a party as a punishment for their refractory conduct, reinforcements were sent there, and General Gage was appointed governor of the colony. This restriction on of the inhabitants of Boston raised a spirit of rebellion throughout the continent of America, all were agreed in resisting the collection of any internal tax not imposed by their own assemblies, and to suspend all commercial intercourse with the mother country until their grievances were fully redressed. Deputies were soon afterwards appointed from each province to attend a general congress at Philadelphia, which assembled on Tuesday 6th September, 1774. Among their first resolutions was to acknowledged their dependence, but insisted on their privileges, consenting to those acts of the British legislature which regulated their external commerce, yet insisting, that according to the English constitution, the people had a right to participate in their legislative council, and as the colonies, from various causes, could not be represented in the British Parliament. They were entitled to a free and exclusive legislation in their respective provincial assemblies, in all cases of taxation and internal policy. They recommended to the several provinces the establishment of a national militia, and to raise money for paying those who should bravely hazard their lives in defence of the privileges of America.

1771. When Colonels of Marines were appointed Commandants of divisions the Marines discharged from the service obtained the right of following their trade in any town in the kingdom, except the universities. The Earl of Sandwich succeeded to the office of first Lord of the Admiralty, and his ready attention to the memorials of the Marines, by reviving their hopes of promotion, and restored that spirit of discipline which characterised the battalions sent by his Lordship to America.

1771. Monday 13th May. Plymouth (Uniform). Grenadiers hats to have no lace but to be cocked with white looping with two white tassels on the right side.

1771. Friday 7th June. Plymouth (Uniform). Officers to wear their coats hooked back, to have black gaiters, white stocks or cravats, and their hair queued.

1772. Wednesday 11th March. Plymouth (Uniform). Waist belts are ordered to be altered to cross belts.

1772. Sunday 5th April. HMS Resolution and HMS Adventure sailed on a voyage of discovery.

1772. Sunday 17th May. Plymouth (Uniform). Surgeons are ordered to wear red coats with a red cape (Collar), and lapels, Marine uniform buttons, white waistcoats, white breeches, with black buckled garters, when on duty, uniform hats and swords.

1772. Saturday 30th May. Plymouth (Uniform). Officers to wear their coats long waisted with short shirts in the present Military Fashion, white stocks and black ribbands round the neck, their hair queued, hats laced and cocked smartly with silver cord, band and Tassels. Their garters are to be made of black satin, three quarters of an inch wide, and lined with white linen.

1772. July – 1775. HMS Resolution Commanded by Captain Cook, and HMS Adventure Commanded by Lieutenant Furneaux, set sail from Britain, via Madiera (July - August) and Cape Town, South Africa (October - November), towards the Antarctic in search of the Great Southern Continent.

The Marine detachment that joined HMS Resolution
Edgcumbe. John Second Lieutenant Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Hamilton. John Sergeant Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Beard. Robert Corporal Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Brotherson. Philip Drummer Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Scott. James Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Commena. ? Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Baldy. Richard Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Phillips. John Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Carpenter. Richard Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Tow. William Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Harper. John Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Wedgeborough. William Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Waterfield. Richard Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Woodward. George Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Twitty. Charles Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Taylor. Francis Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Duttall. John Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Monk. William Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
McVicar, Archibald Private Joined Sheerness 29th May 1772
Gibson. Samuel Corporal Joined Plymouth 9th July 1772
Taylor. Isaac Private Joined Plymouth 9th July 1772

The Marine detachment that joined HMS Adventure

Mollineux. John Sergeant  
Mills. Alexander Corporal  
Lane. John Drummer  
Lear. Daniel Private  
Stewart. Donald Private  
Allden. William Private  
Reed. Richard Private  
Thomas. John Private  
Kearney. William Private  
Sommerfield. Bonaventure Private  
Rosa. Alexander Private  
Scott. James 2/Lt. Promoted 11th June 1772. Joined 7th July from HMS Resolution

1773. Wednesday 12th May. Chatham (Uniform). Officers on joining Quarters who lately are or shall be appointed to this Division may know the proper uniform they are to appear in upon Guard and in the Field of Exercise on General Field Days, the Comg. Officer finds it necessary to insert the following Mode of Dress which he expects every Officer will strictly observe.
Uniform Coat, White Waistecoats and Breeches, Silver Laced Hat with Silver Band and Loopings, Black Stock, Black Silk Buckle Garters, Sash Gorget, Uniform Sword and Knot. Half Gaiters except when long ones are particularly ordered. Shoulder Sword Belt with Clasp. Belt and Pouch to be worn over the Coat same as Private men. Battalion Officers Hair queued. Grenadiers and Light Infantry platted and tucked.

1773. Wednesday 2nd June. George III. reviewed the Fleet at Portsmouth.

1773. HMS Racehorse and HMS Carcass sailed for the North Pole.

1774. During the latter part of the year the Americans were making great preparations for resistance; and they scrupled not to declare their intention of attacking Boston when the ice on the river became strong enough to bear their weight, but as it did not freeze hard enough during the winter, they postponed their plans until the spring of 1775. To prevent being taken by surprise, the neck of land which leads into Boston from Roxbury, was carefully fortified by the British and Admiral Graves, by placing the Somerset in the ferry way between the two towns. This overawed the inhabitants of Charlestown, and prevented any attack from that side. The fleet under Vice Admiral Graves consisted of four sail of the line and a great many smaller vessels, which was greatly dispersed, but so disposed as to afford all the protection possible to his Majesty's loyal subjects in the colonies.

1775 to 1783. The American Revolutionary War was an armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its former North American colonies, which had declared themselves the Independent United States of America. Early fighting took place primarily on the North American continent. However, in 1778 France was eager for revenge after its defeat against the British in 1763, and signed an alliance with the United States of America. The conflict quickly escalated into a much larger war with Britain combating France, Spain, and the Netherlands.

1775. Wednesday 8th February. Plymouth (Uniform). Officers of the Battalion ordered to America are instructed to provide themselves with Long leather Gaiters with Hessian tops. The men who are going are to have long Black Gaiters with buttons, and also short ones. They are to have Knapsacks and a Manchester Velvet Stock with Buckle for the Grenadiers and a Clasp for the rest.

1775. Wednesday 5th April. The Marines underwent another name change and roll within the navy. Their new title was changed to 'His Majesty's Marine Forces' and they became the Marine Infantry for the Royal Navy. The Corps was finally established as an integral part of the Royal Naval. After which the Marine force consisted of fifty companies that were split into three Divisions. Each division's headquarters were based in Chatham, Portsmouth and Plymouth, all under the Admiralty's control. In which they took part in many landings all over the world.

1775. Per Mare Per Terram (‘By Sea, By Land’), the motto of the Marines, is believed to have been used for the first time during 1775.

1775. Wednesday 19th April. Major Pitcairn orders his Marines to advance toward Concord to seize the rebel held town. While passing through Lexington an officer unwisely fired towards the local militia. In the skirmish that followed eight militia men were killed in what were to be the first shots fired of the American war of Independence. While advancing further towards Concord more skirmishes took place that forced Major Pitcairn to return to Boston, after many of his force expended their issue of 36 rounds of ammunition. They had suffered 73 dead and over 200 wounded. Later their numbers where increased with the arrival of a Brigade of three Regiments of Marines who had marched 30 miles in under ten hours.

1775. Saturday 20th May. The following is an extract from the Marine Battalion orders of the: "The Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, having directed a reinforcement of Marines to serve under Major Pitcairne in General Gage's Army, consisting of 2 Majors, 10 Captains, 27 Subalterns, 2 Adjutants, 1 Surgeon, 2 assistant-Surgeons, 28 Sergeants, 25 Corporals, 20 Drummers, 600 Privates. The Commanding Officer deems it necessary, for the good of the service, to form the whole under his command into two battalions:

Officers off 1st Battalion   Officers of 2nd Battilion
  Grenadiers  
Thomas Avare Capt..   George Logan
William Finney. 1st Lieut.   Alexander Brisbane
George Vevers. 1st Lieut.   Francis Gardner
  First Company  
Stawel Chudleigh. Capt.   Hon. John Maitland. Capt.
Richard Shea.1st Lieut.   Jesse Adair. 1st Lieut.
 ?? Hewes. 1st Lieut.   Roland Carter. 1st Lieut.
  Second Company  
Stephen Ellis. Capt.   Charles Chandless. Capt.
James Robertson. 1st Lieut.   Fenton Griffiths, 1st Lieut.
P. D. Robertson. 2nd Lieut.   Henry D'Oyley. 2nd Lieut.
  Third Company  
Thomas Lindsay. Capt.   Thomas Groves. Capt.
William Lycett.1st Lieut.   John Hadden. 1st Lieut.
David Collins. 2nd Lieut.   Titus Conyers. 1st Lieut.
  Fourth Company  
William Forster. Capt.   Samuel Davys. Capt.
William Graham. 1st Lieut.   Walter Nugent. 1st Lieut.
Isaac Potter. 2nd Lieut.   Robert Carey. 2nd Lieut.
  Fifth Company  
Robert Ross. Capt.   Edward Henvill. Capt.
Charles Steward. 1st Lieut.   Thomas Biggs. 1st Lieut.
Jonas Mathews. 1st Lieut.   James Lewis. 2nd Lieut.
  Sixth Company  
William Sabine. Capt.   George Elliott. Capt.
B. M'Donald. 2nd Lieut.   Alex. M'Donald. 1st Lieut.
Henry Tantum. 2nd Lieut.   John France. 1st Lieut.
  Seventh Company  
J. H. Branson. Capt.   Archer Walker. Capt.
William Creswell. 1st Lieut.   James Anderson. 1st Lieut.
Thomas Trollope. 2nd Lieut.   Robert Moore. 2nd Lieut.
  Eighth Company  
John Perceval. Capt.   John M'Fie. Capt.
Aaron Eustace. 1st Lieut.   SirJ.Dalston. 1st Lieut.
Thos. Woodcock. 2nd Lieut.   Francis Dogherty. 1st Lieut.
  Light Infantry  
W. Souter. Capt.   Archibald Campbell. Capt.
William Pitcairne. 1st Lieut.   John Dyer. 2nd Lieut.
Philip Howe. 2nd Lieut.   N. H. Nicholas. 2nd Lieut.
  Adjutant  
John Waller. 1st Lieut.   John Fielding. 1st. Lieut.
  Quartermaster  
J. Pitcairne. 1st Lieut.   Thomas Smith. 1st Lieut.

Captain David Johnston, Superintendent, Adjutant, and Deputy Paymaster to the 2nd Battalion.
?? Hill, Surgeon to the 2nd Battalion; William Tervant and ?? Silven, surgeon's mates.
The following regulations for the payment of companies were notified in the battalion orders of Saturday 3rd June: "The Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having directed, by their letter to Major Pitcairne of the 2nd March last, that the Captain of Marines commanding companies on shore at Boston should pay their companies in the same manner as practised by the land forces, the Captains or Commanding Officers of companies will receive from Captain Johnstone, Deputy Paymaster, one month's subsistence for the non-commissioned officers and private men of their respective companies, deducting 1s - 51/2p. per week each for provisions and the usual stoppages, as directed by the Admiralty:
For one Sergeant, 2 pence per week
For one Corporal or Drummer 1 and a half pence per week.
For one Private 1 pence per week.
Captains are to give the Deputy Paymaster complete monthly pay rolls, accounting for the subsistence distributed to their companies, and specifying every particular casualty that has happened in each company during the preceding month, and to commence this day.”

1775. May. The Boston garrison was cut off by the American Rebels. However, their numbers were boosted upon the arrival of a further 750 Marines. Finally their numbers were considered strong enough to advance on to Bunkers Hill and face the rebels who were camped there and ready to meet them head on. Major Pitcairn’s plan was to clear the hill and to then move on to the harbour.

1775. Saturday 17th June. The start of the Battle of Bunker Hill. The battle took place on the Charlestown Peninsula on the North side of Boston Harbour. During which the Marines and Sailors took to the ship's small boats to repel attackers who were also using their own small boats against the Royal Navy ships that were taking part in a closed blockade and had become becalmed. While on land other battles were taking place. Major John Pitcairn led a force of 300 Marines that included drummers. While advancing they crossed another line of Infantry, who were being pushed back by heavy fire. Waving his sword Pitcairn is reported to have told them to "Break, and let the Marines through". He then urged his men forward with the words "Now for the glory of the Marines". He was then hit by enemy fire and fell wounded into the arms of his son William Pitcairn. He later died from heavy blood lost, aged 52. A contemporary report said, 'The reputation of the Marines was never more nobly sustained. Their unshaken steadiness was conspicuous and their valour in closing with the enemy when part of the attacking column wavered gained them not only the admiration of their comrades but the commendation of their distinguished chief. The Battle of Bunker Hill rates very highly amongst the Marines major battle honours. Although commonly referred to as the battle of Bunker Hill, some of the fighting took place on the nearby Breed’s Hill. The British suffered around 1,150 killed and wounded while the American casualties were estimated at only 450 killed and wounded. A Silver medal was presented to Captain Ewing of the Marines after being wounded during the battle. The American War of Independence was to continue until 1783.

1775. Tuesday 19th December. Boston (Uniform). The Captains to receive the Arm, Clothing and Accoutrements of their effectives, the clothing to be fitted by Company’s agreeable to the Pattern, but no part of it to be worn till the whole are furnished when an order will be given for that purpose, a Pattern Hat will be fixed upon from one of those already cocked, and each Battalion will find Proper persons to cock the rest, as nearly like as possible. No man to be brought to the Parade or Guard that has not got his Hat Laced, and Band, Black Stock and Leggings. Black Garters are ordered for the Men of duty, and Captains are recommended to see their men’s hair properly cut and their Hats cleaned with Spruce Beer.

1775 - 1782. The First Anglo-Maratha War was the first of three fought between the British East India Company and Maratha Empire in India.

1775. To help put down the rebellious American colonies a Battalion of Marines commanded by Major Pitcairn was dispatched to Boston, where the infamous Tea Party incident had taken place, two years earlier.

1775. Fighting also broke out in India between the British East India Company and the French allied Kingdom of Mysore.

1775. The loss of the Pomona and the Ferret.

1775. The capture of the Bolton by American privateers.

1775. The loss of the Savage.

1776. Monday 1st January. Liverpool and consorts burnt Norfolk Virginia.

1776. Saturday 6th April. HMS Glasgow engaged American Squadron.

1776. Wednesday 17th April. Halifax (Uniform).The O.C. desires the Captains will take care to have the Arms, Accoutrements and Appointments of their men, in perfect order on Tuesday next, as the General intend to see both Battalions on that day. When it’s expected that every man will have a Clean Shirt with a Frill to it, a good Black Stock, and a pair of half Gaiters. The Pouches to be slung and polished as soon as possible.

1776. Sunday 21st April. Halifax (Uniform). The Officers of the 1st battalion to wear White Roses in their Gorgets and to provide themselves with them immediately. They are like wise to wear their hair (when under arms or on Duty) in a short Club.

1776. May. The loss of Actacon (?)

1776. May. The Bombardment of Charleston.

1776. Friday 12th July. The voyage of HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery. Captain Cook set sail in a repaired HMS Resolution along with HMS Discovery Commanded by Charles Clerke, in search of the ‘North West Passage’. On the way to Cape Town South Africa HMS Resolution stopped at Tenerife to top up on supplies, eventually arriving on the 17th October. Immediately upon arrival HMS Resolution had it re-caulked because it had been leaking badly, especially through the main deck. Mean time HMS Discovery had been delayed in London, and did not follow Cook until 1st August. When HMS Discovery finally arrived on 10th November she was also found to be in need of re-caulking. The HMS Discovery was the smallest of Cook’s ships and was manned by a crew of sixty-nine. The two ships were repaired and restocked with a large number of livestock. They then sailed in company on 1st December and on 13th December located and named the Prince Edward Islands. Twelve days later Cook found the Kerguelen Islands which he failed to find on his second voyage. Driven by strong westerly winds they reached Van Diemen's Land on 26th January 1777.

The Marine detachment on HMS Resolution

Phillips. Molesworth Second Lieutenant Chatham Division 12 June 1776
Gibson. Samuel Sergeant Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Thomas. James Corporal Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Ledyard, John Corporal Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
James. John Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Harrison. John Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Hinks. Theophilus Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Brown. Richard Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Scruse. William Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Girley. Thomas Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
McDonald. John Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Jackson. John Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Morris. Thomas Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Allen. John Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Fatchett. Thomas Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Perkins. John Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
McLeod. John Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Carley. Isaac Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Harford. Thomas Private Plymouth Division 9th July 1776
Portsmouth. Michael Drummer Joined 11th July 1776

The Marine detachment on HMS Discovery

Kich. James Sergeant  
Harrison. George Corporal  
Kerwin. Christopher Private  
(or Kervin)    
Moody. George Private  
Thompson. Hamlet Private  
Randall. William Private Corporal 23rd Sept on death of Harrison.G
Herriott. John Private  
Brown. William Private  
Holloway. Jeremiah Drummer Joined at Plymouth 12 July 1776.
Broom. William Private Joined at Plymouth 24 July 1776.
Newman. Michael Private ) Joined at Plymouth 29 July 1776.
Poole. James Private Joined at Plymouth 29 July 1776.

1776. Tuesday 27th August. Long Island. In this action 1 Officer and 20 Marine Grenadiers were captured from having mistaken the blue uniforms of the Americans for those of the Hessians. There were 2 battalions of Marines totalling 1172 men in General Howe’s Army at New York at the time.

1776. September. The Bombardment of New York.

1776. Friday 11th October. Action on lake Champlain.

1776. Friday 6th December. Fire in portsmouth Dockyard.

1776. HMS Repulse lost with all hands off Bermuda.

1776. Corps Strength at that time was 10,129 men. It included six field-officers with their companies, three Lieutenant Colonels and three Majors, but on the formation of the expedition for Botany Bay, whilst four companies were added, those of the field officers remained reduced. On the retirement of Lord Howe, the Earl of Chatham became first Lord of the Admiralty, and in consequence of the presentation of a memorial from the three divisions the field-officers and their companies were restored.

1776. November. Martha’s Vineyard. Taken from Beatson’s M. & N. Memoires: “The Diamond, Captained Fielding, having been driven by the weather into Martha’s Vineyard, sent a boat ashore under a flag of truce. The inhabitants suffered the boat to come within gun shot, and then fired upon her and one man was wounded. To punish this treachery the Diamond’s Marines were landed, and at once attacked and routed a party of the enemy, though strongly posted on a hill and sheltered by rocks and bushes, from behind which they kept up a brisk fire. One Marine was killed and one wounded, while the rebels lost 4 killed and many wounded. The Marines then set fire to their houses and barns and brought off as many oxen, sheep and poultry as they could.”

1776. Pattern 1776 infantry rifle was designed. One thousand are made and issued to British soldiers fighting in the War of American Independence.

1776. From very early times 'Press Gangs' had functioned in order to provide seamen. It was an Admiralty rule, founded upon the believe, that every British male subject was eligible to be pressed into service. However, the principal raids by press gangs were usually on experienced seafarers, particularly those serving aboard merchant vessels. There is little doubt that pressing for the naval service was legal provided the press gangs held a warrant issued in the county and was accompanied by a commissioned officer. There was also lawful protection documents that barred press gangs from taking the person. These were of short tenure and only for necessary skilled craftsmen, men with connections. It’s interesting to note that to this day it has never been repealed.

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Click photo to enlarge

1777. Sunday 18th May. Beaver took Oliver Cromwell.

1777. July. Fox taken by Hancock and Boston.

1777. Monday 18th August. The Rainbow took the Hancock.

1777. Tuesday 19th August. The Flora took the Fox.

1777. Tuesday 4th September. The Druid was attacked by an American frigate.

1777. Monday 22nd September. The Albert took the Lexington.

1777. Wednesday 22nd October. The Augusta and the Merlin blown up.

1777. Friday 26th September. The Capture of Philadelphia. The two Marine Grenadier Companies present with the rest of the Grenadiers belonging to the Army. During the advance on the city the US rebel frigate Delaware ran aground and was taken possession of by a company of Marines under command of Captain Avarne.

1777. Corps strength at that time was 11,829 men.

1778. Monday 9th March. The Ariadine and the Cores took the Alfred.

1778. Friday 24th April. King George visited Chatham and Sheerness.

1778. Thursday 7th May. The Capture of Borden town and the destruction of rebel shipping. Carried out by the Marine Light Infantry under command of Major Hon. John Maitland of the Marines.

1778. Wednesday 17th June. The Milford took the Licorue.

1778. Thursday 18th June. The Foudreyant and consorts captured the Pallas.

1778. Wednesday 8th July. The Lively taken by French Squadron.

1778. Wednesday 8th July. The Ostrich took a French privateer.

1778. Monday 27th July. Keppel and d'Orvilliers off Brest.

1778. Wednesday 29th July. HMS Kingfisher was captured by a French Squadron.

1778. Sunday 9th August. Lord Howe and d'Estaing off Rhode Island.

1778. Monday 10th August. The Siege of Pondicherry was the first military action on the Indian subcontinent following the declaration of war between Great Britain and France in the American War of Independence. A British force besieged the French controlled port of Puducherry, which capitulated after ten weeks of siege.

1778. Sunday 16th August. The Lois engaged the Cesar.

1778. Sunday 16th August. The Vernon and Tranjolly off Coromandel Coast.

1778. Friday 21st August. Pondicherry captured by the Vernon.

1778. Sunday 23rd August. Sartine taken by a British Squadron.

1778. Tuesday 20th October. Jupiter and Medea engaged a french ship.

1778. Wednesday 4th November. Maidstone took Lion.

1778. Tuesday 15th December. Barrington and d'Estaing at St. lucia.

1778. Corps Strength at that time 17,389 men.

1778. The Fox was taken by the Junon.

1778. The Helena was taken by the Sensible.

1778. The Arehusa engaged the Belle Poule.

1778. The Zephyr was captured by a french frigate.

1779. (Uniform). It seems that Silver Lace replaced the Gold Lace for the Officer from 1769, since New Lace is refereed to and Silver Gorgets at the same time. The Lace and Gorgets were always the same colour.

1779. Monday 4th January. Savannah capitulated to the British.

1779. Saturday 30th January. Weazel taken by the Bondeute.

1779. The loss of HMS Arethusa.

1779. Sunday 14th February. The death of Captain Cook (7th November 1728 - 14th February 1779) took place at Kealakakau Bay Hawaii. During his third voyage of exploration in the pacific. He had just landed with a Marine guard consisting of Lieutenant Molesworth Phillips along with four men. The Lieutenant protected Cook for as long as he could from hostile Hawaiians. The Marines were clubbed to death, and Cook was stabbed as he called to the boats crews to hold their fire. Only Phillips escaped back to the safety of the ship.

1779. Sunday 28th February. Apollo took Oiteau.

1779. Monday 21st June. Spain declared War on Great Britain.

1779. Sunday 7th March. HMS Yarmouth destroyed the Randolph.

1779. Sunday 14th March. Rattlesnake took the Fenelon.

1779. Tuseday 6th July. Byron and d'Estaing,

1779. July. The start of the Great Siege of Gibraltar (the fourteenth and last military siege). This was an action by French and Spanish forces to retake control of Gibraltar from the established British Garrison. The garrison, led by George Augustus Eliott, later 1st Baron Heathfield of Gibraltar, survived all attacks and a blockade of supplies.

1779. Sunday 15th August. The French and Spanish fleets off Plymouth.

1779. Monday 16th August. HMS Ardent was captured by the French and Spanish fleets off Plymouth.

1779. Monday 30th August. Boreas took Compas.

1779. September. HMS Experiment taken by French fleet.

1779. Tuesday 14th September. HMS Pearl took the Santa Monica.

1779. Tuesday 21st September. HMS Suffolk and squadron took the Fortunie.

1779. Thursday 23rd September. The Serapis taken by Bon Homme Richard.

1779. Thursday 23rd September. The Countess of Scarborough taken by the Pallas.

1779. Wednesday 6th October. Quebec and Surveillante.

1779. Saturday 9th October. The Defence of Savannah. Seamen and Marines were landed from the men of war present to assist in the defence against the French and Americans. The latter were attached to the Grenadier Company of the 60th Regiment, and occupied a position on the right of the line of entrenchments. The final assault on the works by the French had almost succeeded, but had been checked by the fire of the seamen’s guns. The Marines, with the Grenadiers of the 60th, made such a furious counter attack on a redoubt which had been taken by the enemy that they were driven out in an instant and a general offensive being assumed by the garrison, the enemy’s attack totally failed and shortly afterwards they abandoned the siege.

1779. Saturday 17th October. The storming of Fort Omoa, was a short siege and battle between British and Spanish forces just after Spain had entered the American Revolutionary War on the American side. Following a brief attempt at a siege, a force of 150 British soldiers and seamen assaulted and captured the fortifications at San Fernando de Omoa in the Captaincy General of Guatemala (Honduras) on the Gulf of Honduras. The British forces managed to overwhelm and capture the Spanish garrison, consisting of 365 men. The British only held the fort until November. After which they withdrew from the garrison, being badly affected by tropical diseases that reduced their numbers, and was also under threat of a strong Spanish counter-attack.
An expedition, consisting of detachments of Loyal Irish, Marines from the HMS Charon, HMS Pomona, HMS Lowestoft and HMS Porcupine Frigates, and 250 armed slaves, 500 men in all commanded by Captain Dalrymple sailed from Truxillo Bay on the Sunday 10th October, arriving at Porto Cavallo Bay on the 11th. During the evening the troops were landed with the intention of attacking Port Omoa that night. However, the roads proved so intricate and rugged that they did not arrive until after day break. After a short halt they again moved forward, but still had to encounter passes and defiles similar to those which had obstructed their night march. While having to contend Skirmishes with local Indians as they advanced. Learning from some prisoners that the enemy were drawn up in a position ready to resist their attack. It was arranged that the Marines and the Loyal Irish should over take the column, and then advance rapidly supported by the reserve. The order was instantly carried out, and the Spaniards, after discharging their muskets fled, some headed for the fort, while others took to the woods, and the town. From the heights upon which the troops now stood there was a full view of the fort, situated about half a mile from the Port Omoa at the bottom of the hill. The enemy were constantly firing from the town. Captain Dalrymple carried out his orders to destroying the place. While it was in flames the squadron came into the bay and endeavoured to get into position to batter the fort, the land forces seconding their efforts, but the latter were unable to effect very much owing to the scaling ladders not arriving in time. HMS Lowestoft went aground and both she and HMS Charon suffered severely from the enemy’s fire. However, it was determined to continue the attack, and at 3 in the morning of the 20th the storming party consisting of 150 strong was in position for the assault. It was arranged in four parallel columns, four guides at the head of each, two of the columns consisting of seamen and two of Marines with a few Loyal Irish. Upon an agreed signal from HMS Charon that she was under way, and would attack in twenty minutes. The columns of assault moved off covered by the fire of the shipping. It was now 4 am. The Spaniards did not observe the columns movement but concentrated their fire upon the squadron and the guns which had been placed in a battery on the hills. In profound silence, with trailed arms, the English approached the enemy’s sentries undiscovered, but suddenly their drums beat to arms. Their ladders being quickly planted against the wall, 28 feet high, surmounted by a battery of 5 guns, the seamen rapidly ascended, and being reinforced by Marines, the Spaniards fled to the casemates, while about a hundred escaped by a Sallyport, The Governor and the officers then delivered up their swords to Captain Dalrymple, and the garrison, along with the ships in port, surrendered.

1779. Sunday 24th October. Proserpine took Alcuiene. (?)

1779. Thursday 11th November. HMS Tartar took Santa Marguritta.

1779. Sunday 21st November. HMS Hussar took N.S. del Buen Confegio.

1779. Sunday 12th December. Salisbury took San Carlos.

1779. Saturday 18th December. Parker and de la Motte off Fort royal.

1779. HMS Glasgow burnt.

1779. HMS Ariel taken by the Amazone.

1779. Ruby, Aeolus and Jamaica took Prudente.

1779. Corps Strength at that time 18,779 men.

1780 to 1784. The ‘Forth Anglo Dutch War’ was a conflict between Great Britain and the Dutch Republic. The conflict was related to the American Revolutionary War, and broke out over British and Dutch disagreements on the legality and conduct of the Dutch trading with Britain's enemies during that war.

1780 to 1784. A conflict between the Kingdom of Mysore in India and the British East India Company. Mysore’s main ally was France, who at that time was at war with the British.

1780. Corps Strength was 146 Companies each of 118 Privates and 4 Drummers. Approximately 584 Drummers in the Corps.

1780. Sunday 2nd January. Captain Fielding exacted the right of search from Couat Bylandt.

1780. Sunday 16th January. The Marines were involved in the Battle of St Vincent against the Spanish off the southern coast of Portugal. A British fleet under Admiral Sir George Rodney commanding 18 ships of the line defeated a Spanish squadron of 11 Ships Commanded by Don Juan de Lángara. The Spanish, who were at war with the British because they had chosen to back the American rebels in the War for Independence. The British suffer 32 killed and 102 wounded, while the Spanish suffered 1 ship destroyed, 4 ships captured and 2,500 men captured, killed or wounded.

1780. Monday 13th March. Alexander and Courageux took Monsieur.

1790. Monday 20th March. Cornwallis chased by La Motte Piquet off St. Domingo.

1780. Wednesday 12th April. HMS Rodneys Victory off Cape St. Vincent.

1780. Monday 17th April. Rodney engaged de Guichen in the West indies. The Battle of Martinique in the West Indies took place during the American War of Independence between the British Royal Navy and the French Navy.

1780. Friday 9th May. Rodney engaged de Guichen in the West indies.

1780. Friday 12th May. The Battle and Capture of Charleston was one of the major battles which took place towards the end of the American Revolutionary War, after the British began to shift their strategic focus towards the American Southern Colonies. After six weeks of siege, a continental Army led by Major General Benjamin Lincoln surrendered his forces numbering about 5,000 to the British.

1780. Saturday 1st July. HMS Romney took Artois.

1780. Tuesday 4th July. The French 32 gun frigate La Capricieuse was captured by the British frigates HMS Prudente and HMS Licorne. After a four hour battle in which the French lost her Captain and 150 men were killed and wounded. The ship was so knocked about that her captors had to set her on fire. The British ships lost 20 killed and 28 wounded between them. Captain Waldegrave of HMS Prudente made the following report on the behaviour of his detachment of Marines: “in justice to Lieutenant Banks of the Marines, I must beg leave to observe to their Lordships, that his party behave with upmost steadiness and bravery, keeping up a regular and constant fire from the beginning of the action, till necessity called them to the great guns, when they showed an equal share of spirit and good order.”

1780. Thursday 6th July. HMS Romney took Perle.

1780. Friday 14th July. Nonsuch destroyed a Frigate and took Belle Foule.

1780. Thursday 10th August. The fight between the HMS Flora and the Nymphe. Every one of HMS Floras Marine detachment were killed in the capture of the French ship Nymphe. With two masts gone, Monmouth’s wounded Captain was one of only five left alive on the quarter and poop deck. All including the senior Lieutenant of Marines had been killed. The same fate had befell all below on the gun deck.

1780. Saturday 12th August. Rienfaisant took Comte d' Artois.

1780. Tuesday 12 September. Vestal took Phoenix.

1780. Saturday 30th September. Pearl took Esperrance.

1780. Monday 2nd October. Stirling Castle, Thunderer, Phoenix, Deal Castle and Endeavour were lost.

1780. Tuesday 10th October. Laurel, Scarborough, Andromeda, and Blanche were lso in the West Indies.

1780. Thursday 2nd November. Zephyr took Senigal, late Racehorse.

1780. November. Sartine lost off Mangalore.

1780. Wednesday 20th December. A ‘Fourth Anglo-Dutch War’ took place from 1780 to 1784 over secret Dutch trade and negotiations with the American colonies, then in revolt against England.

1780. Wednesday 20th December. The English quickly took advantage off the newly declared Dutch war and captured key Dutch possessions in the West and East Indies, while imposing a powerful blockade of the Dutch coast.

1780. December. Bellona took Princess Caroline.

1781. January. Warwick took Rotterdam.

1781. Thursday 4th January. Courageux and Alexander took Minerve.

1781. Tuesday 23rd January. HMS Culloden lost on Long Island.

1781. Sunday 29th January. Wilmington surrendered to the Blonde and consorts.

1781. Friday 3rd February. St. Eustatia taken by HMS Rodney.

1781. HMS Monarch took Mars and Dutch convoy.

1781. March. Cerberus took Grana.

1781. Thursday 16th March. Arbuthnot engaged de Terney.

1781. Monday 16th April. Johnstone attacked by Suffren in Porto Praya Bay.

1781. Friday 20th April. Resource re-took Unicorn.

1781. Sunday 29th April. Hood engaged De Grasse off Martinique.

1781. Wednesday 2nd May. Canada took Santa Leocadia.

1781. Tuesday 8th May. Mentor and Port Royal captured by the Spaniards.

1781. Monday 14th May. Nonsuch, 64, engaged Actif, 74.

1781. Monday 28th May. Atalanta and Trepassey taken by American frigate USS Alliance.

1781. Wednesday 30th May. Crescent taken by Brielle, but re-taken by Flora.

1781. Wednesday 30th May. Flora took Castor.

1781. Wednesday 20th June. Castor and Crescent taken by the Dutch.

1781. Monday 16th July. Charleston, Allegiance, and Vulture engaged Astree and Hermione.

1781. August. Southampton engaged Surveillante.

1781. Wednesday 1st August. Pelican lost off Morant Keys.

1781. Sunday 5th August. Hyde Parker engaged Zoutman on the Dogger Bank. Marines were involved in the only significant engagement of the war, when a small Dutch force won a victory off Dogger Bank in the English Channel.
A letter of the engagement from H. Parker: "Yesterday we fell in with the Dutch squadron, with a large convoy, on the Dogger bank. I was happy to find I had the wind of them, as the great number of their large frigates might otherwise have endangered my convoy. Having separated the men of war from the merchant ships, and made the signal to the last to keep their wind, I bore away with the general signal to chase. The enemy formed their line, consisting of eight two decked ships; ours, including the HMS Dolphin, consisting of seven. Not a gun was fired on either side until within the distance of half musket shot, the Fortitude being then abreast of the Dutch Admiral, the action began and continued with unceasing fire for three hours and forty minutes, by this time our ships were unmanageable. I made an effort to form the line, in order to renew the action, but found it impracticable, the Bienfaisant had lost her fore topmast, and the HMS Buffalo her fore yard, the rest of the ships were not less shattered in their masts, rigging, and sails. The enemy appeared to be in as bad a condition; both squadrons lay a considerable time near each other, when the Dutch with their convoy bore away for Texel. We were not in a condition to follow them. His Majesty's officers and men behaved with great bravery, nor did the enemy show less gallantry. The Fortitude was extremely well seconded by Captain McCartney in HMS Princess Amelia, but he was unfortunately killed early in the action, Lieutenant Hill has great merit in so well supporting the conduct of his brave Captain. As there was great probability of our coming into action again, Captain MacBride very readily obliged me by taking command of that ship, and I have appointed Mr. Waghorne, my first Lieutenant, to the command of HMS Artois. This gentleman, although much hurt in the action, refused to leave my side while it lasted. Captain Graeme, of HMS Preston has lost an arm. (In closed) I transmit a list of the killed and wounded, and an account of the damage sustained by the ships. "The enemy's force was, I believe, much superior to what their Lordships apprehended; and I flatter myself they will be satisfied that we have done all that was possible with ours. The frigates this morning discovered one of the Dutch men of war sunk in twenty two fathoms water, her top gallant masts were above the surface, which Captain Patton has struck and brought to me on board. I believe she was the second ship of the line of 74 guns."

1781. Tuesday 7th August. Medea took Belisarius.

1781. Thursday 9th August. Isis took Trumbull.

1781. Friday 17th August. George III. visited the fleet at the Nore.

1781. Sunday 19th August - 4th February 1782. The defence of Fort St. Philip Minorca was conducted by a small Corps of 430 Marines and Sailors when the Spanish blocked the harbour.
Beatson’s M. & N. Memoirs: “A small Corps of Marines and Sailors belonging to such of His Majesty’s ships as chanced to be here when the Spaniards blocked up the harbour, were of great service during the siege, and being more accustomed to live on salted provisions, they kept their health much better than the other troops in the garrison.”
One of the charges against General Murray the Governor of the Island, when called to account for Its loss, was that in order to make out that he had a garrison weaker than it really was, he suppressed in his report to the Secretary of State: “The mention of the Marines Corps, which alone consisted of 430 fit for duty, with 125 Artillery men, besides Greeks, Algerines and Corsicans.”
Lieutenants Davis and Crew, 3 Sergeants and 54 Privates were killed in the defence, and Captain Harman and Lieutenant Hodges were wounded.

1781. Sunday 26th August. Richmond and Isis taken by the French.

1781. Wednesday 5th September. Graves engaged De Grasse off the Chesapeake.

1781. Thursday 6th September. Savage, 14, taken by Congress, 20.

1781. Chatham took Magicienne.

1781. Friday 26th October. Hannibal took Neckar.

1781. Monday 8th October. The first reference to a Marine Band at Chatham (the 1st Grand Division) although it is believed that a Fife Drum Band was formed there in 1773.

1781. Sunday 21st October. 3,200 of the East India Company’s troops were at Nagore and Vice Admiral Sir Edward Hughes landed the Marines of the squadron that was 443 strong. The next day 827 seamen along with two 24 pounders, twelve 18 pounders, two12 pounders, two 10 inch and six 5-1/2 mortars. The Marines who, on landing immediately joined the land forces, co-operated to the utmost, and during the Siege of Negapatam, were unrivalled in their gallantry, as well as performing most important services, in landing with the utmost difficulty and danger, through the surf, guns and mortars for the batteries on shore.

1781. Monday 29th October – 11th November. An attack was made upon Negapatam by 3200 troops, under the Command of Major General Sir Hector Munro, K.B. assisted by a squadron of five ships of the line under Vice Admiral Sir Edward Hughes. On the Sunday 2lst October the Marines disembarked from the ships, amounting to 443 men, including officers, and immediately joined the army at Nagore, on the sea coast. On the following day 800 seamen, under Captains Mackenzie, and H. Keynolds, were also placed under the orders of Sir Hector Munro, and the artillery, with stores necessary for the siege, were with much difficulty landed through the surf. The general, having invested the place in the best manner his scanty force would admit, determined on an assault; and on the Thursday 29th of October the strong lines which the enemy had thrown up were stormed, and carried by the steady and distinguished bravery of our troops. On Saturday 3rd November the approaches were commenced, and on the Wednesday 7th a battery of 10 eighteen-pounders was ready to open fire. During the course of the siege, the enemy made two desperate sallies with the greater part of the garrison, but they were beaten back with great loss. On Saturday 10th the batteries opened with so much effect upon the bastion, in which a breach was to be made, that the enemy proposed to capitulate, and on the Sunday 11th November both town and citadel were taken possession of by the British troops. The garrison consisted of 8000 men, but of these only 600 were Europeans, and about 2000 were the troops of Hyder Ali, who fled on the first charge made on the enemy's lines. The loss sustained by the British during the siege of Negapatam was 28 killed, and about 100 wounded. The Marines and seamen were re-embarked on board the ships and prepared for an attack of the Dutch settlement of Trincomale, which did not take place until the following year.

1781. Admiral Hughes dispatched his Squadrons of Marines to support the East India troops during the capture of Negapatam.

1782. Friday 11th January. The Capture of Trincomale. After the capture of Negapatam, the tempestuous state of the weather retarded the intended departure of the squadron of Sir Edward Hughes to attack the Dutch settlement of Trincomale, on the island of Ceylon, but the squadron having embarked 30 Artillery men, and 600 volunteer Sepoys, put to sea on the Thursday 3rd January from the roads of Negapatam, and arrived in the bay of Trincomale on the 4th. Early in the morning the Marines, with 2 six-pounders, were landed, and soon afterwards 800 seamen were disembarked, followed by the Sepoys; and before it became dark, the whole force pushed forward towards TrincomaIe fort. On the same night the Grenadier companies of the Marines, led by Lieutenant Orr, made themselves masters of the fort, by forcing an entry through the gateway at the moment the governor was preparing terms of capitulation. The garrison consisted of only 3 officers and 40 men, but the possession of the fort was important to the future operations of the enterprise as it commanded the only safe landing for stores and provisions from the ships. On Tuesday 8th the seamen and Marines captured a post situated on the top of a high hill commanding Fort Ostenburgy which fortress was also on the summit of a neighbouring eminence that commanded the harbour. Sir Edward Hughes, after sending a second summons to the governor without success ordered the immediate preparation for an assault on the morning of the 11th. Accordingly the storming party, consisting of 460 seamen and Marines, having on their flanks a party of pioneers, with 20 seamen carrying scaling-ladders, and a reserve of three companies of seamen and three of Marines, supported by two field-pieces and the Company's troops, advanced at daylight towards the fort. A Sergeant's party of Marines led the attack, and getting through the embrasures, the Dutch were soon driven from their positions and the fort gained, with the loss of Lieutenant George Long of the navy, and 20 sailors and Marines killed, and Lieutenant Samuel Wolseley of the navy, Lieutenant Samuel one of the Marines, officiating as Brigade Major, and 40 men wounded. The fort mounted above 60 guns, and contained a garrison of 400 men. In the harbour there were two valuable East Indiamen, and 30 smaller vessels. Sir Edward Hughes, in his official report, thus expresses himself on the conduct of the Marines. “The whole of the officers who have been landed from the squadron for the attack of Negapatam and Trincomale, have on all occasions manifested much honour, courage, and good conduct, and the private seamen and Marines have acted with great steadiness and bravery."

1782. Corps Strength at that time was 26,291 men.

1782. January. Hannibal and Chafer captured by the French.

1782. Friday 25th January. Hood attacked three times by De Grasse off Basse Terre.

1782. Saturday 17th February. The Battle of Sadras off Ceylon, was the first of five largely indecisive naval battles fought between a British fleet under Admiral Sir Edward Hughes and French fleet under the Bailli de Suffren off the east coast of India (during the ‘American War of Independence’). The battle was fought near present day Kalpakkam, and was tactically indecisive. Although the British fleet suffered the most damage, and the troop transports that Suffren was protecting were able to land their troops at Porto Novo. The British suffered 32 men killed and 83 wounded, while the French had 30 killed and about 100 wounded.

1782. Friday 16th March. Success took Santa Catalina.

1782. Tuesday 9th April - Friday 12th April. A naval battle that took place during the ‘American War of Independence’, that ended with a victory for the British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir George Rodney, over a French fleet under the Comte de Grasse forcing the French and Spanish to abandon its planned invasion of Jamaica. The British suffered 243 dead, 816 wounded. While the French suffered far worse with 4 ships of the line captured,1 destroyed, 3,000 dead or wounded and 5,000 captured.

1782. Friday 12th April. Rodney defeated De Grasse off Martinique.

1782. Friday 12th April. Lord Rodney’s action off Dominica. Admiral Rodney’s Letter: “I received intelligence that the enemy were embarking their troops on board the ships of war, and concluded that they intended to sail in a few days. Captain Byron of the Andromache, an active and diligent officer, watched their motions with such attention that on the 8th inst. at day light he made out the enemy's signal of coming out and standing to N.W. I instantly made the signal to weigh, and having looked into the Bays of Fort Royal and St. Pierre, I made signal for a general chase, and before day light came up with the enemy under Dominique, where both fleets were becalmed, and continued so for some time. The enemy first got the wind, and stood towards Guadaloupe. My van division, under that gallant officer Sir Samuel Hood, received it next, and stood after them. At nine the enemy began to cannonade my van, which was returned with the greatest briskness. The baffling winds did not permit part of the centre division to get into action with the enemy's rear till half past eleven, and then only the ship next me in line of battle, &c. The enemy's cannonade ceased upon my rear's approach, but not before they had done considerable damage to the ships in the van, and disabled HMS Royal Oak and HMS Montague. The night of the 9th inst. the fleet lay-to to repair their damages. The 10th they continued to turn to windward under a very easy sail, the enemy continuing to do the same; and always had it in their power to come into action, which they cautiously avoided, and rendered it impossible for me to force them in the situation they were in, between the Saints and the island of Dominique. On the 11th, the enemy having gained considerably to the windward, and the wind blowing a fresh steady gale, I made the signal for a general chase to windward, which continued the whole day; and towards sunset one of the enemy's ships, damaged in the late action, falling to leeward, the Count de Grasse bore down with his whole fleet to her protection, which brought him so near that I flattered myself he would give me an opportunity of engaging him next day. With that view I threw out the signal for the form of sailing, and stood with the whole fleet to the southward till two in the morning, then tacked, and had the happiness, at day-light, to find my most sanguine desire was near being accomplished, by my having it in my power to force the enemy to battle. Note from Lord Rodney's narrative contained in a private letter. The 10th of April and the 11th were employed in endeavouring to bring the enemy to battle, and on the 11th, late in the afternoon, the enemy bore down to protect two of their own ships, who were in danger of being cut off. This brought them to the position the Admiral wished; he instantly issued orders to sail during the night in the order of sailing; to put out all lights; to stand to the southward till two in the morning, and then the whole fleet to tack without signal. This deceived the enemy, who had no conception that the British fleet should be so near them at day light, we instantly formed the line of battle on our starboard tack, the enemy formed theirs on the larboard tack, and had made the signal to wear; but the nearness of the British squadron prevented its being put into execution, and the British fleet taking the lee gage, the Admiral made the signal to engage and close."

1782. Sunday 21th April. Hughes engaged Suffren (2nd action).

1782. Sunday 21st April. Foudroyant took Pegase.

1782. Tuesday 23rd April. Queen took Actionnaire.

1782. Friday 5th July. Hughes engaged Suffren (3rd action).

1782. Monday 29th July. Santa Margaritta took Amazone.

1782. Thursday 29th August. The loss of the Royal George, which foundered at Spithead.

1782. Monday 2nd September. Due de Chartres took Aigle, French frigate.

1782. Tuesday 3rd September. Hughes engaged Suffren (4th action).

1782. Wednesday 4th September. The Rainbow took Hebe.

1782. Wednesday 11th September. The Warwick and Lion took Aigle, French frigate.

1782. Friday 13th September. Grand attack upon Gibraltar by the Spaniards. The start of an assault involving 100,000 men, 48 ships and 450 cannon, against the British garrison of Gibraltar survived.

1782. Wednesday 9th October. London and Torbay engaged Scipion, which was run ashore.

1782. The Diamond took Magdalena, Dutch armed ship.

1782. The Alligator taken by Fee.

1782. Friday 11th October. The Relief of Gibraltar by Lord Howe.

1782. November. The Ruby captured the Solitaire.

1782. Saturday 30th November. The British and Americans sign preliminary Articles of Peace.

1782. Thursday 12th December. The Mediator took Alexander.

1782. Thursday 12th December. The Mediator took Menagere.

1782. Monday 23rd December. The Diomede took South Carolina.

1782. The loss of the Blonde.

1782. The Solebay burnt to save her from capture.

1783. January. Leander engaged a French 74.

1783. January. Argo taken by Nymphe and Amphitrite.

1783. February. Hussar took Sybille.

1783. February. St. Albans took Concorde.

1783. Fox took Santa Catalina.

1783. Sunday 2nd March. Resistance took Coquette.

1783. March. There was a Mutiny at Spithead of such extent that it can only be compared with that of the great outbreaks of 1797? Some of the ships company’s notably those of HMS Ganges, HMS Janus, and HMS Proselyte threatened to run their ships on shore and destroy them unless their wages were instantly paid and themselves discharged.

1783. Monday 14th – Friday 18th April. The Capture of the New Providence of Nassau in the Bahamas, took place late in the ‘American War of Independence’, when a Loyalist expedition under the command of Andrew Deveaux set out to retake the Bahamas from the Spanish. The expedition was successful and Nassau fell without a shot being fired. It was one of the last actions of the entire war. 600 Spaniards surrendered that were later repatriated, 7 ships were scuttled and 50 cannons captured.

1783. Friday 20th June. Hughes engaged Suffren (5th action).

1783. Wednesday 3rd September. The United States of America and Great Britain sign the Treaty of Paris thus ending the war between them.

1783. Wednesday 5th November. Loss of Superbe off Tellicherry.

1783. Tuesday 25th November. British troops finally leave New York City.

1783. Stonehouse Barracks in Plymouth was first occupied.

1783. Corps Strength at that time was 26,291 men.

1784. May. The Dutch republic was never able to assemble a proper fleet for combat, and when the war ended the Dutch were at the lowest peak of their power and prestige.

1784. Friday 30th July. Antelope lost off Jamaica.

1784. Sunday 8th August. First mention of a 'Wardroom'.

1784. The peace with the Dutch reduced the establishment to 4,496 Marines, including six field-officers with their companies. Three Lieutenant Colonels and three Majors, on the formation of the expedition to Botany Bay. Whilst four companies were added, the field officers remained reduced. On the retirement of Lord Howe the Earl of Chatham became the first Lord of the Admiralty, and in consequence of the presentation of a memorial from the three divisions, the field officers and their companies were restored.

1785. Thursday 6th October. Loss of Rambler in Leigh Roads.

1786. Having lost the use of the American Colonies as a country to deport its convicts, and of their use in populating the county with its subject, in order to spread the word that it was English Territory. A new plan was devised to send Convicts to Australia.

1787. Sunday 13th May. The First Fleet set sail from Portsmouth in United Kingdom, Commanded by Captain (later Admiral) Arthur Phillip. It consisted of eleven vessels containing a total of 1420 people. (1373 landed). The Flag ship was HMS Sirius along with HMS Supply. The Convict transport ships were HMS Alexander, HMS Charlotte, HMS Friendship, HMS Lady Penrthyn, HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Scarborough. The Stores ships were HMS Fishburn, HMS Borrowdale, and HMS Golden Grove. The cargo of convicts comprised of 565 male 192 female and 18 children. His orders were to set up a penal colony in Australia. After a voyage that lasted almost 250 days they arrived in Botany Bay New South Wales.
The First Fleet called in at Tenerife before setting sail for Rio de Janeiro where they stayed for a month, in which time they took on extra supplies. By this time it had been discovered that in spite of all Captain Phillips had organised two very important items had been over looked. Soap for the convicts was one, and ball ammunition for the Marines was another. It was perhaps, fortunate that the convicts had not discovered the latter before 10,000 musket balls could be brought from the Arsenal in Rio. Here they also obtained paper for making cartridges, and a supply of soap from which the convicts were able to repay the Marines to whom they had been indebted for what little of this useful article they had been able to borrow during the voyage.

1787. Sunday 23rd December. Bounty sailed. (Mutiny, 28th April 1790).

1788. Friday18th and 20th January. Captain Arthur Phillip had been given full instructions for the setting up of the colony, with full authorisation to make regulations, and land grants to those within the colony. A detachment of four companies of Marines, under the command of Major Robert Ross, that consisted of four Captains, 12 Subalterns, 24 Sergeants and Corporals, 8 Drummers, and 160 Privates. That included his Adjutant, Second Lieutenant John Long, Quartermaster Lieutenant James Furzer, Engineer Officer Lieutenant William Dawes and his four Company Commanders. Captains James Campbell and John Shea, Captain Lieutenants James Meredith and Watkin Tench. Their job was to protect the new colony as they settled into their new world. Many went on to stay never to return to the United Kingdom.
At that time, private Marines enlisted for life although discharge by purchase was allowed on payment of 10 guineas. Those who went to NSW, however, had the option of discharge after three years. Recruits were paid a 2 guinea bounty as an inducement to join. Daily pay rates which included a food and clothing allowance, ranged from £1.6s.6p for a Major to 1/2d for a Marine private. However, when the Fleet finally arrived at Botony Bay, the area was deemed to be unsuitable for settlement due to its lack of fresh water, even though it had been recommended by Captain James Cook back in 1770.
They moved north arriving at Port Jackson on the Australian East coast on Saturday 26th January 1788. However, Botany Bay had other shortcomings as well, as it was open to the sea, making it unsafe for the ships and Captain Arthur Phillip (the Colony's first Governor) considered the soil around Botany Bay was poor for crop growing. From the start the settlement was beset with problems. Very few convicts knew how to farm and the soil around Sydney Cove as predicted was very poor. Instead of Cook's lush pastures, well watered and fertile ground, suitable for growing all types of foods and providing grazing for cattle, they found a hot, dry, unfertile country side unsuitable for the small farming necessary to make the settlement self-sufficient. Everyone, from the convicts to Captain Phillip, lived on rationed food. The natives were wary and fearful of the settlers, who referred to them as Indians. Some African American convicts, hoping to be accepted by the natives, escaped but were rejected by them. Other convicts, heeding rumours of other settlements nearby and that China was just over the horizon, also escaped. Those that managed to survive the rigors of the country returned to the colony and to further punishment.
While the natives subsisted on local plants and fish, the settlers found few of the plants to be appetising. As the settlers appear to have been poor fishermen, most of their food had to come from the supplies brought with them on the ships. This resulted in their total dependence on a shipping trade monopolised by the East India Company and none existent as far as Sydney was concerned. Rats, dogs, crows, an occasional kangaroo or emu were to be used to supplement the food. Shelter was also a problem. They had very little building material and the government had provided only a very limited supply of tools, which were of a bad quality. With the local trees being huge, and the wood hard, these tools were soon blunt or broken and building slowed. Extra clothing had been forgotten and, by the time the Second Fleet arrived, convicts and Marines alike were dressed in patched and threadbare clothing. By July 1788, all the ships except the naval vessels HMS Syrius and HMS Supply had left and the settlement was isolated.

1788. Wednesday 9th July. The number of the Marines serving in New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, was 211 men including 160 Privates.

1788. Monday 10th November. The number of the Marines serving in NSW, was 196 men of all ranks, including 160 privates, plus 12 men absent.

1788. Upon the British First Fleet arrival there was no provision made for policing the new settlement. Arthur Phillip’s commission empowered him to, "Appoint of constables and other necessary officers and ministers in our said territory and its dependencies for the better administration of justice and putting the law in execution". However, policing in Britain was less than proficient, so he had no model to base the establishment of a law enforcement agency upon. Watchmen, called Charlie’s after King Charles II who introduced them, were the first paid keepers of the peace in London, but they were rather ineffectual and it was a job for old men. Charlie’s were often ridiculed by the people. The Marines who accompanied the First Fleet refused to carry out the duties of a police force. Their Commander Major Robert Ross stated that his men were soldiers, not prison guards, and it was insulting to His Majesty’s Regiments to expect them to act in such a role. However, they did agree to guard the settlement and patrol at night. Governor Phillips appointed freeman James Smith as a peace officer but he retired after a brief period, as he was deemed too old and infirm to be effective.

1788 - 1850. The English deported over 162,000 convicts to Australia in 806 ships.

1788 - 1930’s. The Australian Frontier Wars were a series of conflicts that were fought between Indigenous Australians and European settlers that spanned a total of 146 years. The first fighting took place several months after the landing of the First Fleet on Saturday 26th January 1788. The last clashes is recorded to have occurred as late as 1934.

1789. Thursday 9th July. Royal Visit to Portland Roads.

1789. Tuesday 18th August. Royal Visit to Plymouth Sound.

1789.Thursday 24th December. Loss of the Guardian.

1789. Scarcely a night passed when there was not a theft of some kind. After six Marines were executed during March 1789 for stealing provisions when the colony was close to starvation, it became obvious that some form of organised law enforcement was needed. In July 1789 convict John Harris went to Collins with a proposal for a night watch to be established from among the convicts to deal with all those found away from their huts at improper hours. Collins commented that: "It was to be wished, that a watch established for the preservation of public and private property had been formed of free people, and that necessity had not compelled us in selecting the first members of our little police, to be appointed from a body of men in whose eyes, it could not be denied, the property of individuals had never been sacred. However, there was no choice convicts who had any property were themselves interested in defeating such practises as theft". This first night watch consisted of 12 well behaved convicts and was split into four divisions. The Rocks watch patrolled from the hospital to the observatory, approximately Globe Street to Dawes Point. In November 1789, Collins wrote that the night watch had been very effective, there were fewer crimes and the culprits were usually caught. On Monday 1st February 1790, Governor Phillip advised Lord Sydney of "the institution of a night watch to control robberies (particularly of vegetables and poultry) was immediately effective” and that there was “no robbery in three months". The night watch were held in "fear and detestation" by their fellow convicts. Convicted pick-pocket George Barrington arrived in Sydney in 1791 and was almost immediately appointed a police constable guarding the colony’s stores. He later became Chief Constable at Parramatta.

1789 to 1792. The Third Anglo Mysore War was a conflict that took place in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the East India Company and its allies that included France and the Maratha Empire.

1789. The start of the French Revolution that took place from 1789 to 1799.

1789. The Plymouth order Book. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty do not recognise a Light Infantry. Saying Officers may wear the appointments, if they have the ordinary ones when required.

1790. Saturday 6th March. HMS Sirus and HMS Supply having on board 65 officers and men, with 5 women and children belonging to the Marine detachment and the civil department, 116 male and 67 female convicts, with 27 children, sailed for that small but beautiful, fertile Island of Norfolk. The Governor had sized on the opportunity of getting rid of his uncongenial Lieutenant Governor, by giving him a commission as Commandant of Norfolk Island, and it is quite possible that Ross himself was glad enough to go.

1790. June. Five of the six ships comprising the ‘The Second Fleet’ arrived at Sydney. The sixth HMS Guardian had been so severely damaged by a collision with and Iceberg that she had to be beached in Table Bay, narrowly escaping total loss.

1790. Thursday 10th June. In a despatch from Sydney Australia Governor Hunter writes to the Duke of Portland he states “I shall now only trouble your Grace further by mentioning that there are a considerable number of the Marines, who were the first troops sent to this country, and who upon the recall of that Corps from hence were allowed to enlist for a five years in the New South Wales Corps, some of them having completed this last engagement, are desirous of settling in the country and are entitled to a double proportion of land in consequence of a double tour of duty”.

1790. Vancouver's Expedition in the Discovery.

1790 - 1807. The Marines uniform of the day. (Taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI.)

Click photo to enlarge

1791. Tuesday 16th August. Loss of Pandora.

1791. November. Phoenix took Resolu.

1791. Thursday 18th December. After 18 months service in Norfolk Island, major Ross returned to Sydney, and with the  greater part of Marines left for England on board HMS Gorgon leaving behind only one Captainand Lieutenant, three 1st Lieutenants, the Judge Advocate (Collins), eight Non Commissioned Officers, two Drummers and fifty Privates.

1791. On a memorial being presented, an invalid establishment was formed, allowing the following officers to retire, one Commandant on 24d per day, one Lieutenant Colonel, one Major, and twelve Captains, six First Lieutenants, and three Second Lieutenants.

1792. Wednesday 12th September. Trial of some of the Bounty mutineers at Portsmouth.

1792. Tuesday 11th December. The last of the Marines left Sydney (NSW) with Governor Phillip on his ship HMS Atlantic.

1792. Saturday 15th December. A number of Marines remained in Australia as settlers and in a despatch from Governor Phillip, these included 8 at Parramatta and 31 at Norfolk Island, while others remained in Sydney, some had died and six had been executed.

1792. Lodging money was allowed at the following rates: Commandants 20 shillings per week, Field Officers 12 shillings. Captains 8 shillings and Subalterns 6 shillings. The non-commissioned Officers and Privates obtained the privilege of allotting.

1792. Although no complete Marine units were garrisoned in Australia between 1792 and 1824 a few individual Marines and Officers were attached to garrison Regiments in NSW during that period. Those who choose to stay after having completing their military service and in some cases having married, were give crown land to settle on and build a home. Many Australians today can trace their ancestors back to these Marines.

1793. Saturday 2nd February. War declared by France against Great Britain. It meant that for the next twenty three years the Marines were in action around the world. At the start of the war the Marines had 70 companies However, the establishment was raised to 9,815 men.

1793. Wednesday 13th March. Scourge captured Sans Culotte.

1793. Friday 15th March. Syren, and convoy engaged batteries at Moordyke.

1793. Sunday 14th April. Phaeton captured General Dumourier.

1793. Monday 15th April. The capture of Tobago. The British forces numbered 400 men that included Major Richard Bright, 1 Lieutenant 2 Sergeants, 1 Drummer and 27 Private Marines.

1793. Monday 13th May. Iris engaged Citoyenne Francaise.

1793. Monday 27th May. Venus engaged Semillante.

1793. Monday 27th May. Hytzna taken by French squadron.

1793. Tuesday 18th June. Nymphe captured Cleopatre.

1793. July. The Marines were authorised to recruit in Ireland at three recruiting stations in Dublin, Waterford and Cork.

1793. Wednesday 31st July. Boston engaged L’embuscade..

1793. Thursday 15th August - 18th December. Operations at Toulon. Lord Hood leading a squadron of 21 ships of the line and several frigates entered the harbour of Toulon to assist the inhabitants against the tyranny of the Republican faction which had seized control of the Government. The Loyalists willingly handed over the town, and 1,500 troops and a number of Marines under the Command of Captain Richard Bidlake near fort La Malgue. The later occupied the fort which stood on a hill between the little and the great roads, while Fort Mulgrave was situated on the tongue of land that continued from the hill into the harbour. Soon afterwards a Spanish fleet arrived with reinforcements, and on the 31st August the allied British marched out and defeated a republican detachment near Ollicules. The Marines of the fleet were dispersed over the various forts and lines of defence, which soon came under fire from the enemy’s batteries, the number of the besiegers increasing day after day. Fighting continued until December, when the increasing pressure of the enemy rendered the evacuation of the town inevitable. One of the most brilliant events of the siege was the defence of a redoubt by Lieutenant Thomas Naylor of the Marines with 120 men, mostly of his own Corps. A French column of 2,000 strong, covered by a fog attempted to surprise the redoubt in the early morning, but the garrison was on the alert, and Naylor, ordering his men to reserve their fire until the Republicans were at close quarters and then to fire by platoons, succeeded in killing or wounding nearly a quarter of their numbers and eventually repulsing their attack. Fort Mulgrave became known as the ‘Little Gibraltar’, and other forts fell one after another into the hands of the Enemy, and at 10pm on the18th December, the defence was restricted to the town and the Fort on La Malgue, which were held while the French men of war in harbour and the magazines were burnt and blown up, and the Loyalist who number nearly 15,000 men, women and children embarked on board the fleet to save them from the bloodthirsty Republicans.

I793. August to December. 0perations under Lord Hood at Toulon.

1793. September. Lowestoft captured a tower at Mortella, Corsica.

1793. Tuesday 1st October. Ardent and convoy at Tornelli and San Fiorinzo, Corsica.

1793. Saturday 5th October. Bedford and Speedy captured Modeste.

1793. Saturday 12th October. Boats of Captain captured Imperieuse.

1793. Sunday 20th October. Crescent captured Reunion.

1793.Tuesday 22nd October. Agamemnon engaged French frigates.

1793. Thursday 24th October. Thames engaged Uranie.

1793.Thursday 31st October. Quebec, and Convoy attacked Ostend and Nieuport.

1793. Monday 18th November. Latona engaged Tigre and Jean Bart.

1793. Monday 25th November. Penelope and Iphigenia captured Inconstante.

1793 to 1802. The ‘French Revolutionary Wars’. In which Great Britain, Austria, Spain, Russia, Germany and the French Royalists were all against French Revolutionaries. While Marines saw action in the Mediterranean, South Africa, India, Egypt and the East Indies, and its strength was increased to 9,815 men.

1793. In consequence of the field officers being restored, and the establishment of an invalid retirement, several officers, who had quit active service, determined on returning to the effective corps; a circumstance that would have been attended with so much injustice to those who had continued in the service, and more particularly to the junior ranks, that it was resolved to resist such applications, for they had already experienced the injury arising from officers re-joining. Memorials were sent to the Board of Admiralty from each division to this effect: "That all officers may take rank and do duty in the corps from the date of their last appointment, receive promotion, and be placed on the list accordingly." The memorials were acceded to and enforced until a recent period, when a few officers were permitted to re-join; but this infraction, which was on a very limited scale, arose from a resolution of Mr. Hume, that he would not consent to the retirement of officers on full pay, or selling out, while serviceable  officers remained on half-pay. Only four or five re-joined the corps, and about forty quitted the service.

1794. Saturday 11th January. There was a curios sequel to the evacuation of Toulon. Not knowing of the British withdrawal HMS Juno sailing from Malta arrived in Toulon at 10pm in the evening. She had no pilot on board, and made her way into the harbour the as best she could. Although here Captain was somewhat surprised to see no British ships in the outer harbour, although the lights of several vessels were clearly visible further in. Eventually a Brig at anchor loomed up through the darkness, and as HMS Juno passed her a shout was not understood, and supposed to be “What ship is that?” Upon the answer the crew of the Brig was heard to cry out “Viva”, and as HMS Juno crossed her stern a voice from her called out distinctly “Luff”. The helm was at once put to lee, but HMS Juno grounded and so its boats were hoisted out to warp her off. A sudden gust of wind drove her astern, and the anchor was let go, but as she swung to it she touched again aft. While the boats and sail trimmers were at work to get her off again, a boat came out from the shore, and running alongside, two officers and a party of seamen came on board and informed the Captain Sir Samuel Hood that it was the regulation of the port and the Commanding Officers orders that the ship should go to another branch of the harbour to perform quarantine. “Where is Lord Hood’s flagship”, asked the Captain. The reply he received aroused his suspicion, and it was then discovered that the visitors were Frenchmen. All pretence was dropped. ”Soyez tranquille” said the visitors, “les Anglais sont des  braves gens lestraitons bien, l’Amiral Anglais  est parti il ya quelque temps” It was a terrible trap, but just then a gust of wind came down the harbour, and “I believe, Sir” said the 3rd Lieutenant “we shall be able to fetch out if we can only get her under sail”. Where upon it was every man to his station to set the sails upon the ship. The Frenchmen drew their cutlasses, but the Marines seizing the boarding pikes from their racks charged and drove the unwelcome visitors below, where they were disarmed. The cable was cut and the ship got under way, and in spite of heavy fire opened upon them from the batteries and forts on shore HMS Juno succeeded in making her way out to sea without loss of a man.

1794. Sunday 12th January. Sphinx captured Trompeuse.

1794. Wednesday 22nd January. Britannia and Nonsuch captured Vengeur and Resolu.

1794. Saturday 25th January. Houghton and Nonsuch engaged Cybele.

1794. Wednesday 5th February. The Capture of Martinique, by a British expeditionary force under the Command of Admiral Sir John Jervis and Lieutenant General Sir Charles Grey. By Thursday 20th March, only Fort Bourbon and Fort Royal still held out. Jervis ordered the third rate ship of the line HMS Asia of 64 guns, and HMS Zebra to take Fort Saint Louis. HMS Asia was unable to get close, and so Commander Faulkner went in without her help. Despite facing heavy fire, Faulkner ran HMS Zebra close under the walls. He and his ship's company then used HMS Zebra’s boats to land. The British stormed the fort and captured it. HMS Zebra lost only her pilot killed and four men wounded. Meanwhile the boats of the British fleet captured Fort Royal and two days later Fort Bourbon capitulated.

1794. Saturday 8th February. Fortitude and Juno captured Mortella, Corsica.

1794. Monday 17th February. Alcide and squadron captured Fornelli, Corsica.

1794. Wednesday 19th February. The Capture of the ship St Fiorenzo in Corsica by Lord Hood. The St Fiorenzo was a 38 gun fifth rate, formerly the French ship named Minerve. She was captured having been scuttled by the French. She was raised, and placed on harbour protection from 1812 and finally broken up in 1837.

1794. February - March. Operations at and the capture of Martinique.

1794. February. The Siege of Saint-Florent took place during the ‘French Revolutionary War’ when a British force joined with Corsican partisans to capture the French garrison town of Saint-Florent, Corsica. After a blockade by Royal Naval ships under Horatio Nelson. A landing was made and British troops were put ashore where they were joined with around 1,200 Corsicans. The town was dominated by two defensive towers, one to the north at Mortella Point and the other at the strong Convention Redoubt. Once these had been taken the town agreed to surrender and the British fleet under Lord Hood was able to sail into its harbour. A large number of its defenders were able to escape to Bastia where they participated in its defence. Saint-Florent was one of three major French garrisons on Corsica the others being Bastia and Calvi.

1794. Early April. The Siege and surrender of Bastia in Corsica took place during the French Revolutionary War, when an allied force of British and Anglo Corsicans forces laid siege to the French town of Bastia. After a six-week siege the garrison surrendered due to a lack of supplies owing to a blockade by the Royal Navy. The siege was marked by constant disputes with Lord Hood the naval Commander and Senior Army officers.

1794. Friday 4th April. Capitulation of St. Lucia.

1794. Thursday 10th April. Capture of the Saintes.

1794. April. The British capture of Tobago and Santa-Lucia from the French. However, Santa-Lucia was retaken by the French during the summer of 1795, and later taken back by the British during April 1796.

1794. The North and the South Barracks were built in Deal.

1794. Friday 11th - 12th April. The Winchelsea at Guadaloupe.

1794. Wednesday 23rd April. Sir J. B. Warren’s action off Guernsey, when the Arethusa captured the Pomone and Babet.

1794. April - May. Bombardment and capture of Bastia.

1794. Monday 5th May. The Orphers captured the Duguay-Trouin.

1794. Monday 5th - 7th May. The Swiftsure captured the Atalante.

1794. Thursday 29th May. The Carysfort captured the Castor.

1794. Thursday 29 th May - Sunday 1st June. Lord Howe’s Victory, the battle of the Glorious First of June off Ushant. One of the great sea battles in which many Marines took part. It was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Great Britain and the First French Republic during the ‘French Revolutionary Wars’. The British Channel Fleet under Admiral Lord Howe attempted to prevent the passage of a vital French grain convoy from the United States of America, which was protected by the French Atlantic Fleet, commanded by Rear-Admiral Villaret Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles (741km) west of the French island of Ushant. Howe's ships inflicted a severe tactical defeat on the French fleet. Although in the aftermath of the battle both fleets were left shattered and in no condition for further combat. Both fleets were forced to return to their home ports.
The following is an extract taken from an account wrote immediately after the battle, by an officer who served in the battle. It gives a vivid description of what happened: “The sinking of the Vengeur was one of the most awful sights ever beheld. This ship and the HMS Brunswick by some means got on board each other. HMS Brunswick lost her mizzen mast before she got clear, but left her enemy a wreck of horrible ruin. She carried her mast and yards, every one away, tore her decks and sides to pieces, and left her sinking. She went to the bottom at about a quarter past six, and I saw her sinking, fast, but gradually. After the loss of her mizzen mast, main top mast and rigging cut to pieces, the French hoisted an English Jack, and called for quarters, but HMS Brunswick, having all her boats shot to pieces, could not board the enemy, and was obliged to let her go down, and all on board perished.”
The most obstinate conflict of the battle was between HMS Defence that carried 74 guns Captained by J. Gambier and HMS Jacobin with 110 guns. They were in close action for upwards of three hours, at the expiration of which time HMS Jacobin went to the bottom, and HMS Defence had become totally unmanageable as to be obliged and towed out of the line by the frigate HMS Phaeton. The HMS Jacobin lay without masts and a helm, and moving around by the force of the water, which rapidly entering shot holes in her hull, and running over her galleries, she quickly sunk. Yet so invincible was the spirit of her crew, that they were still manning their upper deck guns, while the water was running in at the lower deck ports. It seems that they had previously agreed never to give up and nailed their colours to the staff, which were flying when she went down. Those on the upper deck to a man, refused to take to a cutter, and when the water rose to where they stood, they took off their hats and gave three cheers universally crying out “Vive la Republique Vive la Liberte”. This is corroborated in a letter from a Seaman on board HMS Queen.

1794. Sunday 1st June. The Irresistible and Squadron took Fort Brissoton, P. au Prince.

1794. Sunday 8th June. The Crecent and the Druid engaged a French squadron.

1794. Wednesday 11th June. The Dido engaged a squadron in Gourjeau bay.

1794. Tuesday 17th June. The Romney captured S,bille.

1794. July to Sunday 10th August. The Siege and Capture of Calvi took place during the French Revolutionary by the British forces, ending in a British Victory. Troops under Charles Stuart under took the attack against Calvi, one of his officers being Horatio Nelson. Heavy bombardment drew equally heavy French and Corsican resistance. It was during the fighting on the Saturday 12th July that Nelson lost the sight of his right eye during an assault on the town. There followed heavy fighting but the French batteries were captured one by one, and on Sunday 10th August the French garrison finally surrendered with full military honours, having held out for 40 days. During the siege it was estimated that 24,000 cannon balls had been fired at the town.

1794. June - August. Victory and Agamemnon at Calvi.

1794. June - December. Unsuccessful operation at Guadaloupe.

1794. Saturday 23rd August. Squadron destroyed Volontaire.

1794. Saturday 23rd August. The Flora and Arethusa destroyed the Filicite, Espion, and Alerte.

1794. Tuesday 21st October. The Artois captured the Revolutionnaire.

1794. Wednesday 22nd October. The Centurion and the Diomede engaged a French Squadron.

1794. Thursday 6th November. The Canada and the Alexander (taken) engaged a French Squadron.

1794. Tuesday 30th December. The Blanche attacked the Desirade and captured a French Squadron.

1794. After a mutiny on board HMS Culloden, her crew flogged several Marines for not joining them.

1794. The establishment of Marines was increased to 12,115 men, in consequence of a general memorial to Earl Spencer, then first Lord of the Admiralty, presented by General Souter, which having obtained his Lordship's favourable consideration, twenty one companies were added, including those of six field-officers, and the levy money was also increased to eight guineas.

1795. Friday 3rd - 7th January. The Diamond reconnoitred Brest.

1795. Sunday 4th January. The Blanche captures the Pique. The official report reads ”The Marines under Lieutenant Richardson keeping up so well directed and constant a fire, that not a man could appear on the forecastle till she struck.”

1795. January - June. The Blanche and the Squadron at St. Lucia, Grenada.

1795. The Marines were further augmented to 15,000 men. In consequence of some differences arising with regard to the Regiments of the line doing duty as marines in the fleet, they were ordered to be disembarked, and many of the men were permitted to enlist in the Marines at an additional bounty of five guineas; and on the 15th of November the levy money was increased to fifteen pounds, which allowed ten guineas and a crown bounty to each recruit. This arrangement gave such fresh vigour to the corps, that the companies were soon up to their full strength.

1795. The French unsuccessfully attempt to retake Corsica.

1795. Saturday 7th March. The Berwick was captured by the French Fleet.

1795. Friday 13th March. The Lively captured the Tourterelle.

1795. Saturday 14th March. Hothams Victory off Genos, and the capture of two sail of the line.

1795. Sunday 29th March. The Cerberus captured the Jean Bart.

1795. Friday 10th April. The Astrea captured the Gloire.

1795. Saturday 11th April. The Hannibal captured the Gentille.

1795. Saturday 9th May. The Melampus and squadron were in Gourville Bay.

1795. Sunday 17th May. The Thetis and the Hussar captured the Raison and the Prlvoyante.

1795. Monday 25th May. Thorn captured Courier National in the West indies.

1795. Monday 8th June. The Kingfisher engaged a french convoy.

1795. Tuesday 9th June. The Masquito captured a Privateer.

1795. Wednesday 17th June. Cornwallis's retreat

1795. Tuesday 23rd June. Bridports Victory off O’Oient.

1795. Thursday 24th June. The Dido and the Lowestoft engaged the Minerve and Artemise.

1795. Monday 25th May. The Thorn captured the Courier National in the West Indies.

1795. Thursday 25th June. The 300 Marines at Quiberon.

1795. Saturday 22nd August . Engagement of Iris and consorts with Dutch frigates.

1795. Tuesday 25th August. Spider (cutter) captured a brig.

1795. Wednesday 26th August. Cutting-out exploits at Alassio and Lanqueglia Bays.

1795. June - December. Royal Marines in Quiberon.

1795. Friday 3rd July. The Melampus and the Hebe captured the Vesuve.

1795. July. Nelson Captures Elba.

1795. Sunday 12th July. The Cumberland captured the Alcide off Hyeres.

1795. Friday 7th August - 16th September. During the ‘Napoleonic Wars’, Britain captured the Dutch Cape Colony’s, from the Dutch East India Company. 350 Marines landed under Major Hill and took part in the battle of Muizenburg, receiving the commendation of Major General Craig “for their steadiness and resolution” upon this occasion. The advanced guard of the 78th, supported by the Marines, drove the Dutch from their position on the heights, and on the Thursday 8th August repelled a counter attack supported by artillery.

1795. Saturday 22nd August. Engagement of the Iris and consorts with dutch Frigates.

1795. Tuesday 25th August. Spider (cutter) captured a Brig.

1795. Friday 26th August. Cutting out exploits at Alassio and Lanqueglia Bays.

1795. Monday 28th September. Rose captured a privateer and sank another.

1795. Tuesday 29th September. Southampton engaged Vestale.

1795. August. The capture of the Cape Colony by Elphinstone.

1795. August - October. Operations under Commodore Rainier at Ceylon.

1795. August - December. The capture of Malacea, Chinsura and Cohin.

1795. Wednesday 16th September. The Capture of Cape Town from the Dutch.

1795. Wednesday 7th October. Action off St. Vincent. Censeur captured by the French.

1795. Saturday 10th October. Mermaid captured Brutus.

1795. Tuesday 13th October. Mermaid captured Republicaine.

1795. Wednesday 14th October. Melampus and Latona engaged batteries at Groix.

1795. Thursday 15th October. Melampus and consorts engaged Tortue and Nertide

1796. The Marines Companies were further augmented to 16,000 men. That included to 8 Sergeants, 8 Corporals, 8 Drummers and 113 Privates. Increasing later in the year to 120 Privates for a total establishment of some 18,000 men.

1796. Monday 15th February. Ceylon capitulated without resistance.

1796. Tuesday 16th February - Sunday 8th March. The capture of Amboyna and Banda Niera.

1796. Tuesday 16th February. Amboyna capitulated.

1796.Tuesday 8th March. Orpheus engaged Banda batteries, Banda Isles taken.

1796. Wednesday 9th March. Boats of Barfleur and consorts, re-captured vessels at Tunis.

1796.Thursday 10th March. Phaeton and convoy captured Bonne Citoyenne.

1796. Thursday 17th March. The storming of batteries at Herqui.

1796. Thursday 17th March. Diamond and convoy engaged at Port Spergni.

1796.Sunday 20th March. Anson and consorts engaged with French convoy.

1796. Monday 21st of March. The town and fort of Leogane, in the island of San Domingo, was attacked by a detachment of Colonial and British troops under Major General Forbes with two divisions, supported by the squadron, which consisted of the three ships of the line HMS Leviathan, HMS Swiftsure, and HMS Africa, with the frigates HMS Ceres and HMS Iphigenia, but the fort proving better capable of defence than was anticipated, the troops were withdrawn on the following day and night, without sustaining much loss. HMS Leviathan had 5 men killed, and 12 wounded, and HMS Africa one killed, and 7 wounded, and both ships were so seriously damaged, that they were under the necessity of going to Jamaica to refit

1796. Wednesday 13th April. Revolutionnaire captured Unite off Ushant.

1796. Sunday 17th April. Boats of Diamond captured Vengeur.

1796. Wednesday 20th April. Indefatigable captured Virginie.

1796. Wednesday 20th April. Inconstant captured Unite in the Mediterranean.

1796. Monday 25th April. Agamemnon and squadron captured French vessels at Finale.

1796. Wednesday 27th April. The capture of the Island of St. Lucia. 350 Marines were landed and the Re official report read “The conduct of the Marines upon this, as upon all other occasions, was perfectly correct.”

1796. Wednesday 27th April. Niger and boats destroyed Eaireuil.

1796. Saturday 30th April. Agamemnon and squadron captured six vessels at Oneglia.

1796. April - May. Operations resulting in capitulation of Barbados.

1796. Wednesday 4th May. Spencer captured Volcan.

1796. Thursday 12th May. Phoenix captured Argo.

1796. Friday 27th May. Suffisante captured Revanche.

1796. Wednesday 8th June. Unicorn and Sta. Margaritta captured Tribune and Tamise.

1796. Wednesday 8th - 11th June. The capture of the Island of St. Vincent, during the evening the troops destined for the attack were safely disembarked, under cover of the 38 gun frigate HMS Arethusa, Captain Thomas Wolley, who also sent a detachment of seamen to serve on shore with the troops. After some skirmishing and an obstinate resistance, the enemy, composed chiefly of people of colour and Charibs, capitulated on the terms proposed by General Abercromby, who, on the 11th, took possession of the island. The loss sustained by the British amounted to 38 officers and privates killed, and 145 wounded.

1796. Thursday 9th June. Southampton captured Utile.

1796. Saturday 11thJune. The capture of Grenada, was taken with ease after the locals knew what had happened on St Vincent only 4 days earlier.

1796. Monday 13th June. Dryad captured Proserpine.

1796. Friday 27th June. Inconstant saved British residents and consorts at Leghorn.

1796. June. Mermaid and squadron captured Grenada.

1796. Thursday 7th July. Quebec and convoy engaged two French frigates.

1796. Sunday 10th July. Captain seized Porto Ferrajo.

1796. Friday 15th July. HMS Glatton engaged a French squadron off Flanders.

1796. Friday 22nd - 23rd July. Amiable engaged Pensee, which escaped.

1796. Monday 8th August. Mermaid engaged Vengeance and batteries.

1796. Wednesday 17th August. The surrender of Dutch Squadron at Simon's Bay.

1796. Monday 22nd -23rd August. Galatea and convoy destroyed Andromaque.

1796. Thursday 25th August. Raison engaged Vengeance.

1796. Sunday 28th August. Topaze captured Elizabeth.

1796. Friday 9th September. Arrogant and Victorious engaged six French frigates.

1796. Friday 23rd September. Pelican engaged Medee.

1796. Thursday 13th October. Terpsichore captured Mahonesa.

1796. Monday 24th October. Sta. Margaritta captured Buonaparte.

1796. Tuesday 25th October. Sta. Magaritta captured Vengeur and prize.

1796. October - November. Corsica re-taken by the French.

1796. Wednesday 16th November. In consequence of some differences arising with regard to the Regiments of the line doing duty as Marines in the fleet, they were ordered to be disembarked, and many of the men were permitted to enlist in the Marines at an additional bounty of five guineas, and on 16th November the levy money was increased to fifteen pounds, which allowed ten guineas and a crown bounty to each recruit, this arrangement gave such fresh vigour to the Corps, that the companies were soon completed to their full strength.

1796. Friday 2nd December. Crescent and Sphinx at Foul Point, Madagascar.

1796. Friday 2nd December. Hazard captured Musette.

1796. Saturday 3rd December. Lapwing captured Dedeux and destroyed Vaillante.

1796. Monday 12th December. Terpsichore captured Vestale.

1796. Monday 19th December. Minerve captured Santa Sabina.

1796. Monday 19th December. Blanche engaged Ceres.

1796. December. Theobald Wolfe Tone a leading Irish revolutionary ordered the dispatch of a force of 14,000 French veteran troops under the Command of General Hoche which arrived off the coast of Bantry ay in Ireland. After eluding the Royal Navy, unremitting storms, indecisiveness of its leaders and poor seamanship all combined to a failed landing. The French fleet was forced to return to France. Theobald Wolfe Tone was later to remarked, "England has had its luckiest escape since the Armada.”

1796. December. Horatio Nelson had obtained the rank Commodore and was too senior to command a ship. He was transferred to HMS Captain which became his flag ship. The squadron he commanded covered the evacuation of British family’s from Leghorn, Corsica and Elba.

1796. The vote for the sea service affording no extension to the Corps, an earnest memorial was addressed to Earl Spencer and in consequence of that application nine companies were added, with a Second-Lieutenant to each company, which was increased to 8 Sergeants, 8 Corporals, 8 Drummers, and 113 Privates each. In November, six more companies were added, and seven additional privates to every company, which then consisted of 120 men. At the same time three Colonels and Second-Commandants were added to the establishment of the corps.

1797. Sunday 8th January. Indefatigable and Amazon destroyed Droits de l'Homme.

1797. Tuesday 31st January. Andromache captured an Algerine corsair.

1797. Friday 14th February. Sir John Jervis's Victory off Cape St. Vincent.

1797. Monday 17th - 18th February. Trinidad surrendered without resistance.

1797. Tuesday 28th February. Terpsichore engaged Santissima Trinidada.

1797. Friday 17th February. The British capture Trinidad from Spain. A fleet of 18 warships under the Command of Sir Ralph Abercromby invaded and took the Island of Trinidad. Within a few of days the last Spanish Governor, Don José María Chacon surrendered the island to Abercromby.

1797. Thursday 9th March. San Fiorenzo and Nymphe captured Resistance and Constance.

1797. Monday 13th March. Viper captured Virgen Maria del Carmen.

1797. Monday 13th March. Plymouth captured Amitie.

1797. Wednesday 22nd - 23rd March. Hermione destroyed vessels at Porto Rico.

1797. Wednesday 29th March. Kingfisher captured General.

1797. Saturday 1st April. Hazard captured Hardi.

1797. Thursday 6th April. Boats of Magicienne and Regulus at St. Domingo.

1797. Sunday 16th April. Thunderer and Valiant destroyed Harnionie.

1797. Thursday 20th April. Cutting out affair at Port au Paix.

1797. Wednesday 26th April. Irresistible and Emerald captured two Spanish frigates.

1797. Saturday 22nd April. Magicienne, Regulus, and Fortune at Carcasse Bay.

1797. April. A mutiny of the Royal Navy took place at Spithead off Portsmouth.

1797. Monday 3rd June - 5th July. The Bombardment and assault of the Spanish port of Cadiz was a part of a protracted naval blockade by the British Royal Navy, which comprised of a siege and the shelling of the city as well as an amphibious assault on the port itself. The battle involved Horatio Nelson and John Jervis pitted against the Spanish Jose de Mazarredo and Fererico Gravina. It was a Spanish victory although both sides suffered an economic loss. The British casualties amounted to one killed and 20 wounded that included Captain Thomas Francis Fremantle, 3 boats were sunk and the Victory's launch driven ashore.

1797. Saturday 20th May. Oiseau engaged a Spanish frigate.

1797. Monday 29th May. Boats of Lively and Minerve cut out Mutine.

1797. May. A second mutiny took place at the Nore, a sand bank off the Kent coast in the Thames where the fleet usually anchored.

1797. Monday 3rd - 5th July. Cadiz bombardad by Nelson.

1797. Sunday 16th July. Anson and Sylph destroyed Calliope.

1797. July. Attack on Santa Cruz by Nelson.

1797. Thursday 6th July. Three Marines Lee, Coffy and Branham who had been found guilty by court Marshall for attempting to excite a mutiny in Stonehouse Barracks. While another Marine, M Gennis was convicted of a similar crime and sentenced to 1000 lashes (although he only received 500) and then transported to Botany Bay for life. The other three were lead out on to Plymouth Hoe and at 2.30pm on the 6th made to kneel in front of their coffins wearing a blind fold. At a given signal the firing squad carried out the order, and both Coffy and Branham fell immediately, but it seems that not one shot out of the sixteen fired had struck Lee, as he remained on his knees by the coffin. Until a Marines discharged his musket through the front of his head. He then fell and another musket was fired through the side of his head and he died instantly. All four were in their thirties and of Irish decent. Marine Lee was found to belong to the ‘United Irishmen’ organisation. He was also an Attorney by profession and seems to have been the conspirator, and all who joined him used to meet on the Long Room Hill at Stonehouse to be sworn in as partakers in the plot. The ring leaders had enlisted in to the Marines, probably with the view of spreading disaffection in their ranks. It was also believed that the 58th Regiment and the crews of two ships then in an insubordinate state were also implicated.

1797. A complaint (Taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI.)

Click photo to enlarge

1797. Saturday 22nd - Tuesday 25th July. Horatio Nelson led a doomed assault on the Spanish island Santa Cruz de Tenerife was an amphibious assault by the Royal Navy on the Spanish port and city in the Canary Islands. Launched by Rear-Admiral Horatio Nelson the assault was defeated, and the remains of the landing party withdrew under a truce with the loss of several hundred casualties. Nelson himself had been wounded in the arm, which was subsequently partially amputated: a stigma that he carried to his grave as a constant reminder of his failure. The ship's surgeon, James Farquhar, wrote in his journal: "Compound fracture of the right arm by a musket ball passing through a little above the elbow; an artery divided, the arm was immediately amputated." It is claimed that within 30 minutes, Nelson was again issuing orders to his men. On Tuesday 1st August Farquhar noted: "Admiral Nelson, amputated arm, continued getting well very fast. Stump looked well; no bad symptoms whatever occurred.” British losses were 250 dead, 128 wounded, 300 captured, many drowned and 1 cutter sunk.

1797. July. An order in Council, fixed the pay of Marines at the following rates: Sergeants. Corporals.
On board £-12-0s-10p and on shore at, £1-6s-1p.

1797. July 22nd - 24th July. Attack on Santa Cruz by Nelson.

1797. Thursday 10th August. Arethusa captured Gaite.

1797. Friday 11th August. Sylphe and consorts destroyed gunboats at Sable d'Olonne.

1797. Monday 14th August. The battle of Cape St Vincent was one of the opening battles of the Anglo-Spanish War of 1796 to 1808, as part of the French Revolutionary Wars. During which a British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir John Jervis defeated a larger Spanish fleet under Admiral Don José de Córdobay Ramos near Cape St. Vincent in Portugal. After the battle Admiral Lord St. Vincent wrote: “A very considerable Corps of Marines should be kept up, and I hope to see the day when there is not another foot soldier in the kingdom, in Ireland or in the colonies”. While Nelson also voiced his opinion: “When I become First Lord of the Admiralty, every fleet shall have perfect battalions of Marines, with their artillery, and commanded by experienced field officers, they will be prepared to make a serious impression on the enemy’s coast.” 1 Major, 1 Lieut., 1 Sergeant, and 5 rank and file killed, 21 wounded.

1797. Tuesday 15th August. Alexandrian captured Coq.

1797. Monday 21st August. Penguin captured two French brigs.

1797. Sunday 27th August. Jason and Triton captured part of a French convoy.

1797. Monday 28th August. Pomone destroyed Petit Dia'le.

1797. Sunday 17th September. Pelican destroyed Trompeur.

1797. Wednesday 4th October. Alexandrian captured Epicharis.

1797. Wednesday 11th October. The battle of Camperdown was the most significant action between British and Dutch forces during the French Revolutionary Wars and resulted in a complete victory for the British, who captured eleven Dutch ships without losing any of their own. Although they suffered 203 killed and 622 wounded. While the Dutch suffered 540 killed, 620 wounded.

1797. Wednesday 25th October. Indefatigable captured Hyene.

1797. Sunday 12th November. Cerberus captured Epervier.

1797. Monday 13th November. Boats of fairy captured Epervier, a lugger.

1797. Tuesday 14th November. Cerberus captured Renard.

1797. Wednesday 20th December. Growler captured by two French privateers.

1797. Thursday 21st December. Phoebe captured Nereide.

1797. Friday 29th December. Anson captured Daphne.

1798 to 1799. The Fourth Anglo Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company at that time run by the Earl of Mornington.

1798. Wednesday 3rd January. George taken by Spanish privateers.

1798. Friday 5th January. Pomone sank Cheri.

1798. Monday 8th January. Kingfisher captured Betsy

1798. Sunday 14th January. Sibylle and Fox at Caista Roads, Manilla.

1798. Yuseday 16th January. Boats of Babel captured Desiree.

1798. Monday 22nd January. Sibylle and Fox at Samboangon.

1798. Tueasday 23rd January. Melampus captured Volage.

1798. Saturday 3rd February. Speedy engaged Papillon.

1798. Friday 16th February. Boats of Alfred captured Scipion.

1798. Feb. 25. Marquis of Coburg sunk Revanche.

1798. Thursday 22nd - 23rd March. Phaeton, Canada, and Anson engaged Charente.

1798. Sunday 8th - 9th April. Diamond and Hydra in Caen River.

1798. Tuesday 17th April. Recovery captured Revanche.

1798. Saturday 21st April. Mars captured Hercule.

1798. Tuesday 24th April. Pearl engaged two French frigates.

1798. Saturday 5th May. Badger and Sandfly repulsed 52 gun brigs at Marcon.

1798. Monday 7th May. Victorieuse captured Brutus.

1798. Monday 7th May. The Defence and Battle of the Islands of St. Marcou took place near the Cotentin peninsula on the Normandy coast of France in May 1798 during the French Revolutionary Wars. During 1795 a British garrison was set up on the islands, which operated as a resupply base for Royal Naval ships cruising off the coast of Northern France. Their strength was that of 500 Marines a few sailors and 17 guns. Wanting to remove the British presence on the islands and simultaneously test the equipment and tactics then being developed in France for a projected invasion of Britain, the French launched a massed amphibious assault on the southern island using over 50 landing ships and thousands of troops. Although significant Royal Naval forces were in the area, a combination of wind and tide prevented them from intervening and the island's 500-strong garrison was left to resist the attack alone. The British suffer 1 killed and 4 wounded, while the French suffered 900 killed, 3000 wounded, 500 captured and 7 boats destroyed.

1798. Sunday 13th May. Boats of Flora cut out Mondavi,

1798. Saturday 19th May. Disembarkation at Ostend.

1798. Sunday 27th May. Plymouth (Uniform). Light Infantry Officers ordered to wear on their shoulders ‘a Bugle, Horn and wings’.

1798. Wednesday 30th - 31st May. Hydra and consorts destroyed Confiante.

1798. May to September. The Irish Rebellion was an uprising against British rule in Ireland. The Republican Revolutionary group were heavily influenced by the ideas of the American and French Revolutions, and were the main organising force behind the rebellion.

1798. Saturday 16th June. Boats of Aurora destroyed two vessels.

1798. Tuesday 19th June. Aurora engaged off Adeira.

1798. Friday 22nd June. Aurora destroyed a corvette.

1798. Tuesday 26th - 27th June. Seahorse captured Sensible.

1798. Friday 29th June. Pique and Jason captured Seine.

1798. Wednesday 11th July. Boats of Regulus captured three vessels.

1798. Sunday 15th July. Lion captured Santa Dorotea.

1798. Thursday 26th July. Brilliant engaged Vertu and Regenre.

1798. Wednesdat 1st August - Friday 3rd August. The Battle of the Nile took place. France had declared war on Britain during 1793, where upon several Naval battles took place between the two countries. One of the most famous victories was the battle of the Nile. The Lieutenant of Marines in Nelson’s flagship wrote, “Fought the French fleet at anchor off Alexandria, consisting of 13 sail of the line and several frigates, took 10 sail of the line and burnt one three decker and one frigate and sunk one frigate. Captain Faddy of the Marines and six privates killed and seven wounded.” The total British losses were 218 killed and 677 wounded, while the French losses were very high and estimated at around 3 to 4000 casualties, with a further 3000 captured, 2 ships of the line and 2 frigates were destroyed and 9 ships of the line captured.

1798. Saturday 4th August. Boats of Melpomene and Childess captured Aventurier.

1798. Tuesday 7th August. Espoir captured Liguria.

1798. Tuesday 7th August. Indefatigable captured Vaillante.

1798. Sunday 12th August. Hazard captured Neptune.

1798. Saturday 18th August. Leander captured by Gentreux.

1798. Wednesday 22nd August. Naiad and Magnanime captured Decade.

1798. Friday 7th September. Phaeton and Alison captured Flore

1798. Friday 12th - 14th October. A larger French force consisting of 3,000 men, and including Wolfe Tone attempted to land in County Donegal near Lough Swilly. Later it became known as the battle of Donegal They were intercepted by a larger Royal Naval squadron, and finally surrendered after a three hour battle without being able to land in Ireland. It was the last action of the Irish Rebellion of 1798. The battle also brought to an end the French trying to land soldiers in Ireland. Wolfe Tone was tried by a court-martial in Dublin and found guilty. He asked for death by firing squad, but when this was refused, Tone cheated the hangman by slitting his own throat in prison on Monday 12th November, and died a week later.

1998. Wednesday 2nd September. The Siege of Malta was a two year blockade by the British of the French occupied garrison of Valletta the largest city on the Island. That had been captured by a French expeditionary force during earlier during 1998. The garrison held over 3,000 men under the command of Claude Henri Belgrand de Vaubois and was besieged for over two years, eventually surrendering on Wednesday 2nd September 1880.

1798. Friday 12th October – Sunday 14th October. Warrens Victory Off Ireland. Captain R. Williams of the Marines lowered a boat and took possession of the French ship La Hoche with 50 officers of ranks on board going to join the rebel forces in Ireland, and also  the notorious Wolf Tone, at whose subsequent trail in Dublin he was a principle witness. A pair of large engravings of this action were published by an officer of Marines who was present on board HMS Canada.

1798. Tuesday 16th October. Kangaroo engaged Loire.

1798. Wednesday 17th October. Mermaid engaged Loire.

1798. Thursday 18th October. Anson and Kangaroo captured Loire.

1798. Saturday 20th October. Fisgard captured Immorlalite.

1798. Wednesday 24th October. Sirius captured Furie and Waakzamheid.

1798. Sunday 28th - 29th October. Cesar and consorts engaged four French frigates.

1798. October. Malta. 300 Marines served on shore during the blockade of Valetta under Major Weir who raised an efficient Regiment of Maltese. Castle of Gozo occupied by Captain J. Creswell and detachment Marines.

1798. Wednesday 7th November – 14th November. The reduction of Minorca. Captain Minto with Marines of HMS Centaur and HMS Leviathan.

1798. Monday 3rd December. Victorieuse and consorts at Trinidad.

1798. Friday 7th December. Perdrix captured Armee d'Italie.

1798. Friday 14th December. Aminscale captured by Bayonnaise.

1798. During the disturbances that took place in various parts of the kingdom, the loyalty of the troops was unshaken, and the example of devotion to their Sovereign which was first shown by the Marines at Chatham, then commanded by Lieutenant General Innes, was eagerly followed by the soldiers of the line in that garrison. The public journals were daily filled with the loyal resolutions of various Corps, and the seditious designs of the secret agitators entirely frustrated. Sergeant Pinn of the Chatham division particularly distinguished himself upon this occasion, and as a recompense for his excellent conduct the Lieutenant General granted him his discharge, but as this was done without the sanction of the Board of Admiralty the general was tried by a court martial for a breach of the Articles of War. Although there was no positive sanction of the Board for the step he had taken, yet it appeared in evidence that the Earl of St. Vincent, (then the first Lord,) in a conversation with General Innes upon the subject, had approved of the measure, consequently the court pronounced an honourable acquittal. His Royal Highness the Duke of York, commander of the forces, wrote to Lieutenant General Innes, expressing his high approbation of the loyalty and example shown by the Chatham division, and the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty also conveyed their satisfaction of their loyalty and zeal.

1798. Its recorded that tobacco was introduced in the navy, mostly for chewing, but was known and used on shore long before this time.

1799. Saturday 4th January. Wolverine engaged Ruse and Furet.

1799. Sunday 3rd - 22nd February. Bulldog and Perseus bombarded Alexandria.

1799. Wednesday 6th February. Argo captured Santa Teresa.

1799. Saturday 9th February. Daedalus captured Prudente.

1799. Friday 22nd February. Espoir engaged Spanish flotilla and captured Africa.

1799. Thursday 28th February. Sybille captured Forte.

1799. February. Salerno. Marines of Zealous assisted Neapolitans to repulse 3,000 French troops.

1799. Monday 18th March. Telegraph captured Hirondelle.

1799. March - May. Tigre Theseus and Alliance at Acre.

1799. Wednesday 20th March to 21st May 1799. The Defence of Acre (The Otteman Empire, against the French and Turks). Sir Sidney Smith shelled Bonaparte outside Saint John d'Acer, forcing him to lift the siege.

1799. Tuesday 26th March. Plymouth (Uniform). The Light Infantry Companies where directed to wear the new round Hats Bound in Black Tape, White Band and Looping, and Green worsted Tuft, to distinguish them from the Battalion Companies whose hats had Black Looping and red and White Tuffs. The grenadiers wore the same as the light Infantry, but had White Tuffs. But the Flank Companies did not last much longer as they were definitely abolished by an Admiralty Order of the 1st November 1804.

1797. Tuesday 30th March. Sparrow and Trent at Porto Rico.

1799. Friday 9th April. San Fiorenzo and Amelia engaged three French frigates.

1799. Tuesday 13th April. Amaranthe captured Vengeur.

1799. Tuesday 4th May. Fortune and gunboats captured by Salamine.

1799. Wednesday 12th May. Courier engaged a French privateer.

1799. Thursday 6th June. The cutting out of La Selva.

1799. Wednesday 9th June. Boats of Success cut out Belle Aurore.

1799. Saturday June 26. Alemene captured Conrageux.

1799. The strength of the Marines at that time was 22,716 men.

1799. Thursday 11th July. Naples and the siege of Port St. Elmo. 800 Marines under Colonel Strickland.

1799. Sunday 18th July. Alemene and boats captured two Spanish vessels.

1799. Monday 29th July – 4th August. The taking of Capua and Gaeta.

1799. Monday 9th August. Speedy and boats captured Spanish armed vessel.

1799. Wednesday 11th - 12th August. Attack on Schiermonikoog.

1799. Friday 13th - 30th August. Operations in the Texel.

1799. Saturday 14th August. Fox, Dadalus and boats destroyed Kosseir.

1799. Thursday 19th August. Surinam taken.

1799. Friday 20th August. Clyde captured Vestale.

1799. Thursday 26th August. Tamar captured Republicaine.

1799. Monday 13th September. Arrow and Wolverine captured Draak and Gier.

1799. Monday 20th September. Camel and Rattlesnake engaged Freueuse.

1799. Wednesday 2nd October. The battle of Alkmaar was fought between forces of the French Republic and her ally, the Batavian Republic under the command of general Guillaume Marie Anne Brune, and an expeditionary force from Great Britain and her ally Russia, commanded by Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany in the vicinity of Alkmaar during the Anglo-Russian Invasion of Holland. Although the battle ended in a tactical draw, the Anglo-Russians were in a position at the end of the battle that favoured them slightly in a strategic sense. This prompted Brune to order a strategic withdrawal the next day to a line between Monnickendam in the East and Castricum in the West. There the final battle of the campaign would take place on Sunday 6th October.

1799. Sunday 3rd October. Speedy chased Spanish coasters on shore.

1799. Tuesday 5th October. Ferret engaged Spanish privateer.

1799. Sunday 10th - 11th October. Jupiter engaged Prencuse.

1799. Friday 11th October. The defence of Lemmer Town, West Friesland. The garrison consisted of 157 Seamen and Marines. At 5 am a small advance party of French and Batavians attempted to storm the north Battery. They were entrapped between two fires surrounded by the seamen armed with pikes and surrendered. The main body of the enemy 670 strong soon after assaulted the village, but after a sharp fight of four hours and a half were driven off with a loss of 5 and 11 wounded. The officers present 1st Lieut. Marmaduke WY bourn and L2nd Lieuts. J. Howell, Jas. Higginson and Rd. Gardner.

1799. Tuesday 12th October. Trincomalee engaged Iphigenie and both sank.

1799. Friday 15th October. Ethalion captured Thetis.

1799. Sunday 17th October. Boats of Echo cut out Buonaparte.

1799. Sunday 17th October. Triton and consorts captured Santa Brigida.

1799. Wednesday 20th October. Cerberus engaged five Spanish frigates.

1799. Sunday 24th October. Orpheus captured Zeelast and Zeevraght.

1799. Monday 25th October. Boats of Surprise cut out Hermione.

1799. Friday 29th - 31st October. Boats of Tigre engaged off Damietta.

1799. Saturday 6th November. Speedy engaged twelve Spanish vessels.

1799. Monday 22nd November. Courier captured Guerriere.

1799. Wednesday 24th November. Solebay captured Egyptienne and three others.

1799. Friday 3rd December. Racoon captured Intrepide.

1799. Saturday 11th December. Tremendous and Adamant destroyed Preneuse.

1799. Friday 17th December. Amiable engaged Sirene and Bergere.

1799. Monday 20th December. Boats of Queen Charlotte re-captured Lady Nelson.

1799. Friday 24th - 30th December. Tigre took El Arisch.

1799. Sunday 26th December. Viper captured Furet.