Royal Marines

Historical Time Line


1800. The strength of the Marines was 24,231.

1800. Wednesday 5th February. Fairy and Harpy engaged Pallas.

1800. Thursday 6th February. Loire and consorts captured Pallas.

1800. Tuesday February 18th. Alexander and Success captured Genereux and transports.

1800. February. A large convoy under the Command of Contre-Admiral Jean-Baptiste Perrée sailed from Toulon in France to try and resupply its besieged garrison of Valletta on the Island of Malta. The blockade squadron under the Command of Rear Admiral Lord Nelson intercepted the convoy and in the brief battle Jean Baptise Perrée was killed and his flagship captured.

1800. Quote."Every revolving year seemed to add to the naval superiority of Great Britain. In each quarter the enemy's fleets were blockaded within their ports, the happy result of our reiterated victories. In the Mediterranean, Lord Keith, by his cruizers, was highly instrumental in producing the fall of Genoa, to the Austrian General Melas, by cutting off its supplies, and occasional bombardments. Early in 1800 a battalion of Marines was landed at Malta, which had withstood a tedious blockade, and still held out with uncommon perseverance. The occasion presented no opportunities of signalising themselves, but by the most exemplary good conduct, under the following Officers" Captain Weir. (Major Commandant.)

1800. Sunday 2nd March. Nereide captured Vengeance.

1800. Wednesday 5th March. Phoebe captured Heureux.

1800. Friday 21st March. Petrel captured Ligurienne.

1800. Sunday 30th March. Penelope and consorts captured Guillaume Tell.

1800. March. The French ship Guillaume Tell set sail from Valletta to Toulon France laden with soldiers to try and break the blockade of Malta. However, it was intercepted, and after a long battle it finally surrender to a larger British squadron Commanded by Rear Admiral Nelson. The defeat rendered the French position on Valletta untenable, and its surrender inevitable. Although the town of Vaubois held out for further five months. It eventually surrendered on Saturday 4th September, by which time the garrison mortality rate from malnourishment and typhus had reached 100 men a day. Malta was retained by Britain, and control of the island was a factor in the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars in 1803. After the surrender a battalion of Marines were garrisoned at Valetta.

1800. March. The British blockade of Genoa and Massena was besieged by the Austrians under the Command of General Melas attacked and by the third week in April had managed to advance towards the Var River. While Massena and half the army in Genoa were besieged by land, by the Austrians and under a very tight blockade by the Royal Navy. In response Berthier moved but not to the threatened frontier, but to Geneva and Massena and was instructed to hold Genoa until at least Wednesday 4th June.

1800. Sunday 6th April. Emerald captured a Spanish ship.

1800. Monday 7th April. Boats of Leviathan and Emerald captured Los Ingleses.

1800. Monday 7th April. Leviathan and Emerald captured Carmen and Florentine.

1800. Saturday 12th April. Boats of Calypso cut out Diligente.

1800. Monday 21st April. Lark engaged a French privateer.

1800. Friday 25th April. Lark and boats captured Imprenable.

1800. April - June. Blockade of Genoa'.

1800. April - June. Blockade and surrender of Savona.

1800. Wednesday 21st May. Boats of Minotaur, and consort cut out a galley.

1800. Wednesday 4th June. Thames and Cynthia attacked Quiberon.

1800. Friday 6th June. Impetueux and consorts at Morbihan.

1800. Wednesday 11th June. Boats of Renown and consorts cut out Nochette and others.

1800. Monday 23rd June. Storming of forts at Quimper.

1800. Tuesday 1st July. Boats of Renown and consorts at Noirmontier.

1800. Tuesday 8th July. Capture of Desiree, and consort at Dunkirk.

1800. Friday 25th July. Nemesis and Arrow captured Freya.

1800. Tuesday 29th July. Boats of Impetueux, and consort captured Cerbere.

1800. Monday 4th August. Belliqneux captured Concorde.

1800. Wednesday 20th - 21st August. Seine captured Vengeance.

1800. Sunday 24th August. Success captured Diane.

1800. Wednesday 25th August. The Battle of Ferrol. During the abortive attack on this place by an expedition under the command of Lieutenant General Sit James Pultney, Lieutenant Jasper Farmar and George Richards with their detachments landed and stormed a battery of six guns which commanded the landing area for the Army.

1800. Friday 29th August. Boats of squadron cut out Guepe.

1800. Tuesday 3rd September. Boats of Minotaur and Niger cut out Paz and Esmeralda.

1800. Wednesday 4th September. The French capitulation of Malta to the British fleet, which had been blockading the island for two years. The Marines occupied Valetta after its surrender.

1800. Thursday 5th September. Malta capitulated. of which the Marines took possession. The indefatigable exertions of Captain (now Sir A.) Ball, of the Royal Navy, did him much honor, and it was partly owing to the seasonable arrival of Major General Pigott with a reinforcement, as well as to the debarkation of the Marines, that this important key to Egypt was so soon added to our dominion. The steady vigilance of the Navy, during a blockade of two years, had a pre-eminent share in this final event. The fortress of Savona, reduced to famine, by the activity of Captain Downman and his little squadron.

1800. Monday 11th September. Curacoa capitulated.

1800. September. Active engaged at Amsterdam, Curacoa.

1800. Wednesday 8th October. Gipsy captured Quid pro Quo.

1800. Monday 27th October. Boats of Phaeton cut out San Josef.

1800. Friday 7th November. Netley captured San Miguel.

1800. Thursday 13th November. Milbrook captured Bellone which afterwards escaped.

1800. Monday 17th November. Boats of squadron destroyed Reolaise.

1800. Sunday 7th December. Nile and Lurcher captured a convoy.

1800. Wednesday 10th December. Admiral Pasley captured by Spanish gun-vessels.

1801. The Baker rifle was used during the Napoleonic Wars. It continued to be in service in the British Army until the 1840's.

1801. Thursday 1st January. After the Act of Union was passed with Ireland which incorporated Ireland into the United Kingdom, there was an influx of Irish volunteers into the Marines.

1801. Saturday 3rd January. Boats of Melpomene cut out Senegal.

1801. Tuesday 6th January. Boats of Mercury captured French convoy of fifteen sail.

1801. Friday 9th January. Constitution captured by two French cutters.

1801. Friday 9th January. Constitution re-captured by Harpy and Greyhound.

1801. Friday 16th - 17th January. Garland and consorts captured Eclair.

1801. Tuesday 20th January. Mercury captured Sans Pareil.

1801. Friday 23rd January. Active's company in a Spanish prize captured Sta. Maria.

1801. Tuesday 27th January. Ossian and Sirius captured Dedaigneux.

1801. Tuesday 27th January. Concorde engaged Bravoure.

1801. Thursday 29th January. Bordolais sunk Curieux.

1801. Friday 13th March. The Battle of Aboukir in Egypt. The British army of 7000 strong effected its disembarkation at Aboukir, defeating the French force opposing it. In this engagement Lieutenant E, Bailie of the Marines was attached to the 27th Foot. The Marines detachments of about 30 ships were formed into a battalion of just over 600 strong (all ranks), and landed on the Saturday 12th March. This battalion was attached to the 3rd Brigade under Lord Cavan, as were the 50th and the 79th Regiments. It was at once paraded under a blazing sun, and after 2 to 3 hours one half of the battalion set off to fill sand bags for the batteries, while the other heavily laden with muskets and knapsacks of the working party advanced for a considerable distance through sand in which the men often sank knee deep. Some hours later, at 7 in the evening, it was re-joined by the other half battalion and the whole were ordered to march and join the rest of the army, then about 15 miles distant. After the hard day’s work the battalion had put in under a boiling Eastern sun it reached its destination at one in the morning of the 13th, a fine marching record for men whose services had been on ships up to the day before.

At 5am the troops were under arms, and the British advanced in two lines with the object of turning the French Flank. To counter this the French descended from the hills on which they had been posted and attacked the leading Brigades. The engagement becoming general the Marines, owing to the narrowness of the peninsular upon which the fighting was taking place, were somewhat crowded in their ranks by the battalions on their right and left, and it was at this crisis, owing to their too great eagerness to get to close quarters with the enemy, that they suffered severe loss. Both officers and men greatly distinguished themselves, and charged the French so repeatedly and with such determination and gallantry that they earned for themselves the cognomen of “The Bulldogs of the Army”. The battalion was under the command of Colonel Walter Smith, and in Sir Ralph Abercrombie’s Orders of the day following, he was asked to accept the thanks of the General for himself and his battalion “for their gallant conduct in the course of the services of yesterday.

1801. Wednesday 18th March. The Marines marched to Aboukir, and when Aboukir Castle surrendered after some day’s bombardment, they were again thanked in orders for their assistance and detailed as its garrison. Two days later the Marines were relieved by the 92nd Regiment and joined Major General Erye Coote’s Brigade before Alexandria. This city capitulated on the Saturday 3rd September, the Marines were re-embarked on the 5th, on which day their Brigadier Major General Finch issued the following farewell order: “Major General Finch, in taking leave of Lieutenant Colonel Smith and the Marines under his command, requests him to accept his warmest thanks for the order, regularity, zeal and attention that have uniformly marked their conduct during the period he had the honour of commanding the First Brigade, and he shall be happy on all occasions, to bear testimony to their merit in the correct performance of their duty, in every respect, which has come under his observation.”

1801. Wednesday 18th February. Penguin engaged French vessels.

1801. Thursday 19th February. Capture of Africaine.

1801. Monday 2nd March. Capture of Bienvenue.

1801. Sunday 8th - 8th March. Disembarkation in Egypt. (Naval Brigade Ashore).

1801. Friday 13th March. French defeated near Alexandria. (Naval Brigade Ashore).

1801. Friday 20th March. St Bartholomew capitulated.

1801. Saturday 21st March. French defeated at Canopus. (Naval Brigade Ashore).

1801. Sunday 22nd March. Andromache and Cleopatra at Cuba.

1801. Tuesday 24th March. St. Martin, W. Indies, surrendered.

1801. Sunday 29th March. St. Thomas and St. John, W. Indies, capitulated.

1801. Monday 30th March. British Fleet forced the Sound.

1801. Tuesday 31st March. Santa Cruz, W. Indies, surrendered.

1801. Thursday 2nd April. The Battle of Copenhagen saw a British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker fight and strategically defeat a Danish-Norwegian fleet anchored just off Copenhagen, Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson led the main attack. He is supposed to have disobeyed Sir Hyde Parker's order to withdraw by holding the telescope to his blind eye to look at the signals from Parker. However, Parker's signals had given him permission to withdraw at his discretion, at which Nelson declined. His action to carry on resulted in the destruction of many of the Danish-Norwegian ships before a truce was finally agreed. Copenhagen is often considered to be Nelson's hardest fought Battle.

1801. Friday 3rd April. HMS Trent at Havre De Grace. The bravery of Lieutenant Tait of the Marines (This officer had been thought to have been the original of Sir Walter Scott’s ‘Captain Clutterbuck’.

1801. Monday 6th July. The Battle of Algeciras Bay refers to two separate battles during July 1801 between an allied French-Spanish fleet and the British near Gibraltar. The French drove off an attack by the larger British fleet and captured one of their ships of the line. The battle of Algezitas is remembered by the Heroism of Lieutenant J.D. Williams of the HMS Hannibal.

1801. Wednesday 8th July. The second Battle of Algeciras Bay in which the British pursued the Franco Spanish fleet, destroying two Spanish ships and capturing one French ship. The British squadron suffered various degrees of damage and lost 121 men killed and 240 wounded. While the French lost 306 killed, including Captains Laindet Lalonde and Moncousu, and 280 wounded.

The British fleet consisted of six ships of the line:

HMS Caesar 80 guns (flag of Rear-Adm. James Saumarez, with Captain Jahleel Brenton).

HMS Pompee 74 guns (Captain Charles Stirling).

HMS Spencer 74 guns (Captain Henry D’Esterre Darby).

HMS Venerable 74 guns (Captain Samuel Hood).

HMS Hannibal 74 guns (Captain Solomon Ferris).

HMS Audacious 74 guns (Captain Shuldham Peard).

The French squadron consisted of:

Formidable 80 guns (flag of Rear-Adm. Linois, with Captain Laindet Lalonde †).

Indomptable 80 guns (Captain Moncousu).

Desaix 74 guns (Captain Jean-Anne Christy de la Pallière).

Muiron 40 guns (Captain Martinencq).

The Spanish element of the Franco-Spanish squadron consisted of:

Real Carlos 112 guns (Captain Don J. Esquerra).

San Hermenegildo 112 guns (Captain Don J. Emparran).

San Fernando 94 guns (Captain Don J. Malina).

Argonauta guns 80 (Captain Don. J. Herrera).

San Agustín 74 guns (Captain Don. R. Topete).

San Sabina 44 guns (frigate carrying the flag of both Vice-Adm. Moreno and Rear Admiral Linois).

1801. Saturday 15th August – 16th August. The Attack on the Boulogne Flotilla.

1801. Thursday 16th April. St. Eustatius, W. Indies, seized.

1801. Tuesday 18th - 21st August. Marabou Island surrendered. (Naval Brigade Ashore).

1801. Wednesday 19th April. Sibylle captured Chiffonne.

1801. Wednesday 6th May. Speedy captured Gamo.

1801. Monday 25th May. Boats of Mercury re-took Bulldog.

1801. Tuesday 9th June. Kangaroo and Speedy destroyed gunboats and consorts.

1801. Wednesday June 24. Swiftsure captured by Dix Aout and consorts.

1801. Sunday 28th June. Boats of Mercury and Corso captured Tigre.

1801. Friday 3rd July. Speedy captured by French squadron.

1801. Monday 6th July. Action on Algeciras. Loss of Hannibal.

1801. Sunday 12th July. Saumarez's action off Gibraltar.

1801. Tuesday 21st July. Cutting out of Chevrette.

1801. Tuesday 21st July. Pasley engaged a 22 gun xebec.

1801. Friday 31st July. Sylph engaged a French frigate.

1801. Monday 3rd August. Pomone captured Carriere.

1801. Monday 10th August. Boats of Atalante captured Eveilie.

1801. Thursday 20th August. The Capture of the Spanish ship Neptune and others at Corunna. Lieutenant Mark Anthony Gerrard of the Marines of HMS Fishguard was a volunteer in this cutting out affair effected under guns of the Corunna batteries. He was presented with a sabre and belt by his ship mates “in memory of the action with ’L’Immortalite’, on the 20th September, the boarding expeditions at the Saintes, Penmarcks, Quimper, Noirmoutier, St. Andero, and Corunna, in which he served as a volunteer and bore so distinguished a part.”

1801. Friday 21st August. Cutting-out operations at Etaples.

1801. August. Nelson's operations at Boulogne.

1801. Wednesday 2nd September. Alexandria surrendered. (Naval Brigade Ashore).

1801. Wednesday 2nd - 6th September. Victor destroyed a French corvette.

1801. Wednesday 2nd September. Minerve and Pomone took Success and destroyed Bravoure.

1801. Tuesday 8th September. Sylph engaged Artemise.

1801. Sunday 13th September. Lark captured Esperanta.

1801. Sunday 13th September. Attack on Porto Ferrajo.

1801. Monday 14th September – 25th March 1802. The defence of Porto Ferrajo. Lieutenant Lawrence and the detachment of HMS Pearl served with the garrison. “This little force by its constancy and courage, ever set the best of examples, and its men were always foremost on service, and stood their posts and their guns when the Tuscan and other foreign troops gave away. They were most useful in preparing shells, mounting and transporting cannon and in repairing their carriages, as well as in construction works. Their knowledge of gunnery, and their ambition to gain honour for their Corps and themselves induced them to live in their batteries, and the little sleep they got was alongside their cannon.” Colonel Airey who commanded the British garrison having applied to Admiral Sir J. Warren for his co-operation in an attack upon some French batteries which shut up the port, 449 Marines under Captain John Richardson and a division of 240 seamen were landed just after day break on 14th September. They were joined by a detachment of Swiss troops and a party of Tuscans, The Maltese Corps raised and Commanded by Major Weir of the Marines was also engaged on this occasion. At the beginning of the attack on the batteries on the right of the Bay, Captain Long RN was killed while gallantly leading his men. “A suspension of arms was maintained while his body was borne with full military honours to the grave.” After this remarkable pause in hostilities, Lieutenant Campbell of the Marines instantly charged, and drove the French into a narrow pass, where, his further advance was checked by the arrival of French reinforcements, and he had to fall back on the garrison. Meanwhile on the other side of the bay several of the batteries were destroyed by the British together with a large quantity of ammunition, after which the arrival of a very superior force of the enemy compelled a retreat to the boats.

1801. Wednesday 28th October. Pasley captured Rosario.

1801. 1st December. A mutiny broke out on board a squadron in Bantry Bay that continued until the 11th December. The Marines remained firm to their allegiance, and it is probable that their zealous and loyal conduct deterred the seamen from further resistance of the Commands to their officers. Six of the ring leaders were executed on the 5th January 1802, and five on the 19th of the same month.

1802. April. Mutiny of the West India Regiment at Dominica. At which the Marines played a large part in putting it down.

1802. Friday 9th April. The 8th West India Regiment made up of free black and runaway slave members mutinied, killing some officers and non-commissioned officers. The mutiny was suppressed after nearly 100 of the mutineers were killed. In the subsequent investigation, it was discovered that the black soldiers had been severely abused, and Colonel Johnstone their commander was blamed for the mutiny and suspended from duty.

1802. Thursday 29th April. The Marines were given the title of Royal Marines by King George III on the recommendation of the Admiral of the Fleet John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent Admiralty Office. “His Majesty has been graciously pleased to signify His Commands that, in consideration of the very rigorous services of the Marines during the late War, the Corps shall in future be styled The Royal’ Marines by Command of their Lordships. (Signed) Evan Nepean.” On acquiring the title of Royal, the facings of the Marines, which had been white, were changed to Blue as in other Royal Corps of Infantry. The Laurel was also authorised to be borne as a testimony of the gallantry of the Marines at the siege of Belle-Isle in the year 1761, and is encircled about the figure of the Globe on the Colours.

1802. When the Marines were made Royal, Lord Vincent is reported to have said: “In obtaining for them the distinction of ‘Royal’ I but inefficiently did my duty I never knew an appeal made to them for honour, courage or loyalty that they did not more than realise my biggest expectations. If ever the real danger should come to England they will be found the country’s sheet Anchor."

1802. The establishment of the Corps strength was 12,119 men.

1803 to 1815. The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought between Napoleon's French Empire and a series of opposing coalitions. That composed of the United Kingdom, Prussia, Austria, Sweden, Spain, Portugal and Russia against France. The wars where originally sparked by the French Revolution during 1789. Napoleon went on to fight 60 battles, losing only seven, mostly towards the end of his rein. The great French Dominion collapsed rapidly after the disastrous invasion of Russia during 1812. Eventually Napoleon was defeated by the Russians in 1814. He returned to France and was finally defeated in 1815 at the battle of Waterloo, and all of France's gains were stripped away by the victors. During the Napoleonic Wars the Royal Marines participated in all the naval battles on board Royal Navy's ships and several amphibious landings.

1803. Establishment of the Corps was increased to 22,467. Many officers were allowed the retirement, and through the advocacy of the Earl St Vincent, it was made an open list.

1803. Friday 18th March. Besides the many useful reforms adopted by Earl St. Vincent, for the internal œconomy of the British Navy, his Lordship also turned his attention to the Corps of Royal Marines. Upon the 18th of March, a new code of instructions was published for their regulation when on shore, which vests in the four Senior Captains of each division, the management and superintendance of many concerns that had formerly been placed under separate departments. It would exceed my bounds to attempt the discussion of arrangements which are obviously well designed to promote the interests of the public and the individual, as well as to establish a facility in subordinate transactions. Experience, doubtless, will attest their wisdom, and posterity recognize with gratitude their enlightened author.

1803. Wednesday 18th May. Doris captured Affronteur.

1803. Saturday 28th May. Minotaur captured Franchise.

1803. Tuesday 14th June. Immortalite and consorts cut out Inabordable and Commode.

1803. Centaur and consorts took Morne Fortunee.

1803. Saturday 25th June. Endymion captured Bacchante.

1803. Monday 27th June. Boats of Loire captured Venteux.

1803. Tuesday 28th June. Goliath captured Mignonne.

1803. Tuesday 28th June. Hereule engaged Poursuivante.

1803. Thursday 30th June. Vanguard and Cumberland captured Creole.

1803. Thursday 30th June. Capture of Tobago.

1803. Saturday 2nd July. Minerve captured off Cherbourg.

1803. Monday 4th July. Boats of Naiad cut out Providence.

1803. Monday 11th July. Racoon captured Lodi.

1803. Monday 25th July. Vanguard and Tartar captured Duquesne.

1803. Monday 1st August. Boats of Hydra captured Favori.

1803. Sunday 14th August. Racoon captured Petite Fille, Amelie, and Jeune Adele.

1803. Wednesday 17th August. Racoon destroyed Mutine.

1803. Thursday 25th August. Seagull and Colossus captured Lord Nelson (late British).

1803. Wednesday 31st August. Boadicca engaged Duguay-Trouin and Guerriere.

1803. Friday 9th September. Boats of Sheerness captured two chasse-marees.

1803. Tuesday 13th - 15th September. Cerberus and consorts at Granville.

1803. Wednesday 14th September. Dieppe bombarded by Immortalite and consorts.

1803. Tuesday 20th September. Princess Augusta repulsed Union and Wraak.

1803. Tuesday 27th September. Calais bombarded by Autumn and consorts.

1803. Thursday 29th September. Boats of Antelope in the Texel.

1803. Thursday 29th September. Leda drove ashore 23 gun-vessels.

1803. September. Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice surrendered.

1803. Monday 9th October. Boats of Atalante cut out two French vessels.

1803. Wednesday 26th October. Boats of Osprey captured Ressource.

1803. Thursday 27th October. Milbrook and boats destroyed Sept Freres.

1803. Monday 31st October. Admiral Mitchell drove ashore a French gun-brig.

1803. Friday 4th November. Launch of Blanche cut out a French schooner.

1803. Friday 4th November. Boats of Blanche cut out Albion.

1803. Saturday 5th November. Lieutenant Edward Nicolls RM led a 12 man cutting-out party in the cutter from HMS Blanche, and captured the French cutter Albion from under the battery at Monte Christe in Santo Domingo. The Albion had a crew of 43 men and was armed with two 4-pounder guns and six swivels. In the fighting the French Captain wounded Nicolls with a pistol shot before being himself killed. The British lost two dead and two wounded, including Nicolls. Later he became known as fighting Nicholls. During his remarkable career he saw action 106 times, was wounded six times, court martialled twice, and demoted. However, he was eventually promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General.

1803. Sunday 6th November. Cutter of Blanche captured a French trooper.

1803. Monday 14th November. Boats of Blenheim and Drake captured Harmonie and stormed.

1803. Wednesday 16th November. Boats of Blenheim at Martinique. Lieutenant G. Beatty and 60 Marines storm Fort Dunkirk protecting the harbour of Marin, while the seamen cut out L’Harmonie a French privateer.

1803. Saturday 26th November. The storming of a battery at Petite Ance D’Arlette on Martinique. Captain Acheson Crozier. Lieutenant. W. Walker and Marines of HMS Centaur carried a 9 gun battery of 24 pounders. Lieutenant Walker received a sword of honour and £100 from the Patriotic fund.

1803. Wednesday 30th November. Capture of Cape Francois and Surveillante and Clorinde.

1803. Friday 16th December. Merlin destroyed the grounded British frigate Shannon.

1803. Royal Marine George Smith arrived in Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) along with his wife Grace Morrisby onboard the Calcutta, as a guard looking after the convicts.

1804. Tuesday 3rd January - 25th March. The Attack on Curacao. Lieutenant Nicholls and 199 Marines belonging to HMS Hercule, HMS Blanche, HMS Pique and HMS Gipsy were present, when fort Piscadoro was stormed and French troops driven under the guns of Fort Republique by seamen and Marines of these ships. Lieutenant Nicolls and his Marines withstood 28 consecutive days of continuous enemy assaults on their positions.

1804. January - February. Operations at Curacoa.

1804. Sunday 27th May. The cutting out of La Conception.

1804. Saturday 4th February Boats of Centaur cut out Citrieux.

1804. Sunday 5th February. Eclair engaged Grand Decide.

1804. Sunday 19th February. Boats of Drake cut out a schooner at Martinique.

1804. Monday 20th February. Active engaged 16 gunboats and took a transport.

1804. Friday 24th February. Party from Drake stormed Trinite Fort.

1804. Sunday 4th March. Boats of Blenheim cut out Curieux.

1804. Monday 5th March. Cutter of Eclair cut out Rose.

1804. Wednesday 7th March. Boats of Inconstant cut out a ship at Goree.

1804. Thursday 8th March. Goree taken.

1804. Tuesday 13th March. Emerald and consort's boats cut out Mozambique.

1804. Wednesday 14th March. Drake captured two prizes.

1804. Saturday 17th March. Penguin and boats destroyed Renommee.

1804. Friday 23rd March. Osprey engaged Egyptienne.

1804. Saturday 24th March. Wolverine captured by Blonde.

1804. Sunday 25th March. Hippomenes captured Egyptienne.

1804. Saturday 31st March. Scorpion and Beaver cut out Dutch vessels.

1804. Tuesday 3rd April. Swift captured Esperanee.

1804. Monday 9th April. Amazon captured a brig under fire at Sepet.

1804. Tuesday 10th April. Wilhelmina engaged Psyche.

1804. April - May. Operations and capture of Surinam.

1804. Tuesday 8th May. Vincejo captured by 17 French vessels.

1804. Tuesday 15th May. Cruiser and five consorts engaged 60 vessels off Blankenberg.

1804. Thursday 24th May. Reconnaissance of Toulon.

1804. Thursday 21st June. Unsuccessful engagement with Buonaparte.

1804. Wednesday 11th July. Boats of Narcissus, Seahorse and Maidstone at La Vandour.

1804. Thursday 12th July. Aigle destroyed Charente and Joie.

1804. Sunday 15th July. Lily captured by Dame Ambert.

1804. Tuesday 31st July. Tartar's boats captured Hirondelle.

1804. July - Aug. Dieppe bombarded.

1804. Sunday 12th August. Galatea's boats failed to cut out General Ernouf (late Lily).

1804. Friday 17th August. Loire captured Blonde.

1804. Saturday 18th August 1804. Lord Melville became The First Lord of the Admiralty.

1804. August. The King authorised the formation of the Royal Marine Artillery (RMA) for service on board the Bomb Ketches and other like vessels, and to man ordnance ashore in support of Naval operations. One company was raised for each division.

Although the Ketches had originally manned by the Army's Royal Regiment of Artillery. A lawsuit by a Royal Artillery officer resulted in a court decision that Army officers were not subject to Naval orders.

As their uniforms were the blue of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, this group was sometimes nicknamed the 'Un-boiled Lobsters' or the 'Blue Marines'. While the Infantry element, who wore the scarlet uniforms of the British infantry, became known as the 'Red Marines', often given the derogatory nickname 'Lobsters' by sailors. A fourth division, known as the Woolwich, was formed on Thursday 15th August 1805, which soldiered on until they were abolished in 1870.

While an Artillery company had been added to each division at the time of the fourth division formation, and in 1854 the seperate title of 'Royal Marine Light Artillery' was conferred and the old artillery companies, by that time increased in number, were constituted as a seperate corps under the name of the 'Royal Marine Artillery'. This Corps headquartered in Portsmouth with fourteen companies.

At that time the total force of the Marines was 29,000 men.

1804. Saturday 25th August. Immortalite and Bruiser engaged off Boulogne.

1804. Sunday 26th August. Immortalite and consorts engaged, and Constitution sunk.

1804. 18th September. Centurion engaged Marengo, Atalante, and Semillante.

1804. Wednesday 3rd October. Indefatigable and consorts took or destroyed Fama, Medea, Mercedes, and Clara.

1804. Friday 5th October. The capture of three Spanish Treasure ships of Cadiz. The Captain, officers and crew of the HMS Lively, one of the ships engaged in the capture, gave £50 to Thomas Tough, a Marine who lost his arm in the engagement in testimony of their admiration of his “brave and meritorious conduct in the action”.

1804. Friday 5th October. The Battle of Cape Santa Maria, was a naval action that took place off the southern Portuguese coast, in which a British squadron under the command of Commodore Graham Moore attacked a Spanish squadron Commanded by Brigadier Don José de Bustamantey Guerra, in a time of peace, without a declaration of war between Britain and Spain.

1804. Monday 8th October. Albacore engaged off Gros Nez.

1804. Tuesday 23rd October. Cruiser lost in engagement off Ostend.

1804. Nearly ten percent of each company were comprised of foreigners, mainly Maltese, German, Spanish and Portuguese. Each company on paper was to comprise 1 Captain, 2 first Lieutenants, 2 second Lieutenants, 8 Sergeants, 8 Corporals, 6 Drummers and 140 Privates. Each Marine Division also had a grenadier and a light company, (but they were abolished in 1804). With disease, shortages and battle caused deaths, it was highly unlikely that the paper figures were ever met. The Marine companies were dispersed throughout the fleet and where also needed on land.

1805. Monday 28th January. Gipsy destroyed privateer schooner.

1805. Sunday 3rd February. Arrow and Acheron taken by Hortense and Incorruptible.

1805. Friday 8th February. Curieux captured Dame Ernouf.

1805. Thursday 14th February. San. Fiorenzo captured Psyche.

1805. Sunday 17th February. Cleopatra captured by Ville de Milan.

1805. Saturday 23rd February. Leander re-captured Cleopatra and took Ville de Milan.

1805. Wednesday 20th March. Renard blew up General Ernouf.

1805. Saturday 23rd March. Boats of Stork captured Antelope and a brig.

1805. Friday 5th April. Boats of Bacchante at Mariel, Havana.

1805. Tuesday 9th April. Gracieux destroyed a Spanish armed schooner.

1805. Monday 15th April. Boats of Papillon captured Conception.

1805. Tuesday 23rd April. Gallant and consorts captured eight gun-vessels.

1805. Thursday 25th April. Archer captured two gun-vessels.

1805. Saturday 4th May. Seahorse and boats at San Pedro.

1805. Monday 6th May. French privateer Tape a bord captured.

1805. Monday 27th May. Spanish armed schooner Concepcion captured.

1805. Friday 31st May - 2nd June. Diamond Rock bombarded and capitulated.

1805. Sunday 2nd June. Boats of Loire at Camarinas Bay.

1805. Tuesday 4th June. Boats of Loire at Muros Bay.

1805. Monday 10th June. Chiffonne and consorts engaged French gunboats.

1805. Thursday 13th June. Boats of Cambrian captured Maria.

1805. June. Boats of Seine captured Felucca Concepcion.

1805. Wednesday 3rd July. Cambrian captured Matilda.

1805. Sunday 7th - 21st July. Cambian's party in Matilda in St. Mary's River.

1805. Monday 15th July. Plumper and Teazer captured by French gun vessels.

1805. Wednesday 17th - 18th July. Ariadne and consorts engaged off Boulogne.

1805. Friday 19th July. Blanche taken and destroyed by Topaze and three corvettes.

1805. Monday 22nd July. Sir Robert Calders action off Finisterre. Known as the Battle of Cape Finisterre off Galicia, Spain, the British fleet under Admiral Robert Calder fought an indecisive naval battle against the combined Franco Spanish fleet which was returning from the West Indies. Failing to prevent the joining of Villeneuve's fleet to the squadron of Ferrol and to strike the shattering blow that would have freed Great Britain from the danger of an invasion. The British received 198 dead or wounded, while the French and Spanish suffered 647 dead and wounded, 1200 were taken prisoners and two Spanish ships were captured. Although it was a strategic victory for the British, Calder was later court martialled and severely reprimanded for his avoiding of the French / Spanish fleet and a further possible engagement on the 23rd and 24th July.

1805. Tuesday 23rd July. Champion and consorts engaged off Fecamp.

1805. Friday 2nd August. Phaeton and Harrier engaged Semillante and consorts.

1805. Tuesday 6th August. Blenheim engaged Marengo and Belie Poule.

1805. Saturday10th August. The British HMS Phoenix and the French ship Didon fought bitterly off the Cape Ortegal during which the far more powerful Frenchmen rammed the British ship’s starboard quarter. The day was saved by Marine marksmen who prevented the French from boarding thus allowing the sailor’s time to manoeuvre a gun to sweep the Didons decks.

1805. Tuesday 13th August. Swift and boats at Truxillo.

1805. Thursday 15th August. Lord Barham presided at the Board of Admiralty an order in Council ordered a new division to be established a fourth division RMA company was added when a Woolwich Division was formed. They first saw service with the Boulogne Squadron and then at the second battle of Copenhagen that took place from the Friday 16th August to Saturday 5th September 1807. That saw a British bombardment of Copenhagen in order to seize the Dan-Norwegian fleet. During the same time of the fourth division's formation, an additional Artillery company was also added to each of the divisions. The strength of the Corps was now listed as 30,000 men, including four companies of artillery.

1805. Friday 16th August. Raisonnable engaged Topaze.

1805. Wednesday 21st August. Reconnaissance in Camaret Bay.

1805. Thursday 22nd August. Distant Engagement in Camaret Bay.

1805. Thursday 26th September. Calcutta captured by Magnanime and Armide.

1805. Wednesday 9th October. Princess Charlotte captured Cyane.

1805. Wednesday 16th October. Jason captured Naiade.

1805. Monday 21st October. The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navys, during the War of the Third Coalition from August to December 1805 as part of the Napoleonic Wars of 1803 to 1805. Sadly it was the battle that led to the death of Vice Admiral Lord Nelson, one of great Britain's navel and country heroes. As Lord Nelson lay wounded on board his Flag ship HMS Victory, having been shot by a French sniper high in the rigging of the French ship Redoubtable. Thomas Hardy ordered Royal Marine Sergeant Secker and some sailors to carry Nelson gently down to the orlop deck situated below the water line. Midshipman John Pollard age 18 on board HMS Victory is credited with being the man who killed the French sniper. It’s estimated that 3,600 Marines took part in the battle (nearly a third of the Corps). Some were involved in Cutting Out Operations during the battle.

1805. Battle of Trafalgar. The British Fleet details and losses:

HMS Victory 100 guns, Vice Admiral Lord Nelson (killed), Captain T.M. Hardy, 57 killed.

102 wounded. Captain Charles Wm. Adair (killed), First-Lieutenant James G. Peake (wounded), Second Lieutenant Lewis Buckle Reeves (wounded), Second Lieutenant Lewis Rotely.

HMS Temeraire 98 guns, Captain E. Harvey, 47 killed, and 76 wounded. Captain Simon Busigny (mortally wounded), Second Lieutenant William N. Roe, Second Lieutenant Samuel J. Payne (wounded), Second Lieutenant John Kingston (killed).

HMS Neptune 98 guns, Captain T. F. Freemantle, 10 killed, 34 wounded. First Lieutenant George Kendall, Second Lieutenant William Burton, Second-Lieutenant Lewis Rooke.

HMS Leviathan 74 guns, Captain H. W. Bayntum, 4 killed, 22 wounded. Captain George P.

Wingrove, First Lieutenant Nathaniel Cole, First Lieutenant Thomas J. W. Tane.

HMS Britannia 100 guns, Rear Admiral Earl of Northesk, Captain C. Bullen, 10 killed, 42 wounded. Captain Alexander Watson, First Lieutenant William Jackson, Second Lieutenant L.B.J. Halloran, Second Lieutenant John Cooke.

HMS Conqueror 74 guns, Captain J. Pellew, 3 killed, 9 wounded. Captain James Atcherly, Second Lieutenants Patrick Toole, and Thomas Wearing (wounded).

HMS Africa 64 guns, Captain Henry Digby, 18 killed, 44 wounded. Captain James Fynmore (wounded), First Lieutenant Thomas Brattle.

HMS Agamemnon 64 guns, Captain Sir E. Berry, 2 killed, 7 wounded. Captain H. B.

Downing, Second Lieutenant Herbert Raban, Second Lieutenant Donald Campbell.

HMS Ajax 74 guns, Lieutenant J. Pilfold, 2 killed, 9 wounded. Captain David Boyd, Second Lieutenant J. Cinnamond, Second Lieutenant Samuel B. Ellis.

HMS Orion 74 guns, Captain E. Codrington, 1 killed, 23 wounded. Captain Henry VV. Creswell, Second Lieutenant Stephen Bridgman.

HMS Minotaur 74 guns, Captain C.M. Mansfield, 3 killed, 22 wounded. Captain Paul Hunt, Second Lieutenant Nathaniel B. Grigg, Second Lieutenant Thomas Reeves.

HMS Spartiate 74 guns, Captain Sir F. Lafoi'ey, 3 killed, 20 wounded. First Lieutenant Samuel Hawkins, First Lieutenant John R. Coryton, Second Lieutenant G.D. Hawkins.

The Lee Colum:

HMS Royal Sovereign 100 guns, Vice Admiral C. Collingwood, Captain E. Rotheram, 47 killed, 94 wounded. Captain Joseph Vallack, Second-Lieutenant Robert Green (killed).

Second Lieutenant Armiger Wm. Hubbard, Second Lieutenant James Le Vescomte (wounded).

HMS Belleisle 74 guns, Captain W. Hargood (wounded), 34 killed, 96 wounded. First Lieutenant John Owen (wounded), Second Lieutenant John Weaver, Second Lieutenant Paul Harris Nicolas.

HMS Mars 74 guns, Captain G. Duff (killed), 29 killed, 69 wounded. Captain Thos. Norman, Second Lieutenant Charles Holmes, Second Lieutenant Robert Guthrie.

HMS Tonnant 80 guns, Captain C. Tyler (wounded), 26 killed, 50 wounded. Captain Arthur Ball, Second Lieutenant James Cottle, First Lieutenant William Magin.

HMS Bellerophon 74 guns, Captain J. Cooke (killed), 27 killed, 123 wounded. Captain James Wemyss (wounded), Second Lieutenants John Wilson (2nd), Peter Connolly, and Luke Higgins.

HMS Colossus 74 guns, Captain J. Morris (wounded), 40 killed, 160 wounded. Captain Elias Lawrence, Second Lieutenant William Laurie, Second-Lieutenant John Benson (wounded).

HMS Achille 74 guns, Captain R. King, 13 killed, 59 wounded. Captain Palms Westropp (wounded), Second Lieutenants William Liddon (wounded), and Francis Whalley.

HMS Dreadnought 98 guns, Captain J. Conn, 7 killed, 26 wounded. Captain Thomas Timmins, First Lieutenants John M'Cullum and Thomas Lemon, Second Lieutenant David Manley.

HMS Polyphemus 64 guns, Captain Robert Redmill, 2 killed, 4 wounded. Captain Michael Percival, First Lieutenant John Mackintosh, Second Lieutenant Charles Stewart.

HMS Revenge 74 guns, Captain R. Moorsom (wounded), 28 killed, 51 wounded. Captain Peter Lely (wounded), Second Lieutenant Arthur Copperthwaite, Second Lieutenant Henry Blackler Fairtlough.

HMS Swiftsure 74 guns, Captain H.G. Rutherford, 9 killed, 8 wounded. First Lieutenant William Gibbins, First Lieutenant Robert Gordon, Second Lieutenant Henry Miller.

HMS Defiance 74 guns, Captain P.C. Durham (wounded), 17 killed, 53 wounded. Captain Basil Alves, Second Lieutenant George Bristow.

HMS Thunderer 74 guns, Lieutenant J. Stockham, 4 killed, 12 wounded. Captain Gilbert Elliott, Second Lieutenant William Hockley, Second Lieutenant John Lister.

HMS Defence 74 guns, Captain G. Hope, 7 killed, 29 wounded. Captain Henry Cox, First Lieutenant John Wilson (1st), Second Lieutenant Alfred Burton.

HMS Prince 98 guns, Captain R. Grindall. Captain Francis Williams, Second Lieutenant Edward Pengelley, Second Lieutenant John Shillibeer.

Total, 450 killed, 1244 wounded.

Officers of Marines on board the Frigates: HMS Phoebe First Lieutenant Mortimer, HMS Timson ?, HMS Euryalus Lieutenant John Sandford, HMS Naiad Lieutenants Edward Jones and P.

The Combined Fleet:

S. Perkins; HMS Sirius, Lieutenants Thomas Moore and William Murray.

The direction in which the combined fleet now lay, with a home port scarcely seven leagues on their lee-bow, induced Lord Nelson to telegraph to his second in command, "I intend to pass through the van of the enemy's line, to prevent him from getting into Cadiz," and as the shoals of San Pedro and Trafalgar were under the lee of both fleets, his Lordship, in order to guard against that danger, made the signal "Prepare to anchor after close of day." Shortly afterwards that emphatic message of "England expects every man to do his duty" was communicated to the fleet by telegraph. The inspiring sentiment excited the most lively enthusiasm, and was greeted by hearty cheers on board of every ship.

Having already described the formation of the combined line of battle, it is only necessary to observe, that the Commander-in-Chief in the Bucentaure, with the Santissima Trinidada, his second, ahead, were directly in front of the Victory, the Santa Ana, bearing the flag of Vice-Admiral D'Alava, was in the same direction from the HMS Royal Sovereign whilst the Spanish Commander in Chief, Admiral Gravina, in the Principe d'Asturias, was the rearmost ship of the combined fleet, which formed nearly as follows, Neptuno 80 guns, Scipion 74, Intrepide 74, Rayo 100, Formidable 80, Dugnay Trouin 74, Mont Blanc 74, San Francisco d'Asis 74, San Augustin 74, Heros 74, Santissima Trinidada 130, Bucentaure 74, Neptune 80, San Leandro 64, Redoutable 74, San Justo 80, Indomptable 80, Santa Ana 112, Fougueux 74, Mo-narca 74, Pluton 74, Algesiras 74, Bahama 74, Aigle 74, Swift-sure 74, Argonaute 74, Montanez 74, Argonauta 80, Berwick 74, San Juan Nepornuceno 74, San Ildefonso 74, Achille 74, Principe d'Asturias 112.

1805. Monday 4th November. Sir Richard John Strachan’s (Colonel of Marines) Victory in the Bay of Biscay. Sir Richard was in command of a detached squadron including three ships of the line and four frigates in the Bay of Biscay. Whilst sailing off Cape Finisterreon on the 2nd November the squadron encountered four French ships of the line that had escaped from the Battle of Trafalgar under the command of Rear Admiral Dumanoir le Pelley. Sir Richard pursued them vigorously and forcrd them into battle on 4th November. After a short engagement, known as the Battle of Cape Ortegal in which he defeated and captured all of them, and in doing so completing the destruction of the French fleet.

1805. Friday 29th November. Boats of Serpent captured San Christoval Pano.

1805. Tuesday 24th December. Egyptienne and Loire captured Libre.

1805. By the end of the year the Corps numbered thirty thousand, the largest it ever saw during the Peninsular War.

1806. Thursday 2nd January. Wolf and consort captured two privateers.

1806. Sunday 5th - 12th January. Operations and capture of the Cape of Good Hope.

1806. Monday 6th January. Favourite captured by French squadron.

1806. Wednesday 8th January. The Battle of Blaauwberg, and the recapture of Cape Town, was a small but significant military engagement. It established British rule in South Africa, which was to have many ramifications for the region during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Captain McKenzie and 400 Marines played a major role during the battle.

1806. Tuesday 28th January. Growler captured Voltigeur.

1806. Tuesday 28th January. Attack captured Sorcier.

1806. January. Bruizer captured Impromptu.

1806. January. Boats of Franchise cut out Raposa.

1806. Thursday 6th February. Sir Robert Duckworth’s action off St. Domingo, against seven ships of the French line. He captured three and burned two, a major part of the French fleet. Only two Frigates, and a Corvet managed to escape.

1806. Thursday 27th February. Hydra captured Furet.

1806. Saturday 8th March. Boats of Egyptienne cut out Alcide.

1806. Thursday 13th March. London and Amazon captured Marengo and Belle Poule.

1806. Monday 17th March. Boats of Pique captured Santa Clara.

1806. Friday 21st March. Boats of Colpoys at Avillas.

1806. Monday 24th March. Reindeer engaged Voltigeur and Phaeton.

1806. Wednesday 26th March. Pique captured Voltigeur and Phaeton.

1806. Friday 28th March. Niobe captured Nearque.

1806. Friday 4th April. Renommee captured Vigilante and consort.

1806. Saturday 5th April. Pallas drove ashore three French corvettes.

1806. Saturday 5th April. Boats of Pallas captured Tapageuse.

1806. Thursday 17th April. Sirius at Civita Vecchia.

1806. Saturday 19th April. Colpoys and Attack in the Douillan.

1806. Monday 21st April. Tremendous engaged Canonniere.

1806. Friday 25th April. Pallas reconnoitred Isle of Aix.

1806. April. Pallas off La Vendee.

1806. April. Pompee and squadron succoured Gaeta.

1806. April. Frisk, Contest and Pallas at Pointe d'Aiguillon.

1806. Sunday 4th May. Boats of Renommee and Nautilus cut out Giganta.

1806. Sunday 11th May. Capture of Capri.

1806. Monday 12th May. Pallas and consorts off Isle of Aix.

1806. Monday 12th May. Boats of Juno at Gaeta.

1806. Monday 12th May. The Capture of the highly fortified Island of Capri, by Sir Sidney Smith's Marines and bluejackets, who wrestled the Island back from the French, after Bonaparte had taken it earlier in January.

1806. Wednesday 14th May. Pallas engaged Minerve and three brigs.

1806. Thursday 15th May. Juno supported a sortie from Gaeta.

1806. Friday 23rd May. HMS Pompee Captures Convoy at Sealia.

1806. June - October. Sir H. Popham's operations in the River Plate.

1806. Thursday 22nd June. Boats of Minerve in Finistere Bay.

1806. Monday 26th June. Boats of Port Mahon captured San Josef.

1806. Friday 27th June. The taking of Buenos Ayres. Major Alezr. McKenzie and 340 Marines were present.

1806. Friday 4th July. Boats of HMS Melpomone take a French Setee.

1806. Wednesday 9th July. Powerful captured Bellone.

1806. Friday 11th July. Boats of Minerve captured Buena Dicta.

1806. Wednesday 16th July. Boats of squadron cut out Cesar.

1806. Saturday 19th July. Blanche captured Guerriere.

1806. Saturday 26th July. Greyhound and Harrier took Pallas, Vittoria, and Balavia. Loss of the Sidney.

1806. Monday 28th July. Mars captured Rhin.

1806. Wednesday 30th July. Amphion at capture of Cotrone.

1806. July. The British invasions of the Río de la Plata in South America was a series of unsuccessful British attempts to seize control of the Spanish colonies located around the La Plata Basin. The area was vast and included parts of Argentina, Uruguay and especially the town of Buenos Aires. A detachment from the British army occupied Buenos Aires for 46 days during 1806 before being expelled.

1806. Thursday 14th August. Phosphorus beat off a French lugger.

1806. Monday 18th August. Boats of Galatea at Porto Cabello.

1806. Thursday 21st August. Boats of Galatea destroyed a privateer.

1806. Saturday 23rd August. Boats of Alexandria in the Plate.

1806. Saturday 23rd August. Anson and Arethusa captured Pomona and gunboats.

1806. Saturday 30th August. Boats of Bacchante cut out three vessels at Sta-Martha.

1806. Saturday 30th August. Pike captured a guarda-costa.

1806. Wednesday 3rd September. Squadron at Batabano.

1806. Sunday 14th September. Melampus destroyed Impetueux.

1806. Monday 15th September. Anson engaged Foudroyant.

1806. Thursday 25th September. Monarch, Centaur and Mars took four French men of war.

1806. Saturday 27th September. Dispatch captured Presidente.

1806. Tuesday 2nd October. Boats of Minerva at Oro Island.

1806. Thursday 9th October. Boats of Galatea cut out three schooners at Barcelona.

1806. Thursday 12th October. Sheldrake and consorts destroyed Salamandre.

1806. Saturday 18th October. Caroline captured Maria-Riggersbergen and three more.

1806. Tuesday 21st - 22nd October. Boats of Renommee at Colon, Majorca.

1806. Friday October. 24 to 26. Pitt captured Superbe.

1806. Saturday 1st November. Boats of Pique in Carbaret Bay.

1806. Sunday 2nd November. Pique took one privateer and destroyed another.

1806. Tuesday 11th November. Sceptre and Cornwallis engaged Semillante and batteries.

1806. Wednesday 12th November. Boats of Galatea captured Reunion.

1806. Thursday 20th November. Boats of Success captured Vengeur.

1806. Thursday 20th November. Boats of Orpheus captured Dolores.

1806. Friday 21st November. Dedaigneuse engaged Semillante.

1806. Thursday 27th November. Boats of squadron in Batavia Roads.

1806. Saturday 13th December. Halcyon captured Neptune.

1806. Tuesday 16th December. Kingfisher captured Elisabeth.

1806. Lord Howick succeeded Lord Barham as first Lord of the Admiralty. Nothing particular occurred during the short time he was at the Board, but under his successor, the Earl of Mulgrave, the Corps obtained many advantages; for his Lordship being a military man, was better capable of comprehending the real and combined interests of the Corps with that of the public service. He appointed an additional Lieutenant Colonel and a Major to the Woolwich division, placing it on the same footing as the other three, and at the same time ten companies were added to the establishment of the Corps, to appropriate the men already raised, but not attached. Second Captains were appointed to the companies as the Pay Captains, which gave promotion to sixteen First and sixteen Second Lieutenants.

1807. Thursday 1st January. HMS Arethusa land and storm Fort Amsterdam and capture Curacoa . At 1am the Frigates hove to when near the high land of St. Barbery's, on the east end of Curacoa, and having hoisted out the boats, and made the necessary arrangements for an immediate attack by storm, bore away for the mouth of the harbour at 6am, with HMS Arethusa leading, followed in close order by the HMS Latona, HMS Anson, and HMS Fisgard. The entrance is only 60 fathoms wide, and is defended by regular fortifications, the principal of which, Fort Amsterdam, standing on the right-hand side, mounts 60 pieces of cannon in two tiers. Athwart the harbour, (which nowhere exceeds a quarter of a mile in width) were the Dutch 36 gun frigate Halstaa, and 20 gun ship Surinam, besides two large armed schooners. On Middleburg height there was a chain of forts; and Fort Republique, deemed almost impregnable, situated upon a high hill at the bottom of the harbour, within half gunshot distance, enfiladed the whole. At daylight HMS Arethusa, with a flag of truce at the fore, entered the port; but the Dutch forts and shipping, taking no notice of the flag, opened a smart although ineffective fire. The wind suddenly shifting to the north, checked the further progress of HMS Arethusa; but in a few minutes it veered back to northeast, thereby enabling all the frigates, except HMS Fisgard, a ground on the west side, to lay up along the harbour, and the three remaining ships anchored in positions for cannonading the defences of the enemy.

HMS Arethusa was now lying with her jib boom over the wall of the town, when Captain Brisbane sent the following Bummons to the Governor, "The British squadron are here to protect, and not to conquer you, but to preserve to you your lives, liberty, and property. If a shot be fired at any one of my squadron after this summons, I shall immediately storm your batteries, you have five minutes to accede to this determination. "No notice being taken of this summons, the flag of truce was hauled down, and at 6-15am the British squadron commenced the action. After the discharge of the third broadside, Captain Brisbane, at the head of the boarders, carried the Dutch Frigate, and HMS Latona immediately warped alongside and took possession. In the meantime Captain Lydiard, with a division of men from the HMS Anson, had boarded and secured the Corvette.

Captains Brisbane and Lydiard then pulled straight for the shore, and landing together, proceeded at 7-30am. too storm Fort Amsterdam. The vigour of the assault was irresistible, whilst some were employed in forcing open the sea-gate, others escaladed the walls, and although the fort was garrisoned by 276 regular troops, it was carried in about ten minutes, and shortly afterwards the citadel and some minor forts, as well as the town, were in the possession of the British. On the return of Captains Brisbane and Lydiard to their respective ships, a fire was opened upon Fort Republique, and 300 seamen and Marines were landed to attack it in the rear, but without waiting for such encounter the fort surrendered, and by noon the whole island of Curacoa had capitulated to the British arms.

This unparalleled achievement was accomplished with no greater loss to the British than 3 seamen killed, and 14 wounded. The loss on the part of the Dutch was much more severe, the Halstaar had her Captain and 2 men killed, and 3 wounded, the Surinam 1 killed, her Commander (dangerously) and 3 wounded, and the schooner Flying Fish, one killed and one wounded. Total, 6 killed, and 8 wounded, whilst the killed and wounded on shore amounted to about 200 men.

Captain Brisbane, the planner and leader of this gallant enterprise, received the honour of Knighthood, medals were conferred on the four Captains, the Senior Lieutenants of the HMS Arethusa and HMS Anson were made Commanders, and Lieutenant George Peebles was promoted to the Brevet rank of Captain.

The officers of Marines serving on board the squadron were as follows:

HMS Arethusa, First Lieutenant Octavius Scott, Second Lieutenant John Fennell.

HMS Latona, First Lieutenant John Hay, Second Lieutenant ?? Henderson.

HMS Anson First Lieutenant George Peebles.

HMS Fisgard First Lieutenant A. Watts, Second Lieutenant Hugh Peregrine.

On the Wednesday 21st January, at day break, the 32-gun frigate HMS Galatea, Captain George Sayer, when cruising off the Caraccas, on the Spanish main, discovered and chased the French I6 gun brig Lynx but it falling calm, the boats of the Frigate under Lieutenant William Coombe, containing 6 Officers, 50 Seamen, and 20 Marines, were sent to attack her. It was not until 8-30pm. that the boats, formed in two lines, arrived within hail of the brig; instantly cheering they dashed alongside, but met with such determined opposition, that they were compelled to sheer off. A second attempt was equally unsuccessful, but the third attack enabled the gallant assailants, after a severe struggle, to obtain possession of their hard earned prize. Lieutenant Henry Walker, 5 Seamen, and 3 Marines were killed, Lieutenant Coombe, 2 Midshipmen, 15 Seamen, and 4 Marines wounded. Total of 9 killed and 22 wounded.

1807. Sunday 3rd February. The battle of Montevideo, between the British and Spanish Empires during the Napoleonic Wars, in which the British forces captured the city. It also formed part of the British invasions of the River Plate.

1807. Tuesday 6th January. Boats of Imperieuse at Arcasson.

1807. Thursday 8th January. Pickle captured Favorite.

1807. January - July. Squadron at Buenos Ayres and Montevideo.

1807. Wednesday 21st January. Boats of Galatea captured Lynx.

1807. Tuesday 27th January. Lark captured Postilion and Carmen.

1807. Tuesday 27th January. Jason re-took Favourite (late British).

1807. January. Boats of Cerberus captured a privateer.

1807. January. Jackdaw taken by a Spanish rowboat.

1807. Sunday 1st February. Lark and boats at Zispata Bay.

1807. Saturday 14th February. Bacchante and Mediator at Samana, St Domingo.

1807. February - March. Duckworth in the Dardanelles.

1807. February. The Dardanelles Operation was the Royal Navy's unsuccessful attempt to impose British demands on the Ottoman Empire as part of the Anglo Turkish War (1807-1809). During 1806 the French had tried to bring about Turkey's re-entry into the war.

During the fighting with the Turkish fleet at Fort Pesquies, that mounted 31 guns, and fired heavily on the British squadron, and continued its fire well after the Turkish ships had been run ashore or captured. The beach too, was crowded with armed men, and the Pompee having fired a few shells to disperse them, her Marines loaded and brought off a Green Standard. Lieutenant Nichols of the Marines brought off the flag of the Captain Pasha from the 40 gun frigate on which it flew and which he set on fire in accordance with his orders. He then entered Fort Pesquies, spiked the guns and set the garrison a blaze.

1807. February. The Bombardment of Constantinople.

1807. February While in the Dardanelles, Fighting Nicolls (Lietenant Edward Nicolls) Commanding a contingent of Marines landed at Fort Pesquies. It was during this period, too, that he was honourably mentioned in dispatches for his part in the Dardanelles Operation.

1807. Sunday 1st March. Hirondelle and boats of Glatton cut out a Turkish corvette.

1807. Sunday 15th March. Boats of Camus cut out six merchantmen.

1807. Tuesday 17th March. Disembarkation at Alexandria.

1807. Wednesday 18th March. Storming of enemy's works near Alexandria.

1807. Saturday 21st March. Alexandria capitulated.

1807. Saturday 21st March. Leopard attacked Chesapeake, and made her strike.

1807. Wednesday 25th March. The Slave Trade Act or the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed with the title of ‘An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade’, that received the Royal Assent. The original act is kept in the Parliamentary Archives.

The act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, in particular the Atlantic slave trade, and also encouraged British action to press other European states to abolish their slave trades, but it did not abolish slavery itself. Many of the Bill's supporters thought the Act would lead to the death of slavery, but it was not until 26 years later that slavery itself was actually abolished. Slavery on English soil was unsupported in English law and that position was confirmed in Somersett's Case in 1772, but it remained legal in most of the British Empire until the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.

1807. Friday 17th April. Sally engaged off Danzig.

1807. Wednesday 29th April. Boats of Richmond captured Gaillard.

1807. April. Pike captured by Marat.

1807. Friday 8th May. Boats of Comus cut out a felucca.

1807. Thursday 14th May. Boats of Spartan repulsed by a polacca off Nice.

1807. Saturday 16th May. Dauntless surrendered to the French at Danzig.

1807. May Spartan engaged Annibal, two frigates, and a corvette.

1807. Friday 5th June. Boats of Pomone captured gun-brig and 14 sail.

1807. Saturday 6th June. A prize schooner captured Mercedes.

1807. Saturday 25th July. Fleet assembled at Yarmouth.

1807. Saturday 6th August. Hydra at Begur.

1807. Friday 7th August. HMS Hydra attacks Begur, Catalonia.

1807. August - September. The second Battle Copenhagen. After a heavy bombardment of the city a large contingent of Marines were landed on the 5th September.

1807. Saturday 15th August. Comus captured Fredrickscoarn.

1807. August - September. Gambier at Copenhagen.

1807. Tuesday 18th - 21st August. Light squadron engaged in Copenhagen Roads.

1807. Tuesday 18th August. Boats of Confiance cut out Reitrada.

1807. Monday 24th August. Weazel captured four vessels and destroyed three.

1807. Tuesday 25th August. Boats of Clyde cut out a sloop at Ypont.

1807. Monday 31st August. Psyche and boats at Samarang.

1807. Saturday 5th September. Majestic and Quebec took Heligoland.

1807. Thursday 17th September. Barbara captured by General Ernouf.

1807. Wednesday 7th October. Boats of Porcupine captured Safo.

1807. Sunday 25th October. Boats of Herald cut out Cesar.

1807. Wednesday 28th October. Louisa defeated a privateer.

1807. Wednesday 4th November. Carrier captured Aclif.

1807. Friday 6th November. Renommee and Grasshopper off Cartagena.

1807. Tuesday 24th November. Ann captured a privateer and two gunboats.

1807. Friday 27th - 29th November. Boats of Porcupine at Ragusa.

1807. Thursday 3rd December. Curieux engaged Revanche.

1807. Sunday 6th December. Squadron captured Dutch vessels at Java.

1807. Friday 11th December. Grasshopper captured San Josef.

1807. Monday 21st December. St. Thomas taken from the Danes.

1807. Friday 25th December. St. Croix taken from the Danes.

1807. Saturday 26th December. Madeira capitulated.

1807. A second British invasion force stormed and occupied Montevideo, remaining there for several months, and a third force made a second attempt to take Buenos Aires. After several days of street-fighting against the local militia and the Spanish colonial army. The British suffered heavy losses amounting to half its force being killed or wounded, and they were eventually forced to withdraw.

1807 - 1815. The establishment strength remained at 31,400 men.

1808. The Royal Navy which at that time controlled the world's seas, established the West Africa Squadron to patrol the coast of West Africa, and between 1808 and 1860 they seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard. The Royal Navy declared that ships transporting slaves were the same as pirates. Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against ‘the usurping King of Lagos’, who was deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers.

1808. The Corps of Colonial Marines were two units made up of former American slaves for British service. They were created at different times and both disbanded after the wars. They were recruited to address the shortage of military manpower in the Caribbean. The locally recruited men were less susceptible to tropical illnesses than were troops sent from Britain and knew the terrain. The Corps followed the practice of the British Army's West India Regiments in recruiting escaped slaves as soldiers, but were loathed to view themselves as mere slave soldiers. They were free men and they represented a psychological threat to the slave owning American society by being armed. They were highly thought of and as competent as their European comrades. They also received free land grants in Canada in return for their commendable service, achieving freedom in which the Land of Liberty had denied them.

1808. Some of the black soldiers of the 2nd West India Regiment mutinied and killed two officers. They were subsequently overcome by loyal soldiers of the Regiment, and seven leaders were executed. The principle justification for using slaves and free blacks for the proposed Regiments was the extremely high mortality rate of European soldiers in the West Indies. A concomitant problem was that assignment to the West Indies was extremely unpopular with the British Army, leading many to a refusals to serve in that area.

1808. Saturday 30th January. Delight captured by the French at Reggio.

1808. Sunday 7th February. Decouverte drove ashore a privateer.

1808. Monday 8th February. Boats of Meleager captured Renard.

1808. Tuesday 9th February. Decouverte captured Dorade.

1808. Saturday 13th February. Boats of Confiance cut out a French gunboat.

1808. Wednesday 2nd March. Sappho captured Admiral Yawl.

1808. Wednesday 2nd March. Cerberus and consorts capture Marie Galante.

1808. Thursday 3rd March. The occupation of Marie Galante. 400 Royal Marines left a garrison under Captain Chass. Tyldesley. One report read that they suffered heavily morality from disease. The barracks being built in a swamp.

1808. Tuesday 8th March. San Fiorenzo captured Piemontaise.

1808. Sunday 13th March. The destruction of Batteries and small craft at Vivero. A detachment of Royal Marines of HMS Emerald, under Lieutenant G. Meech and J. Husband. The latter receiving a Sword of Honour from the Patriotic Fund.

1808. Monday 14th March. Childers engaged Lougon.

1808. Tuesday 15th - 20th March. Terpsichore engaged Semillante.

1808. Tuesday 22nd March. Aigle engaged off Groix.

1808. Tuesday 22nd March.. Stately and Nassau destroyed Prince Christian Frederick.

1808. Wednesday 30th March. Cerberus and consorts at Desirade.

1808. Monday 4th April. Alceste and consorts at Rota.

1808. Friday 22nd April. Goree and Superieure in action off the Saintes.

1808. Saturday 23rd April. Unsuccessful attempt to cut out Garota.

1808. Sunday 24th April. Grasshopper and Rapid at Faro.

1808. Monday 25th April. Forward and consorts captured ten sail at Flodstrand.

1808. Friday 29th April. Boats of Falcon destroyed eight sail at Endelan.

1808. Monday 2nd May. Unite captured Ronco in the Gulf of Venice.

1808. Saturday 7th May. Boats of Falcon captured two sail at Lundholm.

1808. Saturday 7th May. Redwing destroyed seven Spanish vessels.

1808. Tuesday 10th - 14th May. Wizard engaged Requin.

1808. Wednesday 11th May. Bacchante captured Griffon.

1808. Thursday 12th May. Amphion and boats engaged Baleine at Rosas.

1808. Thursday 12th May. Tartar and boats at Bergen.

1808. Thursday 19th May. Virginie captured Guelderland.

1808. Friday 20th May. Boats of Fawn cut out vessels at Porto Rico.

1808. Monday 23rd May. HMS Melpomone and Danish Gunboats.

1808. Sunday 24th July and later dates. Raids on the French and Spanish coast. Lieutenant J. Ryves Hore performed an extraordinary series of raids on the French and Spanish coasts during the summer. Landing from HMS Imperieuse a 38 gun frigate commanded by Lord Cochrane, he took part in the destruction of many coastal batteries and roads near Barcelona in order to hamper the movements of the French Army in Catalonia. On the 31st July he and his detachment seized and occupied the castle of Mongal which completely commandeered a pass on the road from Barcelona to Gerona, then besieged by the French. To preserve the Frenchmen he found in the castle from the fury of the Spaniards, Hore had to escort his prisoners to the point of embarkation, after having blown up the castle in such a way as to completely block the road. During the latter part of August he was constantly engaged in raiding the enemy’s posts with varying opposition, but with unvaried success, says an official letter dated the Wednesday 28th September, “The newly constructed semaphoric telegraphs which are of the utmost consequence to the safety of the numerous convoys that pass along the coast of France at Bourdique, La Pinede, St. Frontignan, Canet, and Fray have been blown up and completely demolished, together with their telegraph houses, fourteen barracks of gene-d’armes, one battery and the strong tower on the lake of Frontignan. These operations had the effect of drawing off about 2,000 French troops from the important fortress of Figueras to defend their coastal communications.

1808. Tuesday 24th May. Swan at Bornhohn.

1808. Tuesday 31st May. Redwing took two sail at Tarifa.

1808. Wednesday 1st June. Unite captured Nettuno and Teulie.

1808. Saturday 4th June. Tickler captured by Danish gunboats.

1808. Thursday 9th June. Turbulent captured by Danish gun-vessels.

1808. Saturday 11th June. Boats of Euryalus and Cruiser off the Naskon.

1808. Sunday 19th June. Seagull captured by Danish gunboats.

1808. Thursday 23rd June. Boats of Porcupine at Civita Vecchia.

1808. Sunday 26th June. Captain Edward Nicolls RM on board the Standard, led the boat attack which captured the Italian gunboats Volpe and Leger off Corfu.

1808. Sunday 3rd July. British repulsed at St. Martin and survivors captured.

1808. Wednesday 6th July. Seahorse captured Badere Zaffer.

1808. Sunday 10th July. Boats of Porcupine at Port d'Anzo.

1808. Thursday 21st July. Boats of Porcupine at Monte Circello.

1808. Thursday 28th July. Volage captured Requin.

1808. Sunday 31st July. Imperieuse at Mongal.

1808. July. A strong detachment of Royal Marines under Captain G. Lewis was landed at Figueras to secure the landing area for the British Army under Sir Arthur G. Lewis. The Portuguese flag was hoisted which hundreds flocked to enrol beneath, and the post was held till the arrival of General Anstruther’s Brigade on the 19th August.

1808. Monday 1st August. The Attack on a convoy at Noli.

1808. Monday 1st August. Wizard and boats captured guns and Vigilant at Noli.

1808. Tuesday 2nd August. Tigress captured by Danish gunboats.

1808. Monday 8th August. Boats of Porcupine cut out Conception.

1808. Thursday 11th August. Comet captured Sylphe.

1808. Thursday 11th August. Boats of squadron captured Fama and Salorman.

1808. Tuesday 16th August. Sybille captured Espiegle.

1808. Thursday 18th August. Rook captured by two French privateers.

1808. Friday 26th August. Implacable and Centaur captured Sevolod.

1808. August. Keats relieved garrisons in the Baltic.

1808. Tuesday 6th September. Recruit engaged Diligente.

1808. Monday 12th September. Laurel captured by Canonniere.

1808. Thursday 29th September. Maria captured by Departement des Landes.

1808. September. Imperieuse off Languedoc.

1808. Monday 3rd October. Carnation captured by Palinure.

1808. Monday 3rd October. Modeste captured Jena.

1808. Thursday 20th October. Africa repulsed 25 Danish gunboats.

1808. Monday 31st October. Circe captured Palinure.

1808. Tuesday 1st November. Cruiser captured a Danish brig.

1808. Monday 7th - 8th November. Excellent and Meteor at Rosas.

1808. Thursday 10th November. HMS Amethyst captures Thetis

1808. Monday 14th November. Boats of Polyphemus captured Colibri.

1808. Tuesday 15th November – 5th December. The defence of Fort Trinidad-Rosa.

1808. Tuesday 15th - 5th December. Excellent and consorts at Rosas.

1808. Monday 28th November. Boats of Heureux at Mabaut.

1808. Monday 12th - 13th December. Circe and consorts captured Cygne and a schooner.

1809. Sunday 1st January. Onyx captured Dutch corvette Manly.

1809. Monday 2nd January. Amiable captured Iris.

1809. Thursday 5th January. Loire captured Hebe.

1809. Saturday 7th January – 14th January. The taking of Cayenne. Lieutenant J. Read was mortally wounded in leading the assault on Port Dimant.

1809. Tuesday 17th January – 18th January. Corunna. A detachment of Royal Marines of HMS Resolution landed to destroy the batteries commanding the harbour. Officers and men received the thanks of both houses of Parliament for their service, but did not get the Army Medal and Clasp.

1809. Sunday 22nd January. Cleopatra, Jason, and Hazard captured Topaze.

1809. Monday 30th January - 24th February. Sir A. Cochrane captured Martinique.

1809. Wednesday 8th February. Horatio and consorts captured Junon.

1809. Wednesday 8th February. Amphion and Redwing dispersed French ships off Melida.

1809. Wednesday 15th February. Belle Poule captured Var.

1809. Friday 24th February. Ceasar and consorts destroyed Italienne, Calypso and Cybe.

1809. Tuesday 28th February. Fight between HMS Proserpine and two French Frigates off Toulon. (Heroism of a private of Marines).

1809. February. A second Commandant was added to each division, and the pay of the Commandant in London increased to £3 per day, Colonels in Command of divisions received £2. 10s, second-Commandants received £1. 10s, and the same amount was extended to those on the retired list, whilst the brevet officers of the establishment obtained 2 shillings per day.

1809. Sunday 12th March. Topaze engaged Danae and Flora.

1809. Sunday 12th March. Batteries carried and guns destroyed at Lequito.

1809. Monday 20tgh March. Batteries destroyed at Baigno and Paissance.

1809. Saturday 1st April. Boats of Mercury boarded Leda at Rovigno.

1809. Saturday 1st April. Amelia destroyed batteries in Aix Roads.

1809. Wednesday 5th April. Amethyst captured Niemen.

1809. Wednesday 12th April. Lord Cochrane destroyed French ship at Basque Roads.

1809. Thursday 13th April. The attack on the French Flotilla in the Basque Roads.

1809. Friday 14th - 17th April. Pompee and consorts took Hautpoult.

1809. Saturday 15th April. Intrepid engaged Furieuse and Felicite.

1809. Sunday 23rd April. Spartan and consorts bombarded Pesaro.

1809. Wednesday 26th April. Thrasher engaged Flotilla near Boulogne.

1809. Tuesday 2nd May. Spartan and Mercury at Cesenatico.

1809. Thursday 4th May. Parthian captured Nouvelle Gironde.

1809. Thursday 11th May. Melpomene destroyed a Danish cutter.

1809. Monday 15th May. Boats of Tartar captured a Danish privateer.

1809. Monday 15th May. Mercury bombarded Rotti.

1809. Wednesday 17th May. Goldfinch engaged Mouche.

1809. Thursday 18th May. The Capture of the Island of Anholt. Captain Edward Nicolls RM assisted Marines and seamen under the command of Captain William Selby of Owen Glendower in the capture of the island of Anholt. In the skirmish, a Danish garrison of 170 men put up a sharp but ineffectual resistance that killed one British Marine and wounded two before surrendering. Following the capture of Anholt, Captain Edward Nicolls was briefly assigned to duty as the British military governor of the island.

1809. Sunday 21st May. Black Joke engaged Mouche.

1809. Tuesday 23rd - 30th May. Melpomene engaged a Danish flotilla.

1809. Wednesday 31st May. Topaze brought out nine vessels from St. Maura.

1809. Wednesday 7th June. The forts at Vigo were occupied by 60 stragglers from Sir John Moores Army, aided by some seamen and Royal Marines. (Napier) The Marines of HMS Lively garrisoned the castle of Vigo.

1809. Saturday 10th June. Amelia and Statira captured Mouche.

1809. Wednesday 14th June. Boats of Scout at Cape Croisette.

1809. Wednesday 14th - 18th June. Latona took Felicite.

1809. Monday 19th June. Bellerophon's boats carried Russian batteries at Hango.

1809. Sunday 25th June. Islands of Procida and Ischia surrendered to the British.

1809. Monday 25th - 26th June. Cyane and Espoir engaged with Ceres.

1809. Thursday 6th July. St. Domingo surrendered to the British.

1809. Thursday 6th July. Bonne Citoyenne captured Furicuse.

1809. Friday 7th July. Capture of seven Russian gunboats off Hango Head.

1809. Saturday 8th July - 13th July. The Capture of Fort Louis in Senegal. Lieutenant Lewis B. Reeves, Royal Marines, and 50 Privates took part in a small expedition despatched from the garrison of Goree under Major Maxwell. The little force only 210 strong was badly pressed after landing, when the enemy’s attack was broken by a bayonet charge delivered by the Marines, and on the 31st Fort Louis capitulated with its garrison of 400 men. The Marines were left to occupy the fort for a further 7 months, during which time nearly half of them succumbed to the climate.

1809. Thursday 27th July. The capture of a Fort at Bremerle, Cuxhaven. A detachment of Royal Marines under Lieutenant John Benson was landed at Ritzbuttle to cover the destruction of the fort and its guns, and to intercept the advances of any French troops. The Marines advanced as far as Bremerdike and Gerendoz, a distance of 28 miles.

1809. Sunday 13th August. The Bombardment of Flushing.

1809. Friday 14th July. Fort of Carri stormed and carried by boats of Scout.

1809. Tuesday 25th July. Princess Caroline and consorts captured four Russian vessels.

1809. Tuesday 25th July. Boats of Fawn captured Guadaloupe.

1809. Thursday 27th July. Forts at Cuxhaven destroyed.

1809. Friday 28th July - 4th September. Expedition to the Scheldt.

1809. Saturday 29th July. Acorn and consorts engaged off Duin.

1809. Saturday 12th August. Monkey and Lynx captured three Danish luggers.

1809. Monday 14th August. Boats of Otter captured two vessels.

1809. Monday 28th August. Battery at Cortelazzo carried by boats of Amphion.

1809. Wednesday 30th August. The occupation of Fort Walcheren. Captain F. Liardet and 700 Marines.

1809. Thursday 7th September. Boats of Mercury captured Pugliese.

1809. Monday 11th September. Diana captured Zephyr.

1809. Thursday 21st September. The reduction of the Isle of Boubon. Lieutenant Cottal. 6 Officers and 130 Royal Marines landed near Pointdu Galet, together with 100 seamen, 200 of the 56th Regiment and 108 Bombay sappers. The object of this force was to destroy the batteries protecting the harbour of St. Paul and to take out the shipping. Five batteries were surprised and destroyed and a quantity of shipping, including two men of war captured or destroyed.

1809. Tuesday 17th October. Capture of French privateer at Sainte Marie.

1809. October. Zante, Cephalonia, Cerigo, and Ithaca surrendered.

1809. Wednesday 1st November. Cumberland and consorts captured 11 armed vessels.

1809. Thursday 2nd November. Victor captured by French frigate Bellone.

1809. Monday 13th November. The storming of Ras-El-Khyma. The detachments of Marines of HMS La Chiffone and HMS Caroline were landed under Colonel Smith in command of troops to attack the pirate strong hold of Ras-El-Khyma in the Persian Gulf. After a short bombardment a landing was effected on the south side of the town which was burnt and the enemy driven out. Lieutenant T. Drury Commanded the Marines. Three Marines obtained booty amounting to 4,500 gold Mohurs (£7,650).

1809. Monday 13th November. Chiffonne and Caroline destroyed Ras al Khyma.

1809. Friday 17th November. Linga destroyed by Chiffonne and Caroline.

1809. Sunday 27th November. Luft destroyed by Chiffonne and Caroline.

1809. Saturday 9th December. Redpole captured Grand Rodeur.

1809. Wednesday 13th December. Boats of Thetis and consorts took Nisus at Guadaloupe.

1809. Wednesday 13th December. Junon captured and destroyed by the French.

1809. Thursday 14th December. Melampus captured Bearnaise.

1809. Sunday 17th - 18th December. Sceptre and consorts took Anse la Barque, Guadaloupe.

1809. Sunday 17th December. Rosamond captured Papillon.

1809. December - 3rd January. 1810. Chiffonne and Caroline carried Shenaz by storm.

1809. To the peace in 1814, no general promotion took place in the Marines, nor at the latter period were all the vacancies of officers killed in action filled, and although there were 5000 supernumeraries actually serving afloat without officers attached to them, the senior Captains had been from thirty five to thirty two years in the service.

1809. In the General Orders issued by Lieutenant General Sir John Hope, congratulating the army upon the successful result of the Battle of Corunna on Monday16th of January.

1809. It is stated, “On no occasion has the undaunted valour of British troops ever been more manifest. At the termination of a severe and harassing march, rendered necessary by the superiority which the enemy had acquired, and which had materially impaired the efficiency of the troops, many disadvantages were to be encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the troops themselves, and the enemy has been taught, that, whatever advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is inherent in the British Officers and soldiers a bravery that knows not how to yield, that no circumstances can appal, and that will ensure victory, when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any human means. Active continental operations, or in maintaining colonial territories in distant and unfavourable climes.”

1809. Up to the peace in 1814, no general promotion took place in the Marines, nor at the latter period were all the vacancies of officers killed in action filled up, and although there were 5000 supernumeraries actually serving afloat without officers attached to them, the senior Captains had been from thirty-five to thirty-two years in the service, notwithstanding the many advances that had been conferred on the various ranks in the navy.

1809. while still a young Captain of Marines, Edward Nicolls married Miss Eleanor Bristow (1792–1880) who was also from Northern Ireland. Sir Edward and Lady Eleanor Nicolls appear on the United Kingdom Census 1861 in Greenwich, where Nicolls is listed as KCB and a retired General of Marines.

1810. Wednesday 10th January. Cherokee boarded and carried Aimable Nelly.

1810. Wednesday 10th January. Plover took Saratin in the Channel.

1810. Wednesday 10th January. Boats of Christian VII. and Armide in Basque Road.

1810. Friday 12th January. Scorpion captured Oreste.

1810. Friday 12th January. Booloe Comba captured from the Dutch.

1810. Thursday 18th January. Besiglio. Castle stormed and held. An official report: “The Royal Marines were led on with their usual gallantry by Lieutenat Moore whom I have had frequent occasion to mention for his bravery and conduct.”

1810. Saturday 20th January. French convoy driven on shore near La Rochelle.

1810. Sunday 21st January. The Storming of the batteries at Baie Mahut, Guadeloupe. Lieutenant Shillibeer and 30 Royal Marines served in a boat expedition which was sent in at dusk to cut out a brig protected by two batteries. She was boarded and taken under heavy fire. The Marines and seamen then waded ashore, the water reaching to their waists. On landing they at once dashed forward and drove the enemy from the nearest battery, and closing with their bayonets the Marines compelled them to abandon a position they had taken up in rear of a brick breastwork. Having thrown a 24 pounder over the cliff and buried 6 howitzers in the sand, the party renewed their advance and stormed the second battery of three24 pounders protected by a ditch around them. After destroying the guard house and spiking the guns, two vessels were burnt and the brig brought out “The gallant manner in which Lieutenant Shillibeer led the Royal Marines to the charge, as well as their steady discipline in keeping possession of the heights while the seamen were destroying the batteries”, were specially mentioned in the official report. On 6th February, Vieux Fort, Guadeloupe was stormed by Royal Marines under Captain C. Abbott.

1810. Saturday 27th January - 22nd March. The defence of the fort of Matagorda, near Cadiz. This small fort, not more than a hundred yards square, with no ditch and no bomb proofs, was held for nearly two months by a little garrison of 25 Royal Marines, 25 seamen from HMS Invincible, 25 Royal Artillerymen and 67 N.C.O’s and Privates of the 94th Regiment under Captain MacLean. The fort was close to the French lines at the Trocadero. “A Spanish 74 gunner and a Flotilla had co-operated in the resistance till day break on the 21st March, but then a hissing shower of heated shot made them cut their cables and run under the walls of Cadiz, while the fire of 48 guns and mortars of the largest size was turned on the fort, whose feeble parapet vanished before that crashing flight of metal, leaving only the naked rampart and undaunted hearts of the garrison for defence. The men fell fast and the enemy shot so quick and close, that a staff bearing the Spanish flag was broken six times in an hour, the colours were then fastened to the angle of the work itself, but unwillingly by the men, especially the sailors, all calling out to hoist the British ensign and attributing the slaughter to their fighting under a foreign flag. Thirty hours this tempest lasted, and 64 men out of 140 had fallen, when Graham (the General commanding Cadiz) finding a diversion he had projected impracticable, sent boats to carry off the survivors.” Napier’s Peninsular War.

1810. Sunday 28th January - 6th February. Capture of Guadaloupe by Pompee and fleet.

1810. Monday 29th January. Boats of Phoenix and Jalouse captured Charles.

1810. Saturday 3rd February. Valiant captured Confiance.

1810. Saturday 10th February. Thistle captured Dutch corvette Havik.

1810. Tuesday 13th February. Attack on French gunboats in Basque Road.

1810. Wednesday 14th February. Rainbow and Avon engaged Nereide.

1810. Saturday 17th February. The capture of the ‘Amboyna’. Royal Marines of HMS Cornwallis, HMS Dover and HMS Samatang formed part of a small force of 401 seamen, Royal Marines, Artillery and detachment of the Madras European Regiment which effected this capture against formidable fortifications manned by very superior numbers.

1810. Wednesday 21st February. Horatio captured Necessite.

1810. February. Capture of Amboyna from the Dutch.

1810. February. Surrender of the Islands of St. Martin, St. Eustatius, Saba, Saparoua, Harouka, Nasso Lant, Bouro, Manippa.

1810. Thursday 1st March. Boats of Cornwallis carried Margaretta.

1810. Thursday 22nd March. The attack on Santa Maura. The troops landed for the attack and had to advance over a narrow isthmus defended by two redoubts behind which was an entrenchment, mounting 4 guns, and having a wet ditch and an abbatis in front which extended to the sea on either side. It was manned by 500 troops. The British force consisted of 240 Royal Marines from HMS Monificent and HMS Belle Poule under the command Captain Snowe who formed the centre of the attacking line, 160 men of De Rolls’ Regiment placed on the right, 216 men of the Calabrian Free Corps on the left, with 100 men of the same Corps in reserve in the rear of each flank. Brigadier general Oswald of the Calabrian Corps was the senior officer present. The line advanced on the redoubts covered by the fire of the Leonidas frigate, and carried them at the point of the bayonet, after which it advanced, left and front on the entrenchment. At the first discharge from these the Calabrians threw themselves down and could not be got to advance in spite of every effort to rally them, and “the indignant treatment they received from the Marines”, remarked Nicholas. The latter, cheering, marched over their bodies, scrambled through the abbatis and drove the enemy out of their entrenchments at the bayonet’s point, pursuing them until recalled to garrison the redoubts previously captured. Brigadier General Oswald the next day issued and order in which he referred to the ‘Great Gallantry Displayed’ by the stormers and stated that “the intrepid manner in which the Royal Marines performed that service claims the highest admiration.” Siege was then laid to the citadel which, after an outwork had been taken, capitulated. The Marines lost 6 men killed, Captain Snowe and 16 men severely and Lieutenant Morrison and 5 men slightly wounded.

1810. Wednesday 4th April. Success and Espoir at Castiglione.

1810. Friday 6thv April. Sylvia destroyed armed piratical prow in Straits of Sunda.

1810. Saturday 7th April. Sylvia captured piratical prow.

1810. Wednesday 11th April. Sylvia and boats engaged and sank piratical lugger.

1810. Thursday 12th April. Unicorn captured Esperance (late British Laurel).

1810. Tuesday 24th April. Surly and Firm captured Alcide.

1810. Wednesday 25th April. Spartan and consorts engaged at Monte Circello.

1810. Thursday 26th April. Sylvia took Echo and two transports.

1810. Tuesday 1st May. French troops defeated at Jacolet, Isle of France.

1810. Thursday 3rd May. Spartan captured Sparviere in Bay of Naples.

1810. Saturday 12th May. Tribune engaged four Danish brigs.

1810. Tuesday 22nd May. Boats of Alceste at Agaye.

1810. Saturday 26th May. Boats of Alceste captured four feluccas.

1810. May and June. Royalist engaged and captured six armed vessels.

1810. May. According to a return of the 73rd Regiment there were also some Marines left at Hobart Australia numbering 50 of all ranks plus nine wives of Marine privates and 19 children.

1810. Thursday 21st June. Manado surrendered to Dover.

1810. Thursday 28th June. Boats of Amphion and consorts at Groa.

1810. Friday 29th June. A convoy cut out at Groa.

1810. June. Elaborate preparations were made for the capture of Reunion, or, as it was then called, Bourbon. Large numbers of British and Indian troops, together with transports, were assembled at Rodriguez, and on Sunday 24th June HMS Boadicea of 38 guns and Captain Josias Rowley. HMS Nereide of 36 guns. Captain Nisbet and Josiah Willoughby from off Mauritius, arrived to escort the expedition.

1810. Friday 6th July. They sailed and made a rendezvous, about 50 miles from Reunion, with a small squadron which, under Captain Samuel Pym of HMS Sirius with 36 guns had previously been cruising off Mauritius. This squadron consisted of the HMS Iphigenia with 36 guns, Captain Henry Lambert, and HMS Magicienne of 36 guns. At the rendezvous 3650 troops were divided, and arrangements were perfected, and on the 7th, the ships bore away for the different points of disembarkation. The first brigade, under Lieutenant Colonel Frazier, was to land at Grande Chaloupe, about six miles west of St. Denis, the capital, and the remaining three brigades, under Lieutenant Colonels Henry S. Keating (senior officer), Campbell, and Drummond, were to be thrown ashore at Riviere des Pluies, about three miles to the eastward. In the afternoon, while the enemy, who had about 600 regulars and 2700 militia men on the island, was distracted by a demonstration off St. Marie, Frazier, with 950 men and some howitzers, was landed at Grande Chaloupe without opposition, and Lieutenant John Wyatt Watling of HMS Sirius occupied a height which protected the force from molestation during the following night. At Riviere des Pluies, on the weather side of the island, conditions were less favourable, although Willoughby, still suffering from his musket accident, effected a landing with a few seamen and about 150 troops, the operation was not carried out without the drowning of four people in the surf, and the loss of several boats.

1810. Saturday 7th - 8th July. Boadicea and consorts took Isle of Bourbon.

1810. Monday 9th July. Boats of Sirius captured Edward.

1810. Tuesday 17th July. Euryalus engaged a French 74 off Toulon.

1810. Friday 20th July. Warspite and consorts off Toulon.

1810. Tuesday 23th July. Boats of Belvidera and Nemesis on the coast of Norway.

1810. Thursday 25th July. Thames and consorts at Amanthe.

1810. Monday 30th July 30. Boats of Procris took six gunboats.

1810. July Boats of Sirius destroyed a French stores ship.

1810. July. The capture of Reunion.

1810. Thursday 9th August. Caroline, Piedmontaise, and Barracouta took Banda Neira.

1810. Monday 13th August. The capture of Isle De La Passe, involving Marines on board HMS Nereide, HMS Sirius and HMS Staunch.

1810. Friday 17th August. Porte du Diable stormed and carried.

1810. Monday 20th August. Nereide engaged French frigates off Isle de la Passe.

1810. Tuesady 21st August. Boats of Sirius cut out a French prize.

1810. Thursday 23rd - 28th August. Nereide and consorts taken at Grand Port.

1810. Wednesday 29th August. Queen Charlotte repulsed a French cutter off Alderney.

1810. Thursday 30th August. Repulse and Philomel repulsed frigates off Toulon.

1810. Wednesday 5th September. Boats of Surveillante captured a French brig.

1810. Thursday 6th September. Battery captured and destroyed in the River Crache.

1810. Friday 7th September. Boats of Dreadnought carried a French vessel.

1810. Tuesday 11th September. Boats of Africaine engaged a French schooner.

1810. Tuesday 13th September. Africaine taken by Astree aud Iphigenie, but re-taken.

1810. Monday 17th September. Ceylon taken by Venus and Victor.

1810. Tuesday 18th September. Boadicea, Otter, and Staunch took Venus.

1810. Thursday 27th September. Three brigs cut out at Point Du Che. HMS Caledia and HMS Valliant were sent to destroy three French brigs lying under the protection of a battery at Point du Che near La Rochelle. Five officers and 130 men of the Royal Marines were landed at half past two in the morning in order to capture the battery. As the boats pulled in to attack the brigs they were discovered and fired upon. Lieutenant Little of the Royal Marine Artillery mentions in an official despatch that immediately upon landing pushed forward with the bayonet to assault. Supported by Captain McLachlan’s division, with Lieutenant Coulter, both of the Royal Marines, and Lieutenant Couche with a separate detachment, and succeeded in carrying the battery and spiking all the guns. Lieutenant little in a personal encounter with one of the enemy, when in the act of wrestling his musket from him, deceived the contents in his hand, which was so much shattered in consequence as to render amputation necessary. After the capture of the redoubt a French force advanced from the village, but was checked by the fire of the Marines and one of the boats. They then brought up two field pieces to take the Marines in flank, but they instantly charged them with the bayonet, and captured the guns. Meanwhile the boats carried out the destruction of the brigs, and the detachment of Marines was re-embarked in perfect order. Lieutenant Little received a reward from the Patriotic Fund, a pension for wounds of £70 a year and an appointment at the Woolwich Division.

1810. Friday 28th September. Boats of Rambler defeated French Dragoons.

1810. Sunday 14th October. Briseis captured Sans Souci in North Sea.

1810. Friday 19th October - 19th December. Capture of Isle of France by Illustrious and consorts.

1810. Thursday 25th October. Calliope captured Comtesse d'Hambourg.

1810. Saturday 27th October. Orestes took Loup Garou.

1810. Sunday 4th November. Boats of Blossom captured Cesar.

1810. Thursday 8th November. Boats of Quebec captured Jeune Louise.

1810. Monday 12th - 23rd November. Diana and consorts engaged at Lahougue and Tatillon

1810. Thursday 15th - 16th November. Phipps captured Barbier de Seville.

1810. Friday 23rd November. Attack Port St. Mary by boats of the Cadiz fleet.

1810. Monday 3rd December. The capture of Mauritius. A battalion of Royal Marines from the men of war present served with the Army under Major General Hon. John Abercromby, who reported that “The battalion of the Royal Marines, under the command of Captain Liardet, supported the reputation of his distinguished Corps.”

1810. Friday 7th December. Rinaldo captured Marandeur off Dover.

1810. Monday 10th December. Rosario captured Mameloucke off Dungeness.

1810. Wednesday 12th December. Entreprenante repulsed four French privateers.

1810. Thursday 13th December. The destruction of armed and other vessels at Palamos. The Royal Marines from the HMS Kent, HMS Ajax and HMS Cambrian, 250 in number, and having occupied the enemy’s batteries without much resistance, the seamen brought out most of the shipping. But in retiring through the town to re-embark they were attacked and lost 12 killed, 22 wounded, and 43 missing.

1810. Monday 17th December. Rinaldo sank a French lugger off the Owers.

1810. Monday 24th December. Boats of Diana destroyed Elise.

1810 - 1850. The Marines uniform of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

1810. Spain and Portugal. In addition to the services of the Royal Marine Battalions already mentioned, it should be said that the 3rd or innermost line of the series of defences famous as the Lines of Torres Vedras was occupied by the Royal Marines. This interior line extended from Passo d’Arcos, on the Tagus, to the Tower of Junquerra on the coast, near Fort St. Julian, was an entrenched camp occupied by the Royal Marines. In Autumn of this year, at the suggestion of the Duke of Wellington, Admiral Berkeley in command of the British squadron in the Tagus, formed a Naval Brigade of 500 Royal Marines, and the same number of seamen. Captain Lawford RN of HMS Impetueux was in command. There were nine Captains of Marines in the Brigade and as many subalterns as could be spared. “Leaving only one to each ship of the line.” There was also a proportion of Naval Officers. The Brigade seems to have marched up the left bank of the Tagus, on which there was an armed British flotilla, to Almeirim, a place nearly opposite to Sanarem where Marshal Massena was building and assembling boats with which to cross the river, probably with a view of out flanking the lines of Torres Vedras. The right of the first line rested on the Tagus at Alhandra, some miles further down. Attempts were made to destroy some of Massena’s boats which were drawn up on the beach by gun fire, but with little result. Captain Ross RN seems to have been the senior officer of Marines in the brigade. Meanwhile, a Battalion of Marines referred to by Napier “As a superb body of Marines” had been despatched from England, and upon its arrival the seamen were recalled to their ships as “Their Lordships cannot approve of the landing of seamen of the fleet.” It was this Battalion that held the third of the Torres Vedras Lines, as mentioned above. Lieutenant Ashmore, Royal Marines, who was on HMS Picquet near Santarem, on the night of Massena’s retreat from the Torres Vedras, was the first to report the enemy’s movement.

1811. Thursday 10th January. Tamatave bombarded.

1811. Monday 4th February. Boats of Cerberus and Aciiz’c at Pescaro.

1811. Tuesday 12th February. The cutting out of vessels at Ortona.

1811. Tuesday 5th March – 6th March. The Battle of Barossa. The Royal Marines co-operated in the battle of Barossa by storming the enemy’s batteries at the mouth of the Guadelete, they were brigaded with two Spanish Regiments and ordered to destroy the batteries, which they did, but with the French coming down in force they were obliged to re-embark under heavy fire. A detachment under Captain G. Nicholson 300 strong was sent to destroy a battery at Tota. Which they blew up after spiking the guns. On the 6th March parties of Royal Marines and Seamen were landed between Rota and Catalina. A 4 gun redoubt near Santa Maria was stormed by a detachment under Captain P. Fottrell Royal Marines, and with the exception of the Fort at Catalina which was too strong to be attempted by coup-fe-main, all the coast defences between Santa Maria and Rota were dismantled and their guns spiked.

1811. Saturday 11th March. A letter was sent to Charles Yorke, then First Lord of the Admiralty, from Colonels Desborough and Tench, calling his attention to the neglected position of the Corps. Mr. Yorke, in acknowledging the receipt of this letter, informed Colonel Desborough "that the subject was still under the consideration of the Board;" but no further satisfaction was given to this firm, yet respectful remonstrance.

1811. Wednesday 13th March. Hoste’s victory off Lissa.

1811. Sunday 24th - 25th March. Berwick and consorts destroyed Amazone.

1811. Monday 25th - 27th March. The defence of Anholt. It maybe remarked that in the account of Captain J. W. Maurice RN who commanded at Anholt, in O’Byrne’s Naval Biography, the Royal Marines are not even mentioned as forming the garrison, while it says that “he rendered his name for ever famous by the brilliant manner in which he defeated an attempt made to reduce it (Anholt) by a Danish flotilla and Army.

1811. Wednesday 27th March. Sheldrake and Tartar captured five Danish gun-brigs.

1811. Saturday 6th April. Arrow in action with Chasse Marées.

1811. Wednesday 1st May. Pomone and consorts destroyed Giraffe and Nourrice.

1811. Saturday 4th - 5th May. Belle Poule and Alceste at Parenza.

1811. Wednesday 8th May. Scylla boarded and carried Canonniere.

1811. Thursday 16th May. Little Belt engaged U.S. frigate President.

1811. Monday 20th May. Schomberg captured Renommee and Nereide off Madagascar.

1811. Wednesday 23rd May. Capture of 14 Dutch gun-vesseis off Java.

1811. Saturday 26th May. Boats of Sanine engaged at Sabiona.

1811. Saturday 26th May. Party from Pilot took positions at Strongooli.

1811. Saturday 26th May. Alacrity captured by Abeille.

1811. Sunday 27th June. Guadaloupe engaged Tactique and Guepe.

1811. Thursday 4th Ju1y. Boats of Unite captured St. François de Poale.

1811. Thursday 4th July. Unite and Cephalus captured three merchant vessels.

1811. Friday 19th July. Conqueror and Sultan engaged French squadron off Toulon.

1811. Sunday 21st July. The cutting out of 26 vessels at Porto Del Infreschi.

1811. Sunday 21st July. Cephalus and Thames captured 11 French gunboats and consorts.

1811. Saturday 27th July. The cutting out of 28 vessels at Ragosniza, Dalmatia.

1811. Tuesday 30th July. Boats of Minden took Fort Marrack.

1811. Wednesday 31st July. Boats of Procris destroyed six Dutch gunboats off Java.

1811. Wednesday 31st July. Brevdrageren and Algerine engaged three Danish brigs.

1811. Friday 2nd August. Boats of Quebec and consorts took three gun-brigs.

1811. Sunday 4th - 7th August. Capture of Java by the British.

1811. Tuesday 13th August. Temerairc and Caledonia engaged a battery near Toulon.

1811. Sunday 18th August. Hawke and boats took Heron and convoy.

1811. Saturday 24th August. Diana and Semiramis cut out Teazer and Pluvier.

1811. Thursday 29th - 31st August. Capture of Madura by Sir Francis Drake and consorts.

1811. August – September. The Conquest of Java. A Battalion of Royal Marines under the command of Brevet Major F. Liardet was landed to reinforce the Army under Sir Samuel Achmuty. Batavia having been occupied without resistance, the British advanced against the Dutch Army which was entrenched at Meester Cornelis, about 9 miles from the city. After some days fighting an assault was ordered under the command of General Gillespie. The men detailed for this were 250 of the Royal Marines Battalion, the Grenadiers of the 78th and two companies of the 89th Regiment. The troops moved forward at midnight on the 25th August, and after a desperate struggle, in which the Royal Marines bore a most distinguished part, carried all before them. 257 officers including 3 Generals and 5,000 men were made prisoners and more than 1,000 were found dead in the works. After the battle Sir Samuel Achmuty thus addressed the battalion, “I have halted you to express my high opinion of the zeal and gallantry displayed by the Royal Marines, who were attached to the advance under general Gillespie in the action of the 25th. I cannot sufficiently express my gratitude for their exemplary good conduct, I beg you therefore to accept my warmest thanks, and to communicate the same to the officers and men under your command.

On the 31st August an expedition was sent to Cheribon to intercept the retreat of the Dutch General Jansens from Meester Cornelis. As it would have taken too long to embark troops for the purpose, HMS Nisus, HMS President, HMS Phoebe and HMS Hesper were sent round and landed their Royal Marines together with the detachment belonging to HMS Lion, amounting to 180 men in all, who were under the command of Captain Welchman of the Royal Marines. The fort of Cheribon surrendered and was occupied by Captain Welchman and his Marines, but on the news arriving of the approach of 250 men of the enemy’s Infantry and of the same number of Cavalry from Buitzenburg, the Marine Garrison was relieved by a detachment of seamen in order that it might be free to assume the offensive.

The Marines and fifty seamen were therefore mounted on horseback, and under the command of Captain Welchman Royal Marines, were pushed forward by forced march’s to attack a fort at Carang Sambang about 35 miles off in the interior of the island. This small advanced force was supported by a body of troops under the command of Colonel Wood. Captain Welchman captured 22 chests of money at Bongas, about half way to Catang Sambang, which were sent back by Colonel Wood, and pushing on met a Dutch officer with a flag of truce proposing the surrender of Carang Sambang. A great quantity of stores was taken at this place including coffee to the value of 250,000 Spanish dollars, as well as a large number of prisoners. The Marines were now re-embarked as HMS Nisus and HMS Phoebe were moving along the coast, landed them successively at Panca and Taggal, both of which places were taken. Samarang, Gressie, and Sourabaya were occupied shortly afterwards, the main body of the Marines being under the command of Captain Bunce who had become senior officer present by the death of Major Liardet from dysentery. Lieutenant White Royal Marines, of HMS Minden who, with his detachment and a party of the 14th Regiment had been landed to keep open communications with Pangorah and to procure supplies for the squadron, was sharply attacked by considerable body of the enemy with two guns, After 12 minutes fighting they were driven off, but just as reinforcements were arriving from the 14th and 89th Regiments they renewed the attack in great force. They were again defeated with some loss. Captain E.W. Hoare. R.N. from HMS Minden, in making his official report of this affair wrote: “I feel it my duty to report the conduct of Captain Robert White of the Royal Marines, who commanded at the first attack, assisted by two officers of the 14th Regiment. I was astonished at the bravery and coolness displayed by those officer and their men.” The reduction of the neighbouring Island of Madura was effected by the seamen and Marines of HMS Drake and HMS Phaeton, although the native troops had been strengthened by the landing of a French force. Effecting a landing under cover of the darkness, the small British force advanced on the Fort of Samanap, the capital of the Island, in two columns, each consisting of 60 bayonets (presumably Marines) and 20 pike men. The Marine detachment of the ‘Hussar’ acted as a reserve. The fort was taken by a sudden rush just before daybreak. A spirited battle with a very superior force followed as soon as it was light in which the resolution and superior tactics of the British secured them the victory. Lieutenant Roch, Royal Marines, was twice speared by the native pike men while wresting the colours from a French officer, whom he slew in the contest. The Conquest of Java was now complete and the captors were rewarded by distribution of prize money to the value of the property taken which amounted to no less than a million sterling.

1811. Monday 2nd September. Manly taken by Danish brigs off the coast of Norway.

1811. Tuesday 3rd September. Rinaldo and Redpole engaged a flotilla off Boulogne.

1811. Friday 6th September. Pilot dispersed troops at Castellan.

1811. Saturday 7th September. Barbadoes and Goshawk engaged at Calvados.

1811. Sunday 8th September. Hotspur destroyed three gun brigs oI Calvados.

1811. Monday 9th - 13th September. Bucephalus engaged Nymphe and Meduse off Java.

1811. Tuesday 10th September. Boats of Victory captured Danish gunboats.

1811. Thursday 20th - 21st September. Naiad and consorts engaged a flotilla off Boulogne.

1811. Friday 11th October. Imperieuse silenced forts at Possitano.

1811. Saturday 19th October. Imperieuse and Thames took 10 polacres at Palinuro.

1811. Friday 1st - 3th November. Palinuro Heights carried by party from Imperieuse and consort.

1811. Monday 11th November. Skylark and Locust engaged the Boulogne flotilla.

1811. Friday 22nd November. Volontaire and Perlen engaged Trident and two frigates.

1811. Wednesday 27th November. Eagle captured Cereyre.

1811. Friday 29th November. Alceste, Active, and Unite took Pomone and Porsanne.

1811. Wednesday 4th December. Boats of Sultan took Langitedocienne.

1812. A recruiting poster of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

1812. The field officers below the rank of Commandant, who had attained the rank of Major General, became supernumeraries, and were excused from active duty, such duty being performed by field-officers promoted in consequence of these vacancies.

1812. The beginning of the three year war in America.

1812. Sunday 2nd February. Southampton captured Haytian privateer Amethyste.

1812. Thursday 13th February. Apollo took French frigate Merinos.

1812. Saturday 22nd February. Victorious and Weasel captured Rivoli and Mercure.

1812. Friday 27th March. Rosario and Griffon destroyed 5 French brigs off Dieppe.

1812. Saturday 4th April. Capture of a French xebec by the Maidstone's boats.

1812. Thursday 16th April. Capture of 9 coasting vessels by the Pilot and boats.

1812. Wednesday 29th April. Boats of Leviathan and Undaunted captured 5 vessels.

1812. Wednesday 29th April. Destruction of 21 of a French convoy off the Rhone.

1812. Monday 4th May. Re-capture of Apelles, British Brig-sloop, near Etaples.

1812. Saturday 9th May. Batteries at Languelia carried, and 18 vessels destroyed.

1812. Thursday 14th May. Thames and Pilot at Port Sapri.

1812. Friday 22nd May. Northumberland and Growler destroyed 2 French frigates.

1812. Monday 25th - 26th May. Hyacinth, Termagant, and Basilisk at Almunecar.

1812. Thursday 28th May. Menelaus engaged Pauline and Ecureuil.

1812. Friday 29th May. Hyacinth and consorts captured Brave and Napoleon.

1812. May. Leviathan and consorts at Languelia and Alassio.

1812. Thursday 4th June. Boats of Medusa cut out and destroyed Dorade.

1812. Thursday 11th June. Swallow engaged Renard and Gotland.

1812. Friday 19th June. Boats of Briscis captured Urania.

1812. Saturday 20th June - 8th July. Capture of Fort Leguertis and destruction of batteries.

1812. Monday 1st June. The storming of a battery at Isle Verte, near Ciotat. The Royal Marines were on board HMS Furieuse and HMS Menelaus.

1812. Saturday 27th June. The action at Lunguillia and Allassio.

1812. June - October. The capture of fort Lequertio and destruction of batteries on the north coast of Spain.

1812. Thursday 2nd July. Boats of Horatio captured a Danish cutter and schooner.

1812. Friday 3rd July. Raven drove 3 French brigs on shore near Flushing.

1812. Saturday 4th July. Boats of Attack captured a French transport galliot.

1812. Monday 6th July. Dictator and consorts destroyed Nayaden, Laaland, and Kiel.

1812. Thursday 16th July. Boats of Osprey and consorts captured Eole.

1812. Tuesday 21st July. Sealark captured Ville de Caen.

1812. Sunday 23rd July. Belvidera engaged President and Congress.

1812. Thursday 30th July. Santander and Castle of Ano taken by Venerable and consorts.

1812. Monday 10th August. Battery carried at Biendom by party from Minstrel.

1812. Tuesday 11th August. Boats of Menelaus at S. Stefano.

1812. Thursday 13th August. Alert captured by U. S. Frigate Essex.

1812. Sunday 16th August. Attack sunk by Danish vessels off Foreness.

1812. Wednesday 19th August. Guerriere captured by Constitution.

1812. Monday 24th August. The Battle of Bladensburg, saw the use of Congreve rockets by the detachment of Royal Marine Artillery (RMA) that resulted in the rout of the US militiamen.

1812. Tuesday 1st September. Capture of Tisiphone at Port Lemo by Bacchante.

1812. Wednesday 3rd September. Boats of Menelaus took St. Juan.

1812. Friday 5th September. Alcnclatts cut out a French ship at Lake Orbitello.

1812. Monday 8th September. Laura captured by Diligent.

1812. Thursday 17th September. Capture of 17 and destruction of 6 gunboats by Eagle.

1812. Friday 18th September. Capture of 8 armed and 18 merchant vessels by Bacchante.

1812. Tuesday 29th September. Capture of 4 French vessels at Valencia by Minstrel.

1812. Tuesday 29th September. Attack on Mittau, Riga.

1812. Friday 28th August. Operations at Cadiz and the heroism of gunner John Collard.

1812. Tuesday 29th September. The attack on Mittau, Riga. Royal Marines of HMS Aboukir and HMS Ranger.

1812. Sunday 18th October. Frolic captured by U.S. sloop Wasp.

1812. Sunday 18th October. Poictiers captured Wasp and re-captured Frolic.

1812. Sunday 25th October. Macedonian captured by U.S. frigate United States.

1812. Wednesday 16th December. Albacore and consorts engaged Gloire.

1812. Monday 21st December. Destruction of tower of St. Cataldo by Apollo and Weasel.

1812. Sunday 28th December. Java captured by U.S. frigate Constitution.

1812. Monday 29th December. Royalist captured Ruse.

1812. During the War of 1812, Edward Nicolls RM was posted to Spanish Florida as part of an attempt to recruit the local Indians as allies against the United States. General Sir Edward Nicolls, KCB (Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath). (1779 – 5th February 1865). He was of Anglo-Irish officer serving in the Royal Marines. Often referred to as 'Fighting Nicolls', he had a distinguished career, was involved in numerous actions, and often received serious wounds. According to his obituary in the (London) Times, "He was involved in no fewer than 107 actions, in various parts of the world. He had his left leg broken and his right leg severely injured, was shot through the body and right arm, had received a severe sabre cut in the head, was bayoneted in the chest, and had lost the sight of an eye."

For his service, he received medals and honours, and reached the rank of General. Described as an 'impatient and blustering Irishman' by an anonymous detractor, Nicolls was greatly admired for his courage. A similar assessment was made by Lord Bathurst.

Nicolls was born in Coleraine, Ireland, in to a family with a military tradition; his father was surveyor of excise in Coleraine, and his maternal grandfather was a rector. Nicolls spent his life as an intensely devout Ulster Protestant. He had two years of school in Greenwich, but enlisted in the Royal Navy at the age of 11. In 1795, at the age of 16, he received his first commission in the Royal Marines. At 20 he began service with shipborne detachments of Marines. During the Napoleonic Wars and associated conflicts in the Caribbean, Mediterranean, and North Sea, he served as a commander of ships' detachments, and gained his reputation for ferocity and courage.

Upon being posted to Spanish Florida as part of the British attempt to recruit local allies in the fight against the United States. He set up a base at what became known as Negro Fort and recruited Creeks, escaped slaves, and other local residents. As the war ended and after he returned to England in 1815, he attracted controversy by advocating for the Creeks and others who allied themselves with the British. From 1823 to 1828, he was the commandant of Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, which was followed by a posting from 1829 to 1835, as Superintendent of Fernando Po off the coast of Africa. In 1835, Nicolls retired from the Royal Marines with the rank of a Lieutenant Colonel. For his service, Nicolls was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) among other honours, and was promoted to the rank of full General in his retirement.

1813. Wednesday 6th January. Boats of Bacchante took 5 French gun-brigs.

1813. Wednesday 6th January. Boats of Havannah captured 3 vessels and a gunboat.

1813. Monday 18th January - 3rd February. Augusta and Carzola Islands captured by Apollo and troops.

1813. Saturday 30th January. The Sydney Gazette. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty in ordering Home the Detachment of Royal Marines doing Duty at the Derwent for some Years Past, having granted permission for such of them as were inclined to remain in the country and become settlers, 28 of them having availed themselves of this option. His Excellency the Governor and Commander in Chief directs that they shall be disbanded at Hobart Town on 6 March and struck off all military duties from that date, receiving I months' pay in advance from 6 March in consideration of their long and faithful Services and highly meritorious Conduct for 9 years past in this Country.

1813. Tuesday 2nd February. Boats of Kingfisher took 6 vessels at Corfu.

1813. Wednesday 3rd February. The capture of the Island of Agusta.  Royal Marines and Seamen from the HMS Apollo, the 35th Regiment and Artillery.

1813. Sunday 7th February. Amelia engaged Arethuse.

1813. Monday 8th February. Boats of Belvidera and consorts took Lottery.

1813. Sunday 14th February. Boats of Bacchante captured Alcinous.

1813. Monday 15th February. Batteries at Pietra-Nera stormed and carried.

1813. Wednesday 24th February. Peacock sunk by U.S. sloop Hornet.

1813. Thursday 25th February. Linnet taken by French frigate Gloire.

1813. Friday 26th February. Island of Ponza taken by Thames and consorts.

1813. Thursday 4th of March. An order in Council established the rates of officer’s pensions on the same footing with the Army. At the reduction of the Corps in 1814, the non-commissioned officers and privates loudly expressed their disappointment in not being allowed a pension for length of service, on the same footing with their brother soldiers in the line, and incompliance with the Admiralty order of Wednesday 6th of July 1814 the men were desired by their commanding officer on no consideration to trouble the Lords of the Admiralty respecting pensions, unless absolutely worn out in the service, so as to be rendered incapable of labour. This unjust determination of the board gave rise to a letter entitled, The Royal Marine to the Friends of his Country and its brave Defenders, which, on being circulated in the barracks at Chatham, tended to increase the discontent that prevailed, but shortly afterwards the claims of those gallant and loyal veterans obtained due consideration, and pensions were awarded them.

1813. Thursday 18th March. Battery at Carri destroyed by boats of Undaunted.

1813. Sunday 21st March. Capture of 2 Danish gunboats by Brevdrageren and Blazer.

1813. Monday 22nd March. Two French vessels taken at Vasto by boats of Havannah.

1813. Friday 26th March. Boats of Havannah captured 10 vessels at Fortore.

1813. Wednesday 31st March. Batteries at Morgion destroyed and 11 vessels captured.

1813. Friday 2nd April. Boats of San Domingo and consorts captured 4 schooners.

1813. Sunday 11th April. Devil's Island taken by Apollo and Cerberus.

1813. Wednesday 14th April. Malero Island captured by Apollo and Cerberus.

1813. Saturday 17th April. Alutine captured Invincible.

1813. Thursday 22nd April. Weasel destroyed 14 French vessels off Boscalina.

1813. Saturday 24th April. Boats of Apollo captured a felucca.

1813. Monday 26th April. Six vessels captured at Goro by Elizabeth and Eagle.

1813. Wednesday 28th April. French Town in Chesapeake taken. Captains Wyburn and Carter with 150 Royal Marines.

1813. Thursday 29th April - 5th May. Boats of Marlborough and consorts in Chesapeake Bay.

1813. April. Boats of Orpheus captured a Danish letter-of-marque.

1813. Sunday 2nd May. Batteries destroyed at Morgion by boats of Repulse and consort.

1813. Tuesday 11th May. Bacchante at Karlebago.

1813. Sunday 16th May. Boats of Berwick and Euryalus at Cavalarie.

1813. Monday 17th May. Boats of Apollo and Cerberus took a vessel near Brindisi.

1813. Thursday 27th May. Boats of Apollo and Cerberus took 3 gunboats at Faro.

1813. May - June. Lyra, Royalist and Sparrow at Castro de Urdeales.

1813. Tuesday 1st June. Shannon captured U.S. frigate Chesapeake.

1813. Sunday 2nd May. Morgion. Captain Ennis and a party of Royal Marines from HMS Undaunted and HMS Volontaire blow up battery and capture six laden vessels.

1813. Tuesday 1st June. HMS Shannon captured U.S. frigiue Chesapeake.

1813. Thursday 3rd June – 8th June. Fort San Felippe De Balaguer. A small but important fort garrisoned by 100 men situated upon an isolated rock in the very gorge of a pass and blocking the only carriage way between Tortoza and Tarragona. Five men of war and two battalions were detailed for the attack. Guns and Mortars were landed from the ships and great difficulty placed in position on the mountain side. Earth for the batteries had to be brought up from below and water was only obtainable from the ships, the landing place being a mile and a half away from the scene of the operation. The surrender of the fortress was due to the fire of a couple of 8 inch mortars worked by Lieutenant H. James RMA. which exploded a magazine. He and his party belonged to the Stromboli bomb vessel. After capture a garrison of Royal Marines under Captain E. Baillie was placed in San Felippe.

1813. Thursday 3rd - 19th June to 28th September. Operations on Lake Ontario.

1813. Tuesday 8th June. Boats of Elizabeth and Eagle defeated troops at Omago.

1813. Saturday 12th June. Boats of Bacchante captured 24 vessels at Abruzza.

1813. Saturday 12th June. Boats of Narcissus took the American schooner Surveyor.

1813. Thursday 17th June. Garrison defeated at Zapano by party from Saracen.

1813. Sunday 20th June. Capture of Dignano by boats of Elizabeth.

1813. Sunday 20th June. Junon engaged 15 gunboats in Hampton Roads.

1813. Tuesday 22nd June. Unsuccessful attack by boats of squadron on Craney Isla.

1813. Wednesday 23rd June. Boats of Castor cut out Fortune off Catalonia.

1813. Friday 25th June. Capture of Hampton by boats of Marlborough and squadron.

1813. Friday 25th June. The battle of Hampton.

1813. Saturday 3rd July. Fiume. The detachment of Royal Marines of HMS Milford took and spiked the guns of a battery, took possession of a fort and hoisted the British colours. On advancing through the town they were much annoyed by the fire of a field piece and by musketry from the windows, but headed by 2nd Lieutenants S. Lloyd and E. Nepean they pushed the French troops, almost 300 strong before them till they came to the square. Here the enemy made a stand but were dispersed by the fire of the cannonades in the ships boats. Nine guns were captured, 90 vessels taken or destroyed, 50 guns disabled and two magazines burnt.

1813. Wednesday 7th July. Destruction of Farasina by Eagle and landing party.

1813. Saturday 10th July - 8th Sept. Reduction of St. Sebastian by Graham.

1813. Sunday 11th July. Conflict and consorts took Ocracoke and Portsmouth.

1813. Sunday 11th July. Contest and Mohawk captured U.S. schooner Asp.

1813. Monday 19th July. Bordighero.

1813. July 29. Martin aground, attacked by American gunboats.

1813. Monday 2nd August. The Royal Marines from HMS Eagle and HMS Bacchante under Lieutenants C. Holmes, W. Haig and S. Lloyd took part in the capture of 14 merchantmen and 10 gunboats lying in the Rovigno harbour, protected by 100 troops and 2 field guns. The Royal Marines charged the guns with the bayonet and captured and destroyed them.

1813. Wednesday 4th August. Battery at Ragosniza destroyed by Milford and Weasel.

1813. Thursday 5th August. Dominica taken by the privateer Decalur.

1813. Friday 13th August. Pelican captured U.S. brig Argus.

1813. Wednesday 18th August. Capture of Cassis by Undaunted, squadron, and boats.

1813. Sunday 5th September. Boxer captured by U.S. brig Enterprise.

1813. Sunday 5th September. Destruction of batteries and capture of ships at d'Anzo.

1813. Thursday 9th September. Alphea engaged Renard but blew up with all hands.

1813. Friday 10th September. Detroit and 5 consorts captured by Perry on Lake Erie.

1813. Thursday 16th September. Boats of Swallow took Guerriere.

1813. Tuesday 5th October. A convoy was destroyed and Royal Marines stormed the battery at Port D’ango.

1813. Tuesday 5th – 29th October. A detachment of Royal Marines along with 2 guns blockaded and capture of Trieste.

1813. Saturday 9th October. Thunder captured the French lugger Neptune.

1813. Tuesday 12th October. St. George and Cattard taken by Bacchante and Saracen.

1813. Wednesday 13th October. Telegraph destroyed Flibustier.

1813. Thursday 14th October. Boats from HMS Furieuse cut out a convoy while the Royal Marines stormed the battery at Marinello (near Citcita Veechia). Capturing the battery and 16 vessels.

1813. Saturday 16th, 17th and 18th October. A detachment of the Royal Marine Artillery was involved in the battle of Leipzig.

1813. Wednesday 20th October. Achates engaged Trave.

1813. Saturday 23rd October. Andromache captured Trave.

1813. Monday 1st November. Snap captured the French lugger Lion.

1813. Friday 5th November. Scipion and consorts engaged the French off Cape Sepet.

1813. Monday 8th November. Boats of Revenge took a French privateer at Palamos.

1813. Tuesday 9th November. The storming of the batteries at Port Nouvelle by Undaunted and Guadeloupe.

1813. Friday 26th November. Boats of Swiftsure took Charlemagne.

1813. Monday 29th November. The Hague.

1813. Tuesday 30th November. Desiree and gun-vessels attacked batteries at Cuxhaven.

1813. Saturday 11th – 15th December. Leghorn.

1813. December. Enryalus took a French 22-gun store ship.

1813. December. Alemene captured a French schooner laden with troops.

1814. Tuesday 4th January. Operations in South Beveland.

1814. Wednesday 5th January. Fortress of Gluckstadt captured by a British squadron.

1814. Wednesday 5th January. Fortress of Cattaro taken by Bacchante and Saracen.

1814. Thursday 6th January. Tagus and Niger took the French frigate Ceres.

1814. Saturday 15th January. Boat of Castor took Heureux.

1814. Sunday 16th - 20th January. Venerable and Cyane took Iphigenie and Alemene.

1814. Tuesday 18th January. Severn engaged Etoile and Sultane.

1814. Sunday 23rd January. Astrea and Creole engaged Etoile and Sultane.

1814. Friday 28th January. Surrender of Ragusa to Bacchante, Saracen and troops.

1814. January. The 3rd Royal Marine Battalion was formed at Portsmouth from detachments based in portsmouth, and by Marines detachments withdrawn from serving in the Netherlands. It consisted of 1 Major, 4 Captains, 21 Lieutenants, 1 Adjutant, 1 Quartermaster, and 10 Companies of 100 men each. Also attached was one company of Royal Marine Artillery.

1814. Wednesday 2nd February. Majestic took Terpsichore.

1814. Sunday 13th February. Boyne and Caledonia engaged Romulus and Adrienne.

1814. Sunday 13th February. Island of Paxo surrendered to Apollo and troops.

1814. Monday 14th February. Picton captured by U.S. frigate Constitution.

1814. Wednesday 23rd February. Epervier took U.S. privateer brig Alfred.

1814. Friday 25th February. Eurotas captured Clorinde.

1814. Monday 7th March. U.S. privateer Mars destroyed at Sandy Hook.

1814. Friday 12th March. Primrose engaged by mistake a British brig Packet.

1814. Sunday 13th March. Cole Mill in Canada.

1814. Friday 25th March. Royal Marines of HMS Edinburgh and HMS Swallow land and capture the castle of Lerici (near Spain).

1814. Saturday 26th March. Hebrus and Sparrow engaged Etoile and Sultane.

1814. Saturday 26th March. Hannibal captured Sultane.

1814. Sunday 27th March. Hebrus captured Etoile.

1814. Monday 28th March. Phoebe and Cherub took Essex and Essex Junior.

1814. Saturday 2nd April. Boats of Porcupine captured 12 and destroyed 4 vessels.

1814. Thursday 7th April. Raid on the Connecticut River at the Town of Essex. A British raiding force of 136 Marines and sailors rowed six heavily armed boats from four British warships anchored in Long Island Sound (HMS Hogue, HMS Endymion, HMS Maidstone and HMS Borer), six miles up the Connecticut River. They had come under the command of Captain Richard Coote (Coot) to burn the privateers anchored in port towns along the river. On the way up the river, the Marines landed to secure the old fort at Saybrook to prevent being trapped on their return trip, they found it to be unmanned. The boats were armed with swivel guns loaded with grapeshot, the officers armed with swords and pistols, the Marines with Brown Bess muskets, and the sailors with torches and axes.

1814. Friday 8th April. The British raiding force arrived in Essex then known as Pettipaug at 3:30am. At the landing site a handful of local militia fired out into the darkness with muskets and one four pound cannon. The British replied with a massive volley from the Marine’s muskets and the guns mounted in the ship’s boats. Realising further resistance was futile, the small, disorganised militia fell back into the darkness. The Marines secured the village while the seamen set about burning all of the ships at the wharves and on the stocks being built, as well as those moored the harbour.

The British informed the villagers that they had come to destroy shipping, not their homes. Reportedly the civilians were told that as long as they did not molest the British, the town would not be put to the torch. There was no formal capitulation but it was the best deal that the people of Pettipaug were going to get that night.

However, there was resistance and riders were sent to New London to seek assistance from the troops at Fort Trumbull as well Commodore Stephan Decatur whose squadron was blockaded in the Thames River. Meanwhile several men and boys attempted to extinguish burning ships and even hide some of them up the coves, although their attempts were unsuccessful.

The British searched houses for arms and destroyed or commandeered ship rigging materials from waterfront warehouses and destroyed a large quantity of West Indies Rum.

By 10am the British force had torched 27 vessels. They began an orderly departure with their ship’s boats and two large American privateers, the brig Anaconda and the schooner Eagle. About a mile south of the village the brig went aground in the river where the British were subject to sporadic gunfire from shore.

They transferred everything from the grounded vessel and burned it. Coote decided to anchor the schooner and wait until nightfall to head further down the river where militia from Killingworth and Lyme were gathering at the narrows in the river.

At this point the Americans sent a boat out under a white flag to serve the British with a surrender ultimatum. Captain Coote dismissed it stating, “We hold your power to detain us at defiance.”

By late afternoon soldiers, sailors, Marines and additional militia and volunteers were arriving from New London. There were now several hundred armed Americans and a number of artillery pieces on each side of the river. These forces included two American Generals and two US Navy Captains.

The trap was set, but when the Americans realised the British were not going to come down the river until it was dark, they understood there was a real chance of missing them in the blackness of the overcast night. They raced to get at cannon into position on Ayres Point to hit them where they were anchored in the river.

At dusk, as the British set fire to the remaining privateer and were transferring their men back into the boats, they were hit by an American six pound cannon under command of Lieutenant Bull, which had arrived just as the sun began to set. The American crew fired off six rounds as fast they could reload. Two Royal Marines were killed and a sailor was wounded, but the cloak of darkness now masked their movements.

Aided by the strong flow of the river they headed down river in their boats, running a gauntlet of small arms and cannon fire from both banks. Despite the effort of upwards of 600 Americans to stop them, the British reached their ships at 10pm reportedly letting out three cheers after they passed the fort in Saybrook from which ineffectual parting shots were fired.

Compounding the loss of the 27 ships and the failure to capture the British on the way out was the fact that an American had helped guide the British during the raid. The traitor, nicknamed Torpedo Jack by the British, was paid $2,000 for his efforts, a staggering sum at that time.

By the time the raid was over they had burned 27 ships, including six newly built privateers. It was the largest single maritime loss of the war.

1814. Wednesday 20th Apil. Orpheus and Shelburne captured U.S. sloop Frolic.

1814. Friday 29th April. Epervier taken by U.S. sloop Peacock.

1814. April. Batteries destroyed on the Gironde by Belle Poule.

1814. Wednesday 13th – 17th April. Co-operating with the Anglo Italian Army in its attack on Genoa. The Royal Marines of the British squadron were embarked in to boats and ready to land when and if required. Later while the troops were engaged with the enemy, and the guns in the shore batteries. This enabled the Royal Marines and seamen to storm them with little loss, and to turn their guns against the town.

1814. Tuesday 3rd May. Oswego.

1814. Friday 6th May. Capture of batteries and consorts at Oswego by the British squadron.

1814. Wednesday 25th May. Boats of Elizabeth took Aigle off Corfu.

1814. Monday 30th May. Party from Montreal and Niagara defeated at Sandy Creek.

1814. Wednesday 1st June - 4th July. Operations in the River Patuxent.

1814. Tuesday 14th June. Superb and Nimrod destroyed American vessels at Wareham.

1814. Tuesday 28th June. Reindeer taken by U.S. sloop Wasp.

1814. Tuesday 12th July. Landrail taken by U.S. privateer Syren.

1814. July. Ballahou taken by U. S. privateer Perry.

1814. Saturday 16th July. The British fleet arrived in Chesapeake Bay.

1814. Tuesday 19th July. The British occupied Leonardtown.

1814. Tuesday 19th July - 25th August. Operations in the Potomac River and capture of Washington.

1814. Wednesday 20th July. The British fought on the Nominy River.

1814. Saturday 23rd July. The British fought on the St Clements River.

1814. Tuesday 26th July. The British fought at Machodic Creek.

1814. Saturday 30th July. The British fought at Chaptico.

1814. Wednesday 3rd August. The British fought on the Yocomico River at Kinsale.

1814. Sunday 7th August. The British fought on the Cann River.

1814. Friday 12th August. Boats of Cherwell and Netley took Somers and Ohio.

1814. Monday 15th August the half pay was increased, which equalised it with officers of the same rank in the line.

1814. Wednesday 17th August - 9th September. Capture of Fort Washington and Alexandria.

1814. Wednesday 24th August. The battle of Bladensburg.

1814. Wednesday 24th August. The sacking and burning of Washington.

1814. At Pensacola Captain Edward Nicolls RM issued an order of the day for the 'First Colonial Battalion of the Royal Corps of Marines'. At the same time, Nicolls issued a widely disseminated proclamation to the people of Louisiana, urging them to join forces with British and Indian Allies against the American government. Both proclamations were reproduced in Niles Register. These were a ruse as to the real strength of the British. The 'numerous British and Spanish squadron of ships and vessels of war' comprising of 3 cannons and 12 Royal Marine gunners, whilst the 'Battalion' was a company strength group of 100 Royal Marines infantry, all of whom were detached from major George Lewis's battalion. The numbers of Corps of Colonial Marines and Redstick Creeks are difficult to ascertain, although Nicolls did arrive in Florida with 300 British uniforms and 1000 muskets. Manrique cooperated with Nickolls, allowing him to train and drill Creek refugees.

Nicolls is also mentioned in attempts to recruit Jean Lafitte to the British cause. Nicolls participated in an unsuccessful land and naval attack on Fort Bowyer on 15th September. The taking of Pensacola in November by an American force under Andrew Jackson forced Nicolls to retreat to the Apalachicola River with freed slaves from Pensacola. There, Nicolls regrouped at Prospect Bluff, and rallied Indians and refugee ex-slaves living free in Florida, recruiting the latter into his detached unit of the Corps of Colonial Marines.

Later Captain Nicolls joined General Pakenham's force, accompanied by less than 100 Seminole, Creek & Choctaw warriors. At the Battle of New Orleans on 8 January 1815, Nicolls was attached with some of his men to the brigade commanded by Colonel William Thornton of the 85th Regiment of Foot (Bucks Volunteers). Nicolls was the senior-ranking officer of the Royal Marines present at the battle. Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane forbade Nicolls to personally take part in the fighting, fearing that mishap to Nicolls might deprive the British of their most competent officer serving with the Redstick Creeks and Seminoles. The actual battlefield command of the 100 Royal Marines brigaded with Thornton's 85th Foot went to a less senior officer, Major Thomas Benjamin Adair, commanding officer of the Marine detachment on HMS Vengeur. Nicolls embarked HMS Erebus on 12 January at Cat Island Roads, and disembarked at Appalachicola on Tuseday 25th January, accompanied by several Creek warriors and a number of Royal Marine reinforcements.

The start of 1815 was to see an offensive in the south, with Royal Marine battalions to advance westward into Georgia, and to be joined by Nicolls and his forces from the Gulf Coast. These plans were overtaken by events, as peace was declared. Consequentially, with the offensive cancelled, Nicolls and his men returned to Prospect Bluff.

1814. Tuesday 30th August. Party from Menelaus engaged ashore in Chesapeake Bay.

1814. August. Nancy destroyed by Tigress and Scorpion on Lake Huron.

1814. Thursday 1st September. Castine captured by a British squadron.

1814. Thursday 1st September. Avon sunk by U.S. sloop Wasp.

1814. Saturday 3rd September. American frigate Adams and 10 vessels destroyed.

1814. Sunday 3rd September. The Royal Marines stormed Hampten, USS Adams burnt and vessels destroyed at Bangor.

1814. Sunday 3rd September. Boats of Nancy captured U.S. schooner Tigress.

1814. Wednesday 6th September. Party from Nancy captured Scorpion.

1814. Sunday 10th - 14th Sept. Attack on Baltimore by a British squadron.

1814. monday 11th September. Confiance and 3 consorts taken by Macdonough.

1814. Monday 12th September. The fight before Baltimore.

1814. Monday 12th-15th September. The Battle of Baltimore. The Royal Marine Artillerymen served aboard HMS Erebus.

1814. Thursday 15th September. Hermes lost at unsuccessful attack on Fort Bowyer.

1814. Monday 26th September. Boats of Plantagenet and Rota repulsed by General Armstrong.

1814. Monday 3rd - 4th October. Boats and landing parties in the Coan River.

1814. Sunday 9th October. Boats of Endymion unsuccessfully attacked Neufchatel.

1814. Tuesday 13th - 14th December. The capture of an American flotilla on Lake Borgne, five U.S. gun-boats and a sloop.

1814. Raids on the American Coast.

1814. Three additional Marine Battalions (numbered 1-3) were raised from among the Royal Marines specifically for action in Portugal, Northern Spain, the Invasion of France, the Netherlands, North America and the Caribbean. However they were later disbanded in 1815.

1815. Thursday 2th January. The capture of Point a Pitre.

1815. Sunday 8th January. The British attacked New Orleans.

1815. Friday 13th - 14th January. Capture of St. Mary's, Georgia, by the British.

1815. Sunday 15th January. Endymion captured U.S. frigate President.

1815. January - March. The British mount many raids on Florida Coast.

1815. Friday 20th February. Cyane and Levant captured by U.S. frigate Constitution.

1815. Sunday 22nd February. Engagement between British boats and U.S. troops in St. Mary's River.

1815. Thursday 26th February. St. Lawrence taken by U.S. privateer Chasseur.

1815. Wednesday 15th March. A U.S. Army aide-de-camp named Walter Bourke communicated to Major General Thomas Pinckney that conditions were difficult on the Georgia frontier despite efforts of Brigadier General John Floyd of the Georgia militia to reinforce American defences, and the efforts of U.S. Truce Commissioners T. M. Newell and Thomas Spalding on the Georgia coast to negotiate the return of slaves who had enlisted in, or sought asylum with, the Corps of Colonial Marines still at Cumberland Island under the command of Rear Admiral George Cockburn. Cockburn was not inclined to voluntarily hand over British military personnel who risked being returned to slavery by the Americans. Cockburn also professed difficulty in communicating news of the Treaty of Ghent to Nicolls and his forces. There was a whiff of panic in St. Marys and Savannah at this time.

Edward Nicolls RM contributed to diplomatic tensions between the United Kingdom and the United States over slavery-related issues arising from Jackson's Treaty with the Creeks, the Treaty of Ghent, and Nicolls's attempts to represent the interests of the Native Americans and blacks who had taken up arms on the British side. Writing from HMS Royal Oak, off Mobile Bay, on Wednesday 15th March 1815, Rear Admiral Pulteney Malcolm, Cochrane's subordinate commander of the Mobile Squadron, assured Don Mateo Gonzalez Manrique, the Governor at Pensacola, that Post-Captain Robert Cavendish Spencer of HMS Carron, (a son of George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer), had been detailed to conduct a strict enquiry into the conduct of Nicolls and Captain Woodbine, respecting the losses in property to Spanish inhabitants of Florida. Malcolm believed that in cases where former slaves could not be persuaded to return to their owners, the British government would undertake to remunerate the owners.

Prior to leaving British Post for Great Britain, Nicolls engaged in a heated exchange of letters with U.S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins. Hawkins accused Nicolls of being overzealous and of overstepping his authority in his personal defence of Redstick Creeks, Seminoles, and their Marron Creole or Black Allies, who some Americans in authority viewed as nothing more than runaway slaves and lost or unclaimed property.

1815. Saturday 22nd April. Nicolls received orders to withdraw his troops from the fort. The Royal Marine detachment embarked HMS Cydnus on, and were duly returned to Ireland Island in Bermuda, arriving on Tuesday 13th June 1815, to re-join the 3rd Battalion as a supernumerary company. Nicolls left in the summer of 1815 with the Redstick Creek Prophet, Josiah Francis (or Hillis Hadjo, the Native American Indian spiritual and political leader known for his role in the Battle of Holy Ground), and an Anglo-Creek-Seminole treaty of Nicolls' own initiative. Nicolls, Woodbine, and a Redstick Creek leader, probably Francis, arrived at Amelia Island, in East Florida on Wednesday 7th June 1815, where rumours circulated that the officers were seeking to either obtain British possession of Florida from Spain, or at least to arm and supply the Florida factions resisting American territorial expansion. In leaving West Florida, according to the U. S. Indian Agent Hawkins, Nicolls had left local forces with the arms and means to resist advancing American encroachments which were leading up to Andrew Jackson's First Seminole War. Nicolls embarked the brig HMS Forward at Amelia Island on Thursday 29th June 'for passage to England', and disembarked at Portsmouth on Wednesday 13th September. In England, Nicolls failed to obtain official support for the Creeks, and Josiah Francis failed to receive official recognition for his credentials as the Redstick Creek emissary from the Foreign Office, although he did receive honorary recognition as a former Colonel of the British Army in Florida as well as publicized encounters with British notables, before returning to West Florida in 1816. Nicolls himself, however, was retained on full pay status in the duties of a Captain of Royal Marines with the brevet rank of Major.

1815. Thursday 23rd March. Penguin taken by U.S. ship Hornet.

1815. Sunday 30th April. Rivoli captured Melpomene off Ischia.

1815. Sunday 21st May. Naples. The Royal Marines landed 500 strong to occupy Forts St. Elmo and D’Uovo upon its surrender by the French.

1815. Saturday 17th June. Pilot engaged Legere off Cape Corse.

1815. Sunday 18th July. French convoy captured by Ferret, Fly and consort.

1815. Wednesday 5th July. The pay of Adjutants was increased.

1815. Friday 14th July. 500 Marines landed under Brevet Major H. Cox, co-operated with the Army under Sir Hudson Lowe in the occupation of Marseilles.

1815. Sunday 18th July. French convoy captured by Ferret, Fly and consorts.

1815. Tuesday 18th – 19th July. The French convoy cut out at Corigeou. On the 5th July  the frigates HMS Rhin, HMS Menelaus and HMS Havannah, with the Fly and Ferret brigs, and the schooner Sealark chased a French convoy into the Bay of Corigeou, about eighteen miles from Brest. The boats left the squadron at 10pm on the 18th, and came to a grapnel under a range of rocks about a quarter of a mile from shore. Here they lay till the moon went down, finally effecting a landing, undiscovered, at 2-45am on the 19th. The Marines of HMS Menelaus, 45 rank and file, formed the advance guard under Lieutenant A, Burton RH, the main body consisting of 120 Marines under Lieutenants Bunce and Hurdle, and 80 seamen, was commanded by Captain Malcolm RN of HMS Rhin. Having stormed the two batteries which protected the anchorage, the brigs were able to enter and bring out the convoy. This little affair is of some interest as being the last of the numerous cutting out expeditions in which the Marines played such an important part during the long war with France.

1815. Saturday 24th July. Reduction of Gaeta by Malta and Berwick.

1815. Napoleon was exiled to St Helena Island of Ascension.

When St. Helena became the prison of Napoleon, the occupation of Ascension necessarily followed; and Sir George Cockburn, the commander-in-chief on the station, immediately sent an officer with a number of men under his command to hold the island. But the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty were not long in forwarding a different establishment, and a detachment of Marines was sent from England, under Major Campbell, to form the garrison. It was in October 1823 that Major Nicolls succeeded to the command of the Island of Ascension, which was then a mere rock overrun by immense rats, and incapable of producing any vegetation; having scarcely sufficient water for its small garrison, and the road from the barracks to the spring which furnished the supply almost impassable for their water cart. But by the unremitted exertions of the Marines on the island, convenient roads were made, and water-tanks built, affording not only an ample supply for the garrison, but for the ships of the African squadron, and numerous merchant vessels that came to the island in distress. Vegetables were cultivated with so much success, that a plentiful supply was obtained by our cruisers, and previous to the recall of Major Nicolls from his command in 1828, (on his promotion to the rank of Major in the Corps,) he had so improved the cultivation of the island, that there were 800 head of cattle of his own rearing, consisting of cows, oxen, sheep, goats, and swine, besides about 500 that had been slaughtered.

The ingenuity and perseverance of the Marines who served on the Island of Ascension, and particularly those who were its earliest inhabitants, convey to the admiring and astonished visitor of the colony a flattering impression of the discipline and internal economy of the Corps.

Captain William Bate succeeded Major Nicolls, and this officer, after years of exertion, vexation, and difficulty, died on the island. Captain Tinklar was the next commandant, and this zealous officer soon became a victim to his anxious desire to promote the welfare of the service. Captain Bennett was the next appointed, but the period of that officer's command was even briefer than his predecessor, and he died in a still more sudden manner.

The death of three commandants within so short a period leads us to infer, that their removal was not entirely attributable to the malignity of the climate, for we do not find its fatal influence extending to the subordinate ranks, but we believe that the duties of the commanding officers were of a most tantalising character, involving contradictions, vexations, and anomalies that but few constitutions could long resist in such a climate as that of Ascension. The last officer of Marines in command at this seemingly fatal colony was Captain R. P. Dwyer, and he all but shared the fate of his predecessors, for in little more than two years from his appointment, he was, through the excitement and vexations inseparable from his duties, seized with such severe illness, that, as the only chance of saving his life, he was sent to England by the first ship that touched at the island. But some time previous to his illness Captain Dwyer had solicited permission to resign his command, under the persuasion that no exertions, no line of conduct however upright and honourable, could guarantee him from annoyances which could not be overcome.

Thus ended the command which had been so long held by officers of the Royal Marines on the Island of Ascension. That gloomy cinder in the distant ocean, which has been forced into its actual state of usefulness and importance by the perseverance, the skill, and the zeal of the Marines. This fact so forcibly struck the Prince de Joinville when he visited the island in the early part of 1843, that his Royal Highness observed to Captain Dwyer, "The Marines deserve great credit. They have performed wonders here, for out of nothing, less than nothing, you have created a great deal, a very useful little colony.”

1816. Saturday 6th July. The pay of Adjutants was increased.

1816. Sunday 27th August The bombardment of Algiersby Lord Exmouth. The following is taken from the MS. Journal of General F.W. Whinyates R.E. published in the R.E. Journal of 1th February 1881; ”On the 9th August, arrived at Gibraltar after 13 days passage. Whilst at Gibraltar the Marines of the fleet, about 100, were formed into two Battalion, to be commanded by Majors Vallack and Collins of the Royal Marines. It was intended that the company of Royal Sappers and Marines should land with them at Algiers, and each Sapper and Miner was to carry two hand Grenades and a piece of slow match in his haver sack, besides his musket and ammunition.

1816. In consequence of the peace, the establishment was reduced to eighty companies, consisting of battalion companies, 6,760, four artillery companies 368, staff 94, making a total of 6,222 men.

1817. Wednesday 26th November. By order in Council of the Corps was fixed at 6,236 men, in eighty companies, of which eight were artillery.

1817. Captain Edward Nicholls, later known as ‘fighting Nicholls’ and to become a General of Royal Marines, raised a Regiment of North American Indians to fight in the War of Independence. These Indians comprised mainly of Seminoles, Redstick Creeks and Choctaw warriors.

1817. Bombardment of Mocha by Eden.

1817. During the summer Captain George Woodbine, one of Edward Nicoll's former subordinate officers, was present in Spanish East Florida together with the former British soldier and Scottish mercenary lieutenant of Simon Bolivar, Gregor MacGregor. Woodbine and Macgregor both left Spanish East Florida to re-join the Latin American revolutionary movement prior to U.S. military intervention in East Florida. The names of Nicolls, Woodbine, and Macgregor, had become associated with the arming of blacks as soldiers, militiamen, and even as mercenaries. The threat, real or imaginary, was an anathema to North American popular conceptions of the time.

The Niles' Weekly Register of Baltimore also published, between July and October 1818, portions of correspondence between Nicolls and the former auxiliary 2nd Lt Robert Chrystie Armbrister (1797–1818) of the first "battalion" of the Corps of Colonial Marines. Armbrister was one of two British subjects executed in the Arbuthnot and Ambrister incident by order of Major General Andrew Jackson following a drumhead trial at Saint Marks in West Florida in April 1818. Josiah Francis and another Seminole leader, Nehemathla Micco, were also summarily executed by the Americans in Spanish territorial waters in April 1818. In the correspondence of Armbrister, assistance is asked of Nicolls to intervene with the British government on behalf of former allies seeking asylum in Spanish West Florida from perceived American wrongdoing and injustice.

1818.  The Marines were landed without any encumbrances, with 60 rounds of ammunition, and proportion of small rockets was to be distributed among them for throwing into casemates, and four steady men from each Division were to be selected to carry rockets and storming poles. It was intended to have stormed the Mole opposite HMS Queen Charlotte but it was the difficulty of communicating with her and getting the Sappers and Marines off again, that prevented Lord Exmouth’s ordering it.

1818. By order in Council of the Corps was fixed at 6000 men.

1819. By order in Council of the Corps was fixed at 6000 men .

1820. Saturday 6th May. An order in Council regulated the pay of Quarter-masters.

1820. July. The first reference to a Band at Woolwich Barracks.

1820. Monday 6th - 12th July. The British were involved in a Battle at Algeciras with French / Spanish vessels.

1820. Wednesday 23rd July. The first band of the Royal Marine Artillery was formed. During this time the Artillery Company's were based at Chatham.

1820. Friday 4th - 30th December. Royal Marines and Seamen from HMS Topaze storm Mocha.

1820. The Corps was increased to 8,000 men.

1822. Monday 30th December. Eliza engaged two pirates off Guajaba and took one.

1823. Friday 31st January. Cameleon and Naiad captured Algerine corsair Tripoli.

1823. Friday 28th March. Boats of Naiad distroyed a pirate brig at Bona.

1823. Friday 28th March. Boats of Tyne and Thracian captured Zarajonaza.

1823. The Corps strength was 8,700 men, distributed in eighty five divisional and eight artillery companies.

1823. Edward Nicolls became the first Royal Marines commandant of Ascension Island. Ascension is a small volcanic island in the South Atlantic, halfway between South America and Africa. In 1815, HMS Zenobia and HMS Peruvian took the island to prevent it from being used as a staging post from which to rescue Napoleon Bonaparte from Saint Helena. From 1815 until Nicolls took over, the Royal Navy registered the island as a "small Sloop of 50 or 60 Men", HMS Ascension, since the Navy was forbidden to govern colonies. The island had a garrison of about thirty, with a few families, servants, and liberated Africans. The Royal Navy came to use the island as a victualling station for ships, particularly those of the West Africa Squadron (or Preventative Squadron), which were working to suppress the slave trade.

Water was scarce, and an important task for Nicolls was to ensure that the island had a stable source of water. He achieved this by installing systems of pipes and carts to bring water to the settlement from the few springs in the mountains. Food was mostly shipped from England, but some could be procured locally: fish, a few vegetables grown on the island, feral goats and sheep, fishy-tasting eggs from a tern colony on the island, and turtle meat obtained during the laying season from December to May. Due to Nicolls's efforts in directing the harvest of turtles, turtle meat, an expensive delicacy in England, became so common it was fed to prisoners and pigs, and Marines complained of it. This surfeit of turtle irritated Nicolls's superiors and the Lords of the Admiralty, and when an Admiral ordered Nicolls to stop feeding turtle to prisoners, he started selling or bartering it to visiting ships. With this monotonous diet, men on the island relied on rum for spice. Nicolls understood this and gave large rations of grog when his men showed "spirited and Soldier like feelings".

On the confines of the island feuds were vicious, and one surgeon went insane. Pirates were frequently seen off Ascension, keeping the garrison on edge. Nicolls was also busied by many infrastructure projects on the island, building roads, water tanks, a storehouse, and developing the gardens on Green Mountain. For these efforts, Nicolls had about sixty freed Africans sent to Ascension, and additionally asked for convicts.

Nicolls had many such grand schemes for trade between Britain and its colonies, but these all failed to materialise. These schemes included a plan to grow oaks in Sierra Leone for Royal Navy ships, a plan to ship Ascension rocks to England, and a plan to ship New Zealand flax to England which he discussed in a letter to Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst. On Monday 3rd November 1828 Captain William Bate replaced Nicolls as commandant on Ascension.

During his time in control of Fernando Po, Edward Nicolls clashed with the Portuguese authorities on the neighbouring islands of São Tomé and Príncipe regarding his refusal to return slaves escaping from there. In an 1842 letter to The Times he says he was accused by the Portuguese governor, Senhor Ferreira, of deliberately enticing slaves to run away and of encouraging 'thieves' and 'murderers'. This charge he denied, asserting that he had never actively encouraged slaves from nearby islands to make the dangerous crossing to Fernando Po: but that if they chose to do so, it was his duty under British law not to return them to slavery. He considered those slaves who killed in the course of their escapes as legally and morally justified in their action; nor did he regard them as thieves for having seized canoes to escape in. He offered to return the canoes however, and informed Ferreira that if the latter could persuade any of the escapees to return voluntarily to a state of slavery, Nicolls would not impede them. He wrote to The Times on the subject because of the debate which followed the Creole case in which slaves transported aboard an American vessel had taken control of her and forced the crew to take them to a British-run port.

1824 - 1829. A small detachment of Royal Marines served at Melville Island in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia.

1824. The establishment was 9,000 men, at which it continued until 1832, when it was increased to 10,500.

1824. March – April. The destruction and capture of a gang of Pirates who made the Isle of Pines Island their headquarters and had murdered a Lieutenant and some men belonging to a British man of war. Lieutenant Beaden of the Royal Marines was on this Island for about two months, performing most arduous duty, marching from 5 to10 miles daily through the jungle in search of pirates. Eventually with 15 Royal Marines he ran them to earth, dispersed and captured the survivors who were executed at Jamaica. On the first 2 days only about 70 seamen with their officers assisted in the search.

1824. Sunday 28th March. Boats of Tyne and Thracian captured Zarajonaza.

1824. Tuesday 11th May. Rangoon captured.

1824. May - June The first Ashanti war, and the Marines defended Cape Castle. Seamen and Marines from the Squadron assisted in the defence of Cape Castle. Lieutenant W.O. Aitcheson of the Royal Marine Artillery was killed here after greatly distinguishing himself and doing great service with a 6 pounder gun.

1824. Tuesday 1st June. The Royal Marine Artillery Company's first occupied Fort Cumberland.

1824. Monday 2nd August. Tavoy captured.

1824. Thursday 2nd September. Stockades carried at Dalla Creek.

1824. Sunday 5th September. Enemy repulsed at Thontai.

1824. Tuesday 21st - 27 September. Burmese defeated at Penang.

1824. Wednesday 6th October. Mergui captured.

1824. Thursday 7th October. Than-ta-Bain captured.

1824. Wednesday 27th - 30th October. Martaban captured and war boats destroyed.

1824. Tuesday 30th November - 15th December. Burmese defeated at Kemmendine.

1824. Friday 10th December. Lieutenant Williamson R.M. and a detachment were placed in charge of Fort Dundas, on the Melville Islands, that are in the eastern Timor Sea, off the coast of the Northern Territory of Australia. The Fort had been built since the first settlement in Australia in August 1814.The settlement did not prove a success, and was abandoned on 31st March 1829.

1824 – 1826. The first Burma War. Royal Marines and Seamen from the East India Squadron were landed in Rangoon, and helped open up the river route to Irrawaddy.

1825. Saturday 5th February. Than-ta-Bain captured.

1825. Saturday 19th February. Paulang captured.

1825. Wednesday 23rd March. George IV passes an act for the regulating of His Majestry's Royal Marine Forces on shore.

1825. March and April. Donoobew captured.

1825. Monday 25th April. Prome occupied.

1825. Sunday 25th December. Burmese defeated at Prome.

1825. Appointment of a Colonel Commandant and deputy Adjutant General of Marines, resident in London.

1825 - 1854. The Marines Band uniforms of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

1825. The Marines Drummer uniforms of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

1826. Thursday 19th January. Melloone captured.

1826. Thursday 9th February. Pagahm-mew captured. In these operations Alligator, Arachne, Boadicea, Champion, Larne, Liffey, Sophie, Slaney, Tamar, and Tees, or parties from them, were engaged.

1826. Thursdaay 6th - 7th April. Boats of Alacrity took four Greek pirate vessels.

1826. Saturday 17th June. In search of Pirate ships off the Island of Candia in the Bay of Porta Bono. Captain G.R. Pechell of the 36 gun Frigate HMS Sybille, arrived off the island of Candia in search of some piratical vessels that had plundered a Sardinian merchant-ship, and ill-treated the crew. Being close in with HMS Gozo, on the morning of the 18th four large Misticos were discovered and chased under a small island, forming the bay or harbour of Porto Bono, or Calos-limuonop. The frigate anchored at about half past noon with a spring on the cable and opened her broadside on the Misticos lying moored to the rocks, whilst the five boats under the orders of Lieutenant Gordon, assisted among other officers by Lieutenant of Marines J.T. Brown, pulled in to the attack. They were instantly assailed by a destructive fire of musketry from above 200 men, protected by a stone breast work or concealed behind the rocks. Their pieces, loaded with three balls each, connected by a piece of wire, were so well directed, that although Lieutenant Gordon succeeded in boarding one of the vessels, the crew of the barge suffered so severely that he was compelled to abandon her, having 7 seamen and 1 Marine killed, himself, Mr. Edmonsons, Midshipman, and every other seaman and Marine wounded. Lieutenant E. Tupper, Commanding the launch, was mortally wounded. In the first cutter, Commanded by Lieutenant P.T. Brown of the Marines, Mr. Lees, Midshipman, was severely wounded, 2 Seamen killed and 2 wounded, the other boats suffered proportionally, and the total loss amounted to Mr. Knox, Midshipman, 10 Seamen, and 3 Marines killed, 2 Lieutenants, 2 Midshipmen, 20 Seamen, and 6 Marines wounded.

1826. Tuesday 12th September. An increase of the pay of Adjutants was ordered.

1826. The Appointment of a Colonel Commandant and deputy Adjutant General of Marines was resident in London.

1826. Chatham Division band accompanied the british Ambassador to Russia for the Coronation of Tsar Nicholas 1st, the first time that a British Band left Britain to attend a foreign ceremony. An Imperial Russian sword, suitably engraved, was presented to the Bandmaster. This sword is now in the Royal Marines Museum collection.

1827. Wednesday 26th of September. New Colours were presented to the Division of Royal Marines at Chatham, on the part of His Majesty King George IV, by His Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence, then Lord High Admiral of Great Britain, and General of Marines, afterwards King William IV. After alluding to the services of Marine Regiments from the period of their formation to the present time, His Royal Highness caused the New Colours to be unfurled, and concluded his address in the following terms: "His Majesty has selected for the Royal Marines a Device to which their achievements have entitled them, and which, by his permission, this day present to you, a Badge which you have so hardly and honourably earned. From the difficulty of selecting any particular places to inscribe on these Standards, your Sovereign has been pleased to adopt. The Great Globe itself as the most proper and distinctive badge. He has also directed, that his own name (George IV.) shall be added to that peculiar badge, the Anchor, which is your distinctive bearing, in order that it may be known hereafter, that George the Fourth had conferred on you the honourable and well earned badge this day presented to you. The motto, peculiarly your own, ‘Per Mare; Per Terram’ has been allowed to remain and surmounting the entire is the word Gibraltar, in commemoration of the important national services you performed there. In presenting these Colours, the gift of your Sovereign, into your hands, I trust I am confident you will defend them with the same intrepidity, loyalty, and regard for the interests of the country, that have marked your preservation of your old ones, and if you do, you’re Sovereign, and your Country will have equal reason to be satisfied."

Through out the 18th and 19th century the Corps played a major roll in fighting to win Britain the largest empire ever created. The Marines had a dual function, they ensured the security of the ship's officers and supported their maintenance of discipline in the ship's crew. During battles they engaged the enemy's crews, firing from positions on their own ship, or fighting during boarding's. The Corps strength at that time was 9,000.

1827. Saturday 20th October. The Battle of Navarino was fought in the bay of Navarino (on the south-western shore of the Peloponnesus) between Turkish Egyptian naval forces and the joint Russian, British, and French navies during the Greek National Liberation Revolution (Greek War of Independence) of 1821 - 1829. The allied squadrons were sent to exert pressure on Turkey, which had refused to carry out the demands of the London Convention of 1827 on granting autonomy to Greece. The three squadron commanders, the British Vice Admiral E. Codrington, the Russian Rear Admiral L.M. Geiden, and the French Rear Admiral H. G. de Rigny, decided to enter the bay of Navarino, where the Turkish Egyptian fleet under the command of Ibrahim Pasha was located. (Ibrahim Pasha’s fleet consisted of three ships of the line, 23 frigates, and about 40 corvettes and brigs, with almost 2,220 artillery guns.) The entrance to the bay was defended by coast batteries (165 guns and six fire ships).

A British squadron (three ships of the line, four frigates, one corvette, and three brigs), a French squadron (three ships of the line, two frigates, and two corvettes), and a Russian squadron (four ships of the line and four frigates), totalling 1,676 artillery guns and under the overall command of Codrington, who was senior in rank, entered the bay. After a British truce envoy was killed by the Turks and the ships were fired on by coast batteries, the allies opened fire. In four hours the Turkish Egyptian fleet was completely destroyed and almost 7,000 Turks died. The Russian flagship Azov, under the command of Captain First Class M.P. Lazarev, especially distinguished itself in the battle. The allies lost more than 800 men in dead and wounded. The defeat of the Turkish fleet aided in Greece’s national liberation struggle and contributed to Russia’s victory in the Russo Turkish War of 1828 - 1829.

1828 - 1829. The Taking of the Castle of Morea (or Rhion) and the Siege of Patras. A few Royal Marines, Artillery and Infantry, and some bomb vessels co-operated with the French Army in these operations. Lieutenant Logan RMA mainly caused the surrender of the Castle by blowing up the principal magazine for which he received the Legion of Honour.

1829. Edward Nicolls RM was appointed Superintendent of Fernando Po (now Bioko), a tropical island immediately off the coast of Africa, which the Navy used as a base for operations against the slave trade. Nicolls received the appointment after colonial administrator William Fitzwilliam Owen had refused the post, and after merchant John Beecroft was deemed unfit for the post. Owen, however, voiced his dissatisfaction with what he viewed as Nicolls's harsh rule on the island, and Beecroft increased his influence in the area. Nicolls, in turn, attacked Beecroft for his dealings with former slavers. Nicolls's health suffered in Fernando Po and by April 1830 he had left for Ascension. When Nicolls returned to England ill, Beecroft was placed in charge of the island. Tropical illness took a toll on the Europeans at Fernando Po, where hundreds died during the period. Nineteen of the 34 men in Nicoll's first contingent died soon after their arrival, and only five of the original 47 Royal Marines who accompanied him to Fernando Po in 1829 survived two years duty on the station. Lieutenant Colonel Edward Nicolls, somewhat restored to health, served a second term as Superintendent of Fernando Po during 1832–1833. Despite his differences with Owen, Nicolls was just as determined to disrupt the slave trade, and equally energetic in his attempts to convince the British government to adopt a more aggressive stance. Frustrated in territorial annexation schemes, he invited the West African rulers of Bimbia, Old Calabar, Camaroon, Malimba, and the Bonny to Fernando Po to form an anti-slavery alliance. To Nicolls' great disappointment, the British government ordered him to evacuate Fernando Po on Wednesday 29th August 1832 and put an end to operations there. Unfinished work and efforts to provide for the welfare of liberated and displaced slave populations delayed the end of Nicoll's mandate for several months, and the Colonel did not return to England until April 1835.

1830. Monday 26th April. Black Joke took the Spanish slaver Marimerito.

1830. Primrose captured the Spanish slaver Veloz Passagera.

1831. April. The Maintenance of Order in Newcastle. “On Wednesday week a detachment of 80 Marines and 6 Subalterns under the command of Major Mitchell, sailed from Portsmouth for this (Newcastle), on account of disturbances among the colliers. The vessel, towed by a steamer, sailed in less than an hour after the orders were received.” (Contemporary Newspapers of 28th April 1831).

1831. Loyalty and Determination of Private George Higham. “Whilst the Medina steam vessel was stationed on the coast of Africa in the year 1831 a boat containing a midshipman, 9 seamen and a Marine was dispatched on service, and on ascending a river, the crew became mutinous, that the officer was under the necessity of using violent measures, and ran one off them through the body. This so exasperated the others, that they determined the throw the midshipman overboard, and were attempting to put their threat into execution when the Marine, named George Hyam or Higham, with great firmness stood between them, and declared he would shoot the first man who dared to lay his hand upon an officer, and bayonet the next who might venture to approach him. This determined act of courage so overawed the sailors that they desisted in their murderous intention, and the midshipman, thus nobly supported, was enabled to maintain his authority and re-join his ship in safety.” (Nicholas History. Record R.M. Force) .

1831. First cholera outbreak in England that affected all the British military forces.

1832. The establishment of the Marines increased to 10,000 men.

1832. The companies of Marine Artillery have been gradually increased until they have reached to about the same numerical strength as their establishment during1823, (but still short of field officers,) when they were formed into eight companies. The minutes of the Board of Admiralty show that relative to the Marine Artillery, they were intended for the training of the other Marines, so as to embark efficient artillery-men in others of his Majesty's ships as well as in Bombs Ketches.

1832. Monday 6th of February. The Band of the Royal Marines Artillery, was disbanded as part of the 1832 reductions.

1832. Monday 6th of February. An order in Council abolished the Corps of Royal Marine Artillery. This battalion, originally selected from a Corps of 30,000 men, and which had progressively risen to eminence and distinction, was immediately broken up, retaining two companies as a nucleus to form a greater body, which might hereafter be deemed advisable.

1832. Thursday 12th April. An order in Council ordered the promotion of four Lieutenant Colonels to be second Commandants, thus creating vacancies in the subordinate ranks.

1832. - 1834. A Battalion of Marines were keeping the peace in Ireland.

1833. A report of the Committee of the House of Commons on Army and Navy appointments, recommended the abolition of the sinecures of Generals and Colonels of Marines, enjoyed by Naval officers.

1833. The Marines uniforms of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

1833. Finally an Act for the Abolition of Slavery throughout the British Colonies is passed by British Parliament and Policed by law.

1834. Wednesday 30th April. Additional retirements on full and half-pay.

1834. Sunday 7th - 9th September. Imogene and Andromache engaged in the Canton River.

1834. Royal Marines supported the Queen of Spain's forces during the Carlist War.

1835. A Royal Marine Battalion and Royal Marine Axillary Battery were in Spain during the Carlist War that came to a close in1840.

1835. A Battalion of Royal Marines were in Portugal. “On Thursday morning at 6 o’clock, 2 officers and 200 Rank and File of the Royal Marines and 5 officers and 90 Gunners RMA embarked on board HMS Talavera and HMS Britannia, left Portsmouth for Plymouth where they were Joined by 7 officers and 200 Rank and File from that division and HMS Romney troop ship. They took with them 4 guns and a Brigade of Rockets. Never did a finer body of men quit the shores of England. They have orders to join Admiral Parker, and it said Don Miguel will very soon be made acquainted with the object of their mission. The Portsmouth contingent was to be transferred to HMS Romney at Plymouth and the Plymouth one to embark for passage in HMS Caledonia (Contemporary new paper 30th May).

1836. Wednesday 11th May. An order in Council abolished the office of Inspector General of Marines. The creation of this office, in March 1831, produced a feeling of dissatisfaction in the Corps, that called for loud and general remonstrance, for it will scarcely be credited that the appointment was conferred upon a civilian (he having sold out of the service many years previously) totally unconnected with the Marines, and who, to have authority and control over the Colonels of Divisions, was created a Major General. This act of injustice produced a feeling of respectful remonstrance, until the discontent became too apparent to be disregarded; and another Board of Admiralty, with a due consideration for the welfare of the Corps, removed the Inspector General, and restored the Command of the Marines to the hands of one of its distinguished veterans.

1836. May to October. Operations against pirates in Straits of Malacca.

1836. Monday 6th June. The Battle of Ametza.

1836. The Brunswick rifle, a muzzle-loading weapon, is introduced to replace the Baker and remains in production until 1885.

1836-7 Carlist War. Pique, Castor and Salamander concerned.

1837. Thursday 16th March. The Battle of Hernani.

1837. Tuseday 20th June. Her Majesty Queen Victoria ascended the Throne and commenced the long reign which was to bring such glory and honour to England, but the year found the fortunes of the Corps at a very low ebb.

The numbers voted were 9007, but the RM Artillery had officially ceased to exist - a School of Laboratory and nominally two companies quartered at Fort Cumberland as part of the Portsmouth Division only being maintained. The Portsmouth Division were still in the old inadequate Clarence Barracks in the High Street; Plymouth and Chatham were in their present barracks, which had not then been enlarged to their present size, and Woolwich were in the western part of the Royal Artillery Barracks.

1837. Wednesday 21st June. An order in Council gave six additional retirements of full-pay for Colonels Commandant, which placed the establishment as follows, Eight for Colonels Commandant, two for Colonels, Second Commandant, four for Lieutenant Colonels, twenty five for Captains, ten for First Lieutenants.

It must be a very rare and extraordinary circumstance that would induce a Second Commandant to take the retirement, for being so near a preferment of much greater consideration, it is not to be expected that a man would forego the advantage almost within his reach. By adding those two offices, (which are never filled), to those of Colonels Commandant, a boon would be conferred on the Corps, but to accelerate promotion and improve the health and vigour of the service, the Commandants of Divisions ought to be placed on the same footing as the appointments in the Royal Navy, in which service they are limited to a certain period, and when vacancies occurred on the retired list, and a Commandant of division had held that office four years, he should be compelled to withdraw from active service on the honourable and liberal retirement afforded him.

1837. Wednesday 21st June. An order in Council abolished the rank of Major, making the establishment, four Colonels, four Colonels-en-second, twelve Lieutenant Colonels, four divisional pay masters, four barrack masters, four surgeons, four assistant surgeons. Another Lieutenant Colonel was subsequently added, exclusive of the officers of artillery. It can be seen, by the following statement, that in abolishing the rank of Major, the Corps was deprived of four field officers.

1837. Friday 14th July. The Admiralty ordered a regulation be introduced for pensions to the non-commissioned officers and privates.

"Twenty-one years' service at sea or on foreign service, shall entitle him to his discharge and pension, two years' service on shore in England shall be allowed to reckon as one year served afloat for this purpose, but no Marine shall be entitled to such pension, who shall not have served ten years actually at sea or on foreign service."

It would be difficult to comprehend the object intended by this unjust, degrading, and injurious restriction. We can understand that the disinclination of a soldier to embark when required should be punished, but because a Marine obediently and loyally does his duty in the various garrisons, in conjunction with the troops of the line, that he shall be deprived of the reward held out to those of every other Corps in her Majesty's service, is a stipulation as inequitable as it is destructive of the best interests of the service. Its effect has long been felt in procuring recruits for the Marines, and as the pernicious system has been deprecated by those, who with the desire to promote the welfare of the Corps are now in a position to support the claims of those enduring servants of the crown, we have reason to expect that the order of 1837 will be rescinded.

1837. Wednesday 27th October. Captain John McArthur with a subaltern and forty men of the Royal Marines was placed in charge of a settlement of Port Essington in the Northern Territories of Australia. (1854). This settlement lasted longer than the one at Melville Island.

1837. Sunday 5th November. An order was issued that Army and Marines were to discontinue wearing of sidearms except on duty. This of course did not affect the Sergeants' swords and at the same time the exception must have been made which allowed Corporals of the Portsmouth Division to wear them when walking out. Prior to this they must have been generally worn, because an order of 30 January 1830 (Plymouth) shows that a punishment for misconduct was deprivation of wearing sidearms in streets or at Church Parade except on duty.

1838. Monday 12th - 13th March. Prescot in Canada. Lieutenant C.A. Parker, Royal Marines, and 30 Privates formed part of the force of 300 Infantry and 40 Militia Cavalry which, under the command of Colonel Young K.H. engaged and defeated a body of 800 Americans and Canadian insurgents, who with 2 guns had entrenched themselves near the village of Prescot on Lake Ontario. The village was defended by a few men of the 83rd Regiment, 30 of the Royal Marines, and such of the Glengarry Militia as had had time to collect. The American force after landing had taken up a position in which they were protected by the walls of an orchard, from behind which they kept up a galling fire upon the advancing Marines, while later pushed on, firing as objects offered. In this position of affairs, Lance Corporal James Hunn, Royal Marines, who was on the right of the British line, ran forward and jumped over the wall which covered the American sharpshooters, and found himself on the extreme left, and almost in contact with six or seven of them, who were separated from their main body by another wall running perpendicular to that which covered their front. These men were either loading or in the act of firing at the advancing Marines when Hunn leaped the wall, and were so intent on their occupation that they did not notice Hunn until he was on them, so that he was able to close with them, and was seen by his commanding officers to bayonet three one after the other before they had time to load their pieces and fire. A fourth man, whose piece was loaded, turned and fired, and his ball struck the swell of Hunn’s Musket, where it was grasped by the left hand, which it passed through. Destroying the second finger, while at the same time the Musket was driven violently against his stomach as for a moment to suspend his breath. Recovering himself, however, he fired effectively at the enemy, now in full retreat, but his disabled hand prevented his again loading, and he was most unwilling oblige to give up any further shares in the glory of the day, after having thus accounted for four of the enemy.

Captain Sandon, in his official despatch says “It may appear invidious to particularise any one man of a small band of Marines engaged, where all have shone so conspicuous, but I trust I may stand excused for naming James Hunn, acting Corporal, a young man twenty years of age, who, in the melee with the rebels, was seen by his officers and companions of beat back seven of the pirates, three of whom fell  dead before him, and although at this time having his left hand shattered by a rifle ball, he still continued the unequal contest. I feelingly hope such a noble example of bravery and devotion will plead my excuse for urging you to move the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to bestow promotion and a medal upon this valiant young soldier. He is in every way fit to become an Officer.

Hunn was in consequence prompted to the Rank of Sergeant without passing through the intermediate grade of Corporal. The poor fellow died a year or two after, a victim to yellow fever, while serving aboard HMS Arab on the coast of Africa.”(Deeds of Naval Daring, Giffard 1852).

1838. Saturday 5th May. A Legion at San Sebastian, aided by the fire of HMS Phoenix and other ships, drove off the Carlists and captured some guns, but had later to fall back to San Sebastian. The Royal Marine Battalion was brought round to Portugalette and proceeded to Bilbao, but after a week was withdrawn and returned to San Sebastian.

1838. Tuesday 15th May. A supernumerary Captain of Artillery appointed.

1838. Sunday 27th May. The Third Brigade of the Legion, supported by the Royal Marines, advanced across the river Urimea to the east of San Sebastian, covered by the fire of the steamers and gunboats, and the guns on the Fortifications together with the RMA Field Battery. They forded the river in three places and bivouacked on a hill near Ametza, whilst a feint was made to the westward by a detachment of Royal Marines in the Salamander and Reyna to draw off the Carlists.

1838. Monday 28th May, 70 men of the Castor under Lieutenants Halliday and Langley were taken to the eastward and landed at Passages, where they marched to the top of the hill, which commanded the harbour and the hills round. On the next day they were reinforced by Lieutenant Clapperton and 12 RMA; here they built a redoubt, under the direction of Lord John Hay, which was shaped like a ship and was given the name of the 'Ship'. It was armed with two 6 prs and two 3prs, also a 4 pr and 20 pr Rocket Tube. Seamen from the Fleet came up to help make and can the redoubt; also a company under a Captain from the Battalion. It was only about six miles across country to San Sebastian, so they could watch the fighting going on there. About 2 am on the 9th June the little garrison of 300 was attacked by 400 Carlists. At daylight, when visibility was better, the Carlists were driven off: Lieutenant Langley was wounded in the leg and gained the Order of San Fernando. The garrison of the 'Ship' was than augmented by two companies from the Marine Battalion, also the Marines of the HMS Pearl, HMS Tweed, and HMS Royalist, besides 300 Spaniards and 4 Companies from the Legion.

1838. Tuesday 26th June. A commission of inquiry into the system of naval and military promotion and retirement, had its first sitting. This proceeding originated in the spontaneous efforts of a certain Member of Parliament, who, seeing how much the officers of Marines were aggrieved, independently espoused their cause, and brought the matter before the House of Commons.

Colonel Sir Richard Williams of the Marines, and a member of the Commission, explained to the Board the object of this inquiry: "In January 1837, there were upon the list of officers actually serving, one Colonel Commandant resident in London, and four Colonels, each in the command of a division, who had not been less than fifty-eight years in the service; 21 field-officers forty-five years; the senior Captains more than thirty-five years, and more than 50 Subalterns who had been upwards of twenty-five years in that rank. The retired list at that time was limited to two Colonels Commandant, three Lieutenant Colonels, three Majors, twenty Captains, twelve first and ten Second Lieutenants; and although two of the Colonels in command of divisions had applied for permission to retire, they could not obtain it. Under these circumstances there was much discontent, and the subject was at length brought forward in the House of Commons by Lord George Lennox, who advocated the pretensions of the officers to promotion; and his lordship was only induced to withdraw his motion, upon assurance on the part of the secretary of the Admiralty that the Board had it in contemplation to do what he thought would be beneficial to the service, and acceptable to the Royal Marines, whose merits had been acknowledged. The dissolution of Parliament stopped all further proceedings for the moment; but before a new Parliament had assembled, a measure was carried into effect which was satisfactory to the Corps, but injurious to the service, and tending to cripple it in one material branch; and although the House of Commons, with great liberality, agreed to afford relief by a vote for any reasonable sum of money for that purpose, it was a manifest disappointment to the officers to know, that in the navy estimates for 1838 the sum voted was less by £1,500 for the Marines, than in the preceding estimate for 1837.

1838. Wednesday 19th December. It was laid down that in future all Officer candidates for Commissions would be required to possess competent knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, euclid and trigonometry, and be able to write English from dictation: the examinations were held at the RN College, Greenwich.

1839. The first China War, also known as the First Opium War and also the Anglo-Chinese War. It was fought between Britain and China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice for foreign nationals. The Royal Marines served in many landings against the Chinese. The troubles went on to finally come to an end in 1842.

1839. Thursday 17th January. HMS Wellesley, flagship of the East Indian Squadron, embarked the 40th Regiment and sailed for Karachi. On Saturday 2nd February under cover of the guns of Algerine and Constance the boats landed the regiment on the beach to west-ward of the batteries, which however only fired one shot. As so many seamen were away in the boats, the Marines under Captain E B Ellis, were manning the ships' guns and opened fire until the fort was occupied. On the 4th the boats crews went to the encampment of the regiment on Marharo Hill and the regiment occupied the town. So it fell into British hands one of the most important harbours in India.

The Wellesley then went up the Persian Gulf to Bushire, where the Persians were holding up the Residency. Captain Ellis and 50 Marines were sent in the boats on 25th March to a landing place 8 miles from the Wellesley, where the boats opened fire which was not returned, and the detachment landing quickly the Persians fled; 1 Sergeant and 2 Privates were wounded. They then occupied the Residency and brought off the Admiral and Residency staff. Captain Ellis and 30 Royal Marines were left there until 30th March, when they brought off the Resident. Another small party of the Corps from HMS Volage and Cruiser were present with the force that captured Aden on Saturday19th January, 1839.

1839. Saturday 19th January. Lieutenant Ayles and Royal Marines of HMS Volage and HMS Cruiser served with combined force that effected capture of Aden.

1839. Saturday 2nd - 3rd February. Capture of Kurrachee by Wellesley, Algerine and troops.

1839. Friday 23rd August. Capture of Hong-Kong.

1839. Wednesday 4th September. Action with junks at Kowlung.

1839. Tuesday 1st October. Blockade of Canton.

1839. Sunday 3rd November. Volage and Hyacinth engaged war junks in Canton River.

1840. The Marine numbers were 9000.

1840. Sunday 12th January. The franking of letters was abolished, and in future all letters were to be prepaid, and accounts to be kept by the Office Adjutant: this coincided with the introduction of the Penny Post.

1840. Friday 5th July. The capture of Chusan.

1840. Sunday 28th June. Blockade of Canton.

1840. Wednesday 1st July. Batteries at Amoy silenced by Blonde.

1840. Saturday 4th - 5th July. Bombardment of Tinghai and surrender of Chusan.

1840. Monday 10th August. By Order in Council all Marine Cadets were admitted to the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth to train for Commissions. It was laid down that after a short course on board one of HM ships and at the RN College they were to receive Commissions as 2nd Lieutenants It was estimated that 12 cadets would be sufficient to fill vacancies. Their pay was to be the same as Mates RN, £65 per annum, and they messed with the Mates and Midshipmen.

1840. Friday 10th - 16th September. Bombardment of Beyrout by a British squadron.

1840. Saturday 11th September. Attack on castle of Gebail by Carysfort and consorts.

1840. Saturday 12th September. The attack on the Castle of Gebail Syria,

1840. Tuesday 15th September. Batroun captured by Hastings and consorts.

1840. Thursday 17th September. The capture of Caiffaby by Castor and Pique.

1840. Sunday 20th September. The attack on Torosa.

1840. Thursday 24th September. Tyre captured by Castor and Pique.

1840. Saturday 26th September. The storming of Sidon.

1840. Saturday 26th September. Attack on Tortosa by Benbow and consorts.

1840. Sunday 27th September. Sidon captured by Thunderer and squadron.

1840. Friday 2nd - 5th October. Removal of gunpowder from Beyrout by parties from Hastings and Edinburgh.

1840. Saturday 10th October. Fall of Beyrout.

1840. Tuesday 3rd November. The bombardment of St, Jean D’Arce.

1841. Thursday 7th January. The taking of Chuenpee.

1841. Tuesday 26th January. The occupation of Honk Kong.

1841. Monday 8th February. The Corps was rearmed with the new Percussion Muskets, an advance that was to prove its worth in China the following year.

1841. Monday 8th February. Presumably in consequence of the War in China, one Lieutenant Colonel RM and a Lieutenant Colonel for the Artillery Companies were added to the Establishment; also one Company to each Division besides an additional Company to the Artillery of the Marines. The number of Privates in each Company was raised to 107 from 97, and the three Artillery Companies had an addition of 1 Sergeant, 1 Corporal and 15 Gunners each, making the total Staff 41, Royal Marines 10,058, Artillery 405.

1841. Friday 26th February. The storming of the batteries at Anunhoy.

1841. Saturday 13th March. The storming of Macao Passage Fort.

1841. Thursday 18th March. Forts carried and junks destroyed in Canton River.

1841. Saturday 8th May. An order in Council fixed the establishment of Marines at ninety divisional companies, consisting of 107 men each, including officers, and four companies of artillery of 135 men each, making a total of 10,500 men.

1841. Friday 21st - 25th May. Operations at Canton by landing parties supported by the squadron.

1841. Monday 24th May. The action near Canton.

1841. Thursday 26th August, Amoy and Kalongsew bombarded and captured.

1841. August - October. Niger Expedition (Albert, Wilberforce and Soudan).

1841. Friday.1st October. The assault and capture of Ting-Hai.

1841. Sunday 10th October. The assault and capture of Ching-Hae.

1841. Wednesday 13th October. The occupation of Ning-Po.

1841. Tuesday 28th December. Destruction of works at Tzekee Tuyao by Nemesis and consort.

1842. Thursday 10th March. Destruction of fire-rafts at Chin-hae.

1842. Thursday 10th March. Destruction of burning fire-rafts at Ning-Po.

1842. Tuesday 15th March. The taking of Tse-Kee.

1842. Thursday 14th April. Destruction of burning fire-rafts at Chusan.

1842. Wednesday 18th May. The taking of Cha-Poo.

1842. Monday 13th June. British fleet entered the Yang-tse-Kiang.

1842. Thursday 16th June. The capture of Woo-Sung.

1842. Saturday 18th June. Shanghai surrendered.

1842. Thursday 21st July. The capture of Chin-Keang-Foo.

1842. Thursday 21st July. Assault on and capture of Ching-Kiang.

1842. Tuesday 9th - 17th August. Nankin blockaded by the British fleet.

1843. Thursday 8th June. Keppel at Paddi, Sarawak.

1843. June 8. Pakoo and Rembas destroyed by boats of Dido.

1844. Wednesday 7th August. Boats of Dido destroyed Patusen and Karangan.

1844. The Marine Artillery was increased to six companies, and the corps distributed as follows:

Ninety- four divisional companies, each consisting of one Captain, two Subalterns, five Sergeants, five Corporals, three Drummers, and eighty seven Privates. A total of 103. With five Artillery companies, each consisting of one Captain, four Subalterns, seven Sergeants, seven Corporals, three Bombardiers, three Drummers, and one hundred and twenty Privates. A total of 146. Making the whole establishment of Marines a total of 10,469.

1844. The Heroism of Private Drake RM, during a Mutiny. The Brazilian slave ship Romeo Primero was captured off Cape Lopez by HMS Waterwitch and HMS Racer somewhere about the middle of 1844. Commander Mansfield R.N. 3 seamen, a Private Marine named Drake, and 1 Krooman were put on board her as a prize crew in order to navigate her to St. Helena. On the night of the second or third day after parting company with the men of war, the Brazilian crew, four of whom were left on board, attempted to retake the vessel. Some accident having happened to the top gallant halliards, the only two seamen who were on deck were ordered by Commander Mansfield to go aloft and repair the damage, he himself taking the wheel. Drake, the remaining seaman, and the Krooman had the watch below, and were fast asleep in their hammocks. The four Brazilians, on the alert to seize the first favourable opportunity, took instant advantage of the temporary isolation of Commander Mansfield, and opened the attack by possessing themselves of Drakes musket, which one of them fired at the British officer, who fell, stunned by a severe wound in the head., which tore off a piece of his skull. In the meantime another on them stole below, and having mortally wounded a seaman who lay asleep in his hammock, was proceeding to despatch Drake. But the Marine, feeling a peculiar sensation about his throat, awoke and raising his arm, diverted the murderer’s knife, but not without receiving a deep and server would above the collar bone. Without for a moment losing his presents of mind, he flung himself out of his hammock, and wrenching the knife from murders hands, plunged it into the ruffian’s stomach with such furious energy and hearty good will that he felt the point of it grate against the spine. He then seized the man’s cutlass and seeing that his officer was down, gallantly rushed to his rescue, regardless of the blood that poured profusely from the wound in his neck. Standing over the Commander’s body he fought so well in resisting the attack of the three remaining Brazilians, that by the time the two seamen had got down from aloft to his assistance he had killed one and wounded the two others who fled precipitately below, fairly terrified at the indomitable valour and the fierce over powering energy of their gallant opponent. Drake fainted from loss of blood as soon as they disappeared, and did not recover consciousness for a whole week. After several months in hospital Drake made a good recovery from his wounds, went afloat again and three years later was back in England and laid up with sickness in Haslar Hospital. Then, at length his heroism was recognised and the Admiralty on Wednesday 7th June 1848, directed that he should be, “Immediately and specially promoted to the rank of Corporal, and that this order be read at the head of each Division of Royal Marines.” Moreover, on the Friday 14th of the following month, he was ordered to be further promoted to Sergeant, and to Colour Sergeant nine months later. In1850 he was appointed to HMS Birkenhead, and was one of the survivors when she was wrecked on Monday 26th January 1852. Drake saw service in the Baltic, Crimea, and China, leaving the service in 1864. He died in 1905 after 28 years’ service as an attendant at Westminster Abbey. An excellent account of this gallant Marine illustrated by two portraits is to be found in “A Deathless Story, or the ‘Birkenhead’ and its heroes.” Published by Messrs. Hutchinson and co in 1906.

1844. December. The detachment of Royal Marines at Port Essington in the Northern Territory of Australia. Consisted of Lieutenants George Lambrick, William Garner Wright and Timpson, with one Assistant Surgeon, three Sergeants, three Corporals, one drummer and forty five Privates.

The introduction of steam has so materially changed the system of warfare, that it is now imperative on the British government to adopt the best method for the improvement of our naval gunnery, and as that never can be effectually maintained when the men are discharged after so limited a period of service as three years, it behoves the executive to consider the advantage that is likely to arise from an increase of the Corps of Marines of sufficient extent to make an addition to the detachments on board Her Majesty's ships, and discontinue that class which is now termed "Landsmen." This measure would not only provide an improving body of artillery men, but at the same time every squadron would convey battalions of effective soldiers, ready to take the field on any emergency. In offering these remarks, we are supported by the opinions of many of our most distinguished naval officers. The immortal Nelson has been frequently heard to say, "When I become first lord of the Admiralty, every fleet shall have perfect battalions of Marines, with their artillery, and commanded by experienced field officers, they will be prepared to make a serious impression on the enemy's coast." And we find it stated by Mr. Tucker, that lord St. Vincent was so persuaded of the importance of keeping up an extensive establishment of Marines, that his lordship remarked, "The French from the era of Louis XIV. have always equipped their fleet sooner than we have, and their 1 bureau de classe' continues in full vigour. Without a large body of Marines, we shall be long, very long, before an efficient fleet can be sent to sea." This system is persevered in, and it will be observed that, in the last vote of the French Chambers, where the number of seamen amounted to 26,000 men, the Marine Artillery numbered 19,000.

1845. March. During the First Maori War in New Zealand, Marines helped defend Russell Island.

1845. Thursday 8th May. The Storming of Heke’s Pah at Okaihu. Royal Marines from HMS Hazard and HMS North Start were present.

1845. 23rd June - 7th July. The Battle of Ohaeawai was fought between British Forces and local Māori during the Flagstaff War at Ohaeawai in the North Island of New Zealand (11th March 1845 - 11 January 1846). Te Ruki Kawiti, a prominent Rangatira (chief) was the leader of the Māori forces. The Battle was notable in that it established that the fortified pā (village) could withstand a bombardment from cannon fire and that frontal assaults by soldiers would result in serious troop losses. Lieutenant Colonel Despard led a combined force of troops from the 58th and 99th Regiments, Royal Marines and Māori allies in an attack on Pene Taui's Pā at Ohaeawai, which had been fortified by Kawiti. The British troops arrived at the Ohaeawai Pā on 23rd June and established a camp about 500 metres away. On the summit of a nearby hill (Puketapu) where they built a four-gun battery. They opened fired the next day and continued until dark, but did very little damage to the palisade. The next day the guns were brought to within 200 metres of the pā. The bombardment continued for another two days but still did very little damage. This was due to the elasticity of the flax covering the palisade. Since the introduction of muskets the Māori had learnt to cover the outside of the palisades with layers of flax (Phormium tenax) leaves, making them effectively bullet proof as the velocity of musket balls was dissipated by the flax leaves. However the main fault was a failure to concentrate the cannon fire on one area of the defences, so as to create a breach in the palisade. After two days of bombardment without effecting a breach, Despard ordered a frontal assault. He was, with difficulty, persuaded to postpone this pending the arrival of a 32 pound naval gun which came the next day on the 1st July. However an unexpected sortie from the pā resulted in the temporary occupation of the knoll on which Tāmati Wāka Nene had his camp and the capture of Nene's colours - the Union Jack. The Union Jack was carried into the pā. There it was hoisted, upside down, and at half mast high, below the Māori flag, which was a Kākahu (Māori cloak). This insulting display of the Union Jack was the cause of the disaster which ensued. Infuriated by the insult to the Union Jack, Colonel Despard ordered an assault upon the pā the same day. The attack was directed to the section of the pā where the angle of the palisade allowed a double flank from which the defenders of the pā could fire at the attackers, the attack was a reckless endeavour. The British persisted in their attempts to storm the unbreached palisades and five to seven minutes later 33 were dead and 66 injured. The casualties included Captain Grant of the 58th Regiment and Lieutenant Phillpotts of HMS Hazard. Shaken by the loss of a third of his troops, Despard decided to abandon the siege. However, his Māori allies contested this decision. Tāmati Wāka Nene persuaded Despard to wait for a few more days. More ammunition and supplies were brought in and the shelling continued. On the morning of the 8th July the pā was found to have been abandoned, the occupants having disappeared in the night. When they had a chance to examine it the British officers found it to be even stronger than they had feared. The defenders of the pā had four iron cannons on ship-carriages including a carronade that was loaded with a bullock-chain, and fired at close quarters at the attaching soldiers. The colonial forces capture these cannons, one of which had been destroyed by a shot from a British cannon.

1845. Wednesday 18th June. Bombardment of Tamatave.

1845. Tuesday 19th August. Operations against the Pirates by the Royal Navy had been in progress for two or three years. However, on the 19th August the pirate strong hold of Malludu defended by 100 men and two forts armed with 12 heavy guns were attacked and destroyed by boats of the Agincourt and 7 other vessels. Captain Hawkins Royal Marines, 4 Lieutenants, 8 Sergeants, 8 Corporal, 3 Fifers and 178 Privates were present.

1845. August. Relief of Monte Video.

1845. Thursday 20th November. Defeat of the enemy at Obligado on the Parana.

1845. Captain Talbot RN lead a force of 350 seaman and Royal Marines in 27 boats up the Sungei Besar river, in the Labuan area of Borneo, to successful attack a pirate stronghold, For the loss of only 21 killed and wondered.

1845. Thursday 20th November. South America, Puente Obligado. Brevet Major R. Leonard with The Marines of the squadron was landed for the protection of British interests during the siege of Monte Video by the Argentine’s, and remained there from 1843 to 1847. At the destruction of the batteries erected by General Rosas at Puente Obligado by combining British and French squadrons on the 2th November, Captain F. Hurdle landed with 145 Royal Marines and drove back the enemy from their position covering the Batteries at the point of the bayonet. 180 seamen who had been specially trained as Light Infantry by Lieutenant J.E.W. Lawrence of the Royal Marine Artillery drove them out of the woods they held at the same time. To facilitate the passage of a convoy past the Batteries of San Lorenzo, Lieutenant C.L. Barnard of the RMA With 12 gunners, Lieutenant Mackinnon RN the boatswain and pilot of the Alecto and 11 seamen with 4 rocket tubes lay concealed for three days on a small Island close under the guns. When the moment came for the convoy and their escorting gun vessels to pass the batteries, the RMA and seamen manned their rocket tubes. Lieutenant Barnard planted the British Flag under the noses of the enemy, and by the well aimed and heavy discharge of rockets the passage of the convoy was made possible. In the evening the Marines of the squadron under Captain Hurdle RM and 4 Subalterns were landed and supported by the Bluejackets small arm men, stormed the batteries and spiked the guns.

1845. Thursday 31st December – 11th January 1846. A Royal Marines ships detachment stormed Ruapekapekeon a New Zealand Station.

1846. Monday 6th April. Alecto engaged at San Lorenzo and Toneloro.

1846. Tuesday 21st April. Lizard engaged near San Lorenzo.

1846. Monday 11th May. Harpy engaged at San Lorenzo.

1846. Thursday 4th June. Gorgon and consorts at San Lorenzo.

1846. Tuesday 7th - 8th July. Sir T. Cochrane at Pulo Bungore and Brune.

1846. July. Colonia captured.

1847. Saturday 3rd April. Vulcan and consorts attacked Bogue Forts.

1847. Monday 5th April. Bogue Forts captured.

1848. Portsmouth Division moved into Forton Barracks, Gosport.

1848. Saturday 12th February. The storming of fort Serapaqui on a Nicaragua river, Lieutenant R. Boyle RM and 30 Royal Marines from HMS Alarm and HMS Vixen were present.

1848. Wednesday 29th March. The Royal Marines occupied Forton Barracks Gosport, moving from Clarence Barracks Portsmouth.

1848. Royal Marine battalion in South Ireland.

1849. Riff Coast Expedition.

1850. The Rum Ration was reduced to half gill.

1850. During the period from 1850 -1914 and the start of the First World War, the Royal Navy did not fight any ship to ship actions.

1850. Saturday 5th October. John Small Royal Marine was laid to rest in the churchyard of St Anne's, Ryde, in the township of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The last known surviving male convict of the First Fleet, and retired Constable for the District of Kissing Point, by the name of John Small.Born in Birmingham in early December 1761 to John and Rebecca Small, he was baptised at St Martin's Church (where St Martin's in the Bull Ring now stands) on the 11th December 1761. The Small family had lived in the Edgbaston quarter of Birmingham in Holloway Head for several years. This still exists and is a continuation of Small brook Street on the road to Worcester.

John was the sixth of their nine children, of whom eight survived to adulthood. Nothing is known of his early life other than that he had, by the age of 20, acquired a trade, that of 'Bitt' maker. On 16th April 1781 Small enlisted at Birmingham into the Plymouth Division of the Royal Marines. His enlistment was for life or until discharged. On arrival in Plymouth he was appointed to the 33rd Company where he received his uniform and accoutrements. His pay was 6d per day before stoppages for clothing, and the 12 pence in the pound to be disposed of as His Majesty thinks fit, one day's pay in the year for the Chelsea Hospital, and such other necessary deductions as shall be directed. His uniform and equipment would have consisted of:

A good full-bodied coat, well-lined (7s 2d).

A waistcoat (5s 3d).

One pair ofkersey breeches (4s 9d).

Four good white shins (5s 6dper pair).

Four pairs of good stockings (2 white and 2 worsted) (2s 3d per pair).

One checkered shirt (3s lode).

One pair trousers (3s Sd).

Three pairs good shoes (5s per pair).

One pair each long and short gaiters.

One set each of knee and shoe buckles.

Two pairs good Prussian drab drawers.

A brush, one wire picker & turnkey.

Two black Manchester stocks.

A good strong hat, well laced and a knapsack.

A Short Land pattern .75 Cal flintlock musket with steel rammer.

A Bayonet and Scabbard.

Small would have had several weeks of training in the use of his arms, drill routines, guards and sentry duties, and instruction in dress regulations before he was considered to be ready to embark a ship. 'Tony Cude, Brisbane RMAQ member and at one-time President.'

1851. Thursday 6th November. British, with Naval Brigade, defeated at Water Kloeff.

1851. Friday 26th - 27th December. The taking of Lagos by boats of HMS Bloodhound and HMS Tartar, Lieutenant J.W.C. Williams RM and E, McArthur RMA were present with 27 RMA and 47 Royal Marines.

1852. Monday 5th April. Storming of Martaban.

1852. Sunday 11th April. Dallah Stockades.

1852. Wednesday 14th April. Rangoon stormed.

1852. Monday 19th May. Bassein stormed.

1852. Friday 4th June. Pegu captured.

1852. Friday 9th July. Prome captured.

1852. Thursday 30th September. Operations at Metha.

1852. Saturday 9th October. Attack on Prome.

1852. November. Operations in Irrawaddy.

1852. Sunday 21st November - 10th December. Pegu re-captured.

In these and the other operations of the second Burmese war Bittern, Cleopatra, Contest, Fox, Hastings, Hermes, Rattler, Salamander, Spartan, Sphinx, Styx, Serpent and Winchester, took part or were represented.

1852. Monday 20th December. Caffres defeated. (Naval Brigade ashore.)

1852. The Second Burmese War. Royal Marines of the squadron which co-operated with the Army participated in the operation.

1853. Friday 21st January - 3rd February. Operations in the River Bassein.

1853. Thursday 27th January. Engagement at Beling.

1853. Friday 4th February. British defeated near Donoobew.

1853. October - February 1956. The start of the Crimea War. The three-year conflict gets its name as it was mainly fought on the Crimean Peninsula, an area in the south of modern day Ukraine that sits within the Black Sea. The war saw Britain, France, Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire become allies against, Russia and eventually its defeat. The war is remembered for the poor leadership, communication and organisation of the allied forces, which resulted in a bloody and prolonged conflict. However, it's mainly remembered because of the Charge of the Light Brigade. The use of the new 'torpedoes' (mines) by the Russians in the Baltic made the campaign there particularly suited to Royal Marine raids and reconnaissance parties. Royal Marines served on all the Royal Navy's ships, and landed at Sevastopol.

However, the Royal Navy suffered a shortage of manpower in the Marines during these long wars and regular Infantry units from the Army occasionally had to be used as shipboard replacements.

1854. April. Retribution and Niger blockaded Odessa.

1854. April. Furious with a flag of truce was fired upon at Odessa.

1854. Monday 3rd - 5th April. Attack on Shanghai by Encounter and Grecian.

1854. Saturday 22nd April. Odessa bombarded by Samson, Niger, Terrible and consort.

1854. Friday 12th May. Tiger ran aground and was destroyed near Odessa.

1854. Friday 19th May. Agamemnon attacked Redoubt Kaleh.

1854. Saturday 20th May. Bombardment of Eckness by Arrogant and Hecla.

1854. Monday 22nd May. Attack on Forts at Hango Head by Dragon and others.

1854. Friday 26th May. Fury in disguise made a reconnaissance at Sevastopol.

1854. May. Amphion captured Russian merchant vessels.

1854. May. Gulf of Riga blockaded by Amphion and Conflict.

1854. May. Thirty-four vessels destroyed in the Gulf of Bothnia.

1854. Thursday 1st June. The Danube blockaded.

1854. Friday 2nd June. Troops harrassed by Niger at Adjalick Lake.

1854. Monday 5th June. Gunner Thomas. Wilkinson RMA (1831-1887) was awarded his Victoria Cross for outstanding bravery during the Battle of Sebastopol.

1854. Wednesday 7th June. Unsuccessful attack on Gamla Carleby, Gulf of Finland.

1854. Wednesday 7th June. Ineffectual attack on Bomasund by Hecla, Odin and Valorous.

1854. Monday 26th June. Recapture of Cuthbert Young by the Prometheus.

1854. Tuesday 27th - 29th June. Attack on Sulina batteries by Firebrand and Vesuvius.

1854. Saturday 8th July. Sulina batteries destroyed.

1854. Thursday 13th July. The action on Viborg. Lieutenant Dowell RMA won a Victoria Cross medal, and was presented the medal while serving in the Baltic.

1854. Tuesday 18th July. Destruction of batteries at Solovetskoi Island.

1854. Monday 24th July. Bomarsund blockaded.

1854. Sunday 13th - 16th August. Bomarsund bombarded and taken by squadron.

1854. Tuesday 8th - Wednesday 16th August. The attack on Bomarsund.

1854. Thursday 31st August 4th September. Unsuccessful attack on Petropaulooski by President and consort.

1854. August. Miranda defeated Russian garrison at Kola.

1854. Wednesday 13th September. Eupatoria surrendered to the allies.

1854. Monday 18th September. Royal Marines disembarked at Eupatoria.

1854. September - December. Defence of Eupatoria. (Naval force ashore.)

1854. Sunday 1st - 3rd October. Seamen and Marines landed at Balaclava.

1854. Wednesday 4th October. Attack on Fort Nicolaief by Sidon and Inflexible.

1854. Tuesday 17th October - 7th September 1855. Bombardment of Sevastopol, especially on 17th - 24th October 1854. The 9th - 28th April. The 6th - 10th June. The 16th - 17th June. The 16th - 19th July. The 6th - 9th August. The 5th - 7th September 1855.

1854. Wednesday 25th October. The battle of Balaklava.

1854. October. Operations on the West Coast or Africa.

1854. November. Operations in Macao River by O'Callaghan.

1854. Thursday 2nd November. Destruction of junks in Tym-Moon Bay.

1854. Friday 3rd November. Destruction of junks at Tyloo.

1854. Sunday 5th November. Corporal John Prettyjohns RM (1823 -1887) was the first Royal Marine to be awarded the Victoria Cross Medal (VC), during the battle of Inkerman in the Crimea War. A small party of Marines under the leadership of Sergeant Richards and Corporal Prettjohns were ordered to clear some cave's that were being held by the enemy. However, before they could complete their task they were seized by a Russian patrol, at a time when the Marines had almost run out of ammunition. Corporal Prettyjohns took control of the situation and seized the leader of the Russian patrol by capturing him with a West Country wrestling throw. He then ordered his men to throw stones at the Russians, which they did with great success. Later when the Victoria Cross was instituted by Queen Victoria, the Marines chose Prettyjohns to be the recipient.

1854. Thursday 12th November. Destruction effort at Dshmetic by Tribune and consort.

1854. Friday 13th November. Battery carried and junks destroyed in Coulan Bay.

1854. The Marines uniforms of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

1854. Mounted Royal Marines fought in the Crimean war.

1855. The separate title of Royal Marine Light Artillery was conferred upon the RMA. As RMA uniforms were the blue of the Royal Regiment of Artillery they were nicknamed the 'Blue Marines'. While the Infantry element who wore the scarlet uniforms of the British Infantry, became known as the 'Red Marines', often given the derogatory nickname by sailors as Lobsters.

1855. Early in the year once again the Royal Marines underwent another name change becoming known as the 'Royal Marines Light Infantry'. Under this title they served in the Crimean war carrying out several amphibious raids on the Russian forces. However, the Royal Navy suffered a shortage of manpower in the Marines during these long wars and regular Infantry units from the Army occasionally had to be used as shipboard replacements. The Royal Marines continued in their on board function after the war, taking a prominent part in the Navy's antipiracy and anti-slavery actions. At that time their strength was 16.500.

1855. Thursday 1st February. Black Sea ports blockaded.

1855. Saturday 17th February. Support of Turkish troops in defence of Eupatoria.

1855. Thursday 22nd - 24th February. Troops defeated at Anapa by Leopard and boats.

1855. February. Straits of Kertch blockaded.

1855. Thursday 8th March. Viper destroyed fort and stores at Djimiteia.

1855. Tuesday 13th March. Attack on Soujak Kaleh by Leopard and consorts.

1855. April. Coast of Courland blockaded.

1855. Thursday 24th May. Straits of Kertch forced. Snake specially distinguished.

1855. Friday 25th May. Squadron forced Straits of Yenikale.

1855. Saturday 26th May. Destruction of vessels and grain at Berdiansk.

1855. Saturday 26th May. Capture of vessels off Hango Head by Cossack and Esk.

1855. Sunday 27th May. Magicienne destroyed two galliots in Biskopa Bay.

1855. Monday 28th May. Attack on Arabat by the British squadron.

1855. Tuesday 29th May. Destruction of vessels and stores at Genitchi.

1855. Sunday 3rd June. Destruction of stores at Taganrog.

1855. Tuesday 5th June. Capture of Marianpol by boats of squadron.

1855. Tuesday 5th June. Boat's crew of Cossack massacred by Russians at Hango Head.

1855. Tuesday 5th June. 24 year old Bombardier Thomas Wilkinson RMA (1831-1887) was especially recommended for gallant conduct with the advanced batteries during the Battle of Sebastopol in the Crimea war. He was later awarded the Victoria Cross for outstanding bravery after he carried out sandbag repairs to the defences of an advanced gun position whilst under intense enemy gunfire. His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Royal Marines Museum, Southsea, England.

1855. Wednesday 6th June. Surrender of Gheisk, Sea of Azoff.

1855. Wednesday 6th - 7th June. Dispersion of troops at Kansiala Bay by Magicienne.

1855. Saturday 9th June. Defeat of Cossacks by Ardent at Kiten

1855. Thursday 14th June. Basilisk destroyed ten grain-boats.

1855. Friday 15th June. Coast of Finland blockaded.

1855. Sunday 17th June. Engagement with batteries in Narva Bay.

1855. Monday 18th June. Bombardment of Narva by Blenheim, Snap and Pincher.

1855. Wednesday 20th June. Attempt by Snapper to capture boats at Nargen.

1855. Wednesday 20th June. Destruction of Fort of Roshensalm by Arrogant and consorts.

1855. Wednesday 20th June. Destruction of five sloops at Pernau by British boats.

1855. Friday 22nd June. Batteries at Sandham, Storholm, and Ertholm engaged.

1855. Friday 22nd June. Repulse of Cossacks at Kamishwa by Vesuvius.

1855. Saturday 23rd - 24th June. Capture of 47 vessels at Nystadt by boats of Harrier.

1855. Sunday 24th June. Petrouski forts silenced by Vesuvius.

1855. Wednesday 27th June. Destruction of stores at Genitchi.

1855. Wednesday 27th June. Destruction of batteries at Christenestad.

1855. Saturday 30th June. Ruby and consort destroyed 29 vessels at Werolax Bay.

1855. July. Jasper on shore at Krivaia, and abandoned.

1855. July. Ardent destroyed stores near Genitchi.

1855. Monday 2nd July. Boats of Driver and Harrier at Raumo.

1855. Tuesday 3rd July. Bridge at Genitchi destroyed by Beagle and Vesuvious.

1855. Tuesday 3rd July. Stores near Genitchi destroyed.

1855. Thursday 5th July. Defeat of Cossacks and destruction of Fort Svartholm.

1855. Monday 9th - 13th July. Destruction of salt boats at Bogs Karin Beacon.

1855. Thursday 12th July. Gulf of Bothnia blockaded.

1855. Friday 13th July. Salt boats in Siele Sound destroyed by Basilisk.

1855. July 13. Attack on Viborg by Ruby and boats of other ships.

1855. Friday 13th July. 24 year old Lieutenant G.D. Dowell RMA (1831 - 1910) was awarded the Victoria Cross (VC) while serving in the Fort of Viborg n the Gulf of Finland, after he rescued the crew of a rocket boat under. While serving in the Crimean War at the Fort of Viborg in the Gulf of Finland, an explosion occurred in one of the cutters of HMS Arrogant, Lieutenant Dowell, who was on board HMS Ruby, took three volunteers and went, under intense grape and musketry fire to the assistance of the cutter. He took up three of the crew, and having rescued the rest and also the Captain of the Mast (George Ingouville), he then towed the stricken boat out of enemy gun range.

1855. Sunday 15th - 19th July. Destruction of stores, by Vesuvius and gunboats.

1855. Tuesday 17th July. Basilisk and Ruby engaged batteries at Riga.

1855. Saturday 21st July. Attack on batteries at Fredericksham.

1855. Sunday 22nd July. Granaries at Berdiansk destroyed by Vesuvius and consorts.

1855. Monday 23rd July. Arensburg taken by boats of Archer and Desperate.

1855. Tuesday 24th July. Shipping and Town of Raumo destroyed.

1855. Thursday 26th July. Kotka Island taken by Arrogant and consorts.

1855. Sunday 30th July. Troops dispersed at Windan by Archer and Conflict.

1855. Wednesday 1st - 8th August. Magazines and shipping at Brandon destroyed.

1855. Sunday 5th August. Capture of guns at Taganrog by parties from Vesuvius and consorts.

1855. Monday 6th - 7th August. Barracks and stores destroyed at Petrushena.

1855. Monday 6th August. Repulse of cavalry near Domeness.

1855. Tuesday 7th August. Telegraph stations at Tolbourkin destroyed.

1855. Thursday 9th August. The bombardment of Sveaborg.

1855. Friday 9th - 11th August. Bombardment of Sveaborg by the fleet.

1855. Friday 10th Aug. Hawke and Desperate engaged at mouth of Dwina.

1855. Tuesday 14th August. Troops repulsed and vessels destroyed near Domeness.

1855. Wednesday 15th August. Jackdaw and Ruby and boats of Pylades took four vessels.

1855. Thursday 16th August. Imperieuse and consorts at Tolboukin.

1855. Thursday 23rd August. Camp and trenches shelled at Genitchi.

1855. Thursday 23rd - 24th August. Stores destroyed at Kiril and Gorelia.

1855. Monday 27th August. Enemy repulsed near Genitchi.

1855. Monday 27th August. Enemy dispersed and stores destroyed at Kiril.

1855. Thursday 30th - 31st August. Bridge and stores in Bay of Arabat destroyed.

1855. Friday 31st August. Stores near Marianpol destroyed by Wrangler and consorts.

1855. Friday 31st August. Reconnaissance of Taganrog by Grinder while under fire.

1855. Sunday 2nd September. Engagement with batteries at Gamla Carleby.

1855. Thursday 6th September. Boat of Bulldog took two schooners.

1855. Saturday 8th September. Sevastopol taken.

1855. Wednesday 12th September. Transports destroyed in Bay of Virta Nemi.

1855. Wednesday 12th September. Pernau surrendered to Hawke and consorts.

1855. Thursday 13th September. Forage and consorts at Perebond destroyed by Cracker's boats.

1855. Tuesday 18th September. Destruction of vessels at Hummeliski by boats of Nile.

1855. Wednesday 19th September. Naval Brigade re-embarked at Sevastopol.

1855. Thursday 20th September. Battery at Dwinaminde engaged by Gorgon.

1855. Monday 24th September. Road and bridge at Temriouk destroyed by squadron.

1855. Monday 24th September - 3rd October. Capture of Tamari and Fanagoria.

1855. Wednesday 26th September - 5th October. Blenheim and consorts at Hango and Eckness.

1855. Thursday 27th September. Archer and consorts at Forts Comet and Dwinaminde.

1855. Sunday 30th September. Cossacks dispersed near Libau by Conflict.

1855. Wednesday 3rd October. Archer and Desperate destroyed vessels in River Rua.

1855. Wednesday 10th October. Corn in River Salgir destroyed by party from Weser.

1855. Sunday 14th October. Entrance into Dnieper Bay forced.

1855. Monday 15th October. Recruit destroyed boats at Crooked Spit.

1855. Wednesday 17th October. The bombardment of Kinburn.

1855. Thursday 18th October. Boats destroyed by Recruit at White House Spit.

1855. Saturday 20th October. Ardent dispersed cavalry at Crooked Spit.

1855. Wednesday 24th October. Vesuvius dispersed enemy at Bielosarai Spit.

1855. Wednesday 24th October. Recruit destroyed fishing and boats at Marianpol.

1855. Monday 29th October. The storming of Canton.

1855. Saturday 3rd - 6th November. Defeat of Russian troops at Vodina and consorts.

1855. Sunday 4th November. Corn destroyed under fire at Gheisk.

1856. Tuesday 29th January. The Victoria Cross medal was introduced on by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War. The traditional explanation of the source of the gunmetal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the siege of Sevastopol. Recent research has thrown doubt on this story, suggesting a variety of origins. Due to its rarity, the VC is highly prized and the medal can reach over £400,000 at auction. There are a number of public and private collections devoted to it most notably that of Lord Ashcroft, which contains over one tenth of the total VC's awarded. It was made retrospective from Tuesday 1st August 1854.

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest military decoration awarded for valour 'in the face of the enemy' to members of the armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire Territories. It takes precedence over all other orders, decorations and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and civilians under military command, and is presented to the recipient by the British monarch during an investiture held at Buckingham Palace. It is the joint highest award for bravery in the United Kingdom with the George Cross, which is the equivalent honour for valour not in the face of the enemy. However, the VC is higher in order of precedence and would be worn first by an individual who had been awarded both decorations (which has not so far occurred).

1856. February. The end of the Crimea War.

1856. Wednesday 8th October. The Second China War, or the Arrow War was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, It was fought over similar issues as the First Opium War. With the British's strategic objectives of legalising the opium trade, expanding coolie trade, opening all of China to British merchants, and exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties. The Arrow War refers to the name of a vessel which became the starting point of the conflict. Although the importance of the opium factor in the war is in debate among historians. The Marines took part in many landings. These were all successful except one, the landing at the Mouth of the Peiho in 1859. Admiral Sir James Hope ordered a landing across extensive mud flats even though his Brigadier, Colonel Thomas Lemon RMLI, had advised against it. The campaine went on to 1860.

1856. Thursday 23rd - 26th October. Capture of Canton Forts by British squadron.

1856. Friday 24th October. The destruction of barrier forts in Canton.

1856. Monday 27th October. Canton breached and entered.

1856. Wednesday 29th October. The storming of Canton.

1856. Sunday 12th - 13th November. The capture of the Bogue Forts.

1856. Thursday 6th November. French Folly fort bombarded and junks destroyed.

1856. Tuesday 11th - 13 November. Bogue and Anunghoy forts captured.

1856. Friday 5th December. Sampson destroyed five piratical boats.

1856. Saturday 6th December. French Folly fort captured.

1856 - 1919. The Marines Drill Order and Service Kit. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

1856. December - April. 1857. Persian War in which a few Naval officers were employed.

1857. January. Unsuccessful attack by Chinese on Macao Fort.

1857. January. Squadron repulsed junks in Macao Channel.

1857. Sunday 10th May – Sunday 20th June 1858.The Indian Mutiny.

1857. Monday 25th May. The battle of Escape Creek.

1857. Wednesday 27th May. Boats of squadron in Sawshee Channel.

1857. Monday 1st June. The battle of Fatshan Creek.

1857. Monday 18th June. Surrender of Chuenpee Fort.

1857. August. Marines from Sans Pareil landed at Fort William.

1857. Thursday 13th August. Marines and seamen from Shannon sent up Ganges.

1857. Saturday 12th September. Brigade from Pearl sent up the Ganges.

1857. Monday 16th - 17th November. Relief of Lucknow. Brigade from Shannon.

1857. Tuesday 17th November. The relief of Lucknow.

1857. Monday 28th December. The bombardment of Canton and capture of fort Lin.

1857. Tuesday 29th December. The assault and capture of Canton.

1857 - 1861. Operations against slave dhows in Persian Gulf.

1858. January - February. Operations on West Coast of Africa.

1858. Tuesday 5th January. Canton entered and Commissioner Yeh taken.

1858. Wednesday 17th February. The assault of fort at Handipore.

1858. Friday 26th February. The battle of Phoolpore.

1858. Tuesday2nd March. Fort Betwa. Lieutenant Pym and detachment of HMS Pearl.

1858. Thursday 20th May. Taku Forts destroyed by Sir M. Seymour.

1858. Friday 21st May. The capture of the Petho Forts.

1858. Wednesday 2nd June - Thursday 3rd June. The battle at White Cloud Mountain near Canton.

1858. Tuesday 15th June. Massacre at Jeddah.

1858. Friday 18th June. Action at Hurryah in India.

1858. Sunday 25th - 26th July. Bombardment of Jeddah by Commodore Pullen.

1858. Wednesday 4th August. Staunch attacked pirate junks at Taon Pung.

1858. Wednesday 11th August. The taking of Nan-Tow.

1858. Monday 23rd August. Cresswell destroyed or took junks at Sing Ting.

1858. Thursday 26th August - 3rd September. Operations by Magicienne, Inflexible, Plover and Algerine against pirates near Coulan.

1858. Tuesday 14th September. The relief of Bhansl.

1858. November. Nankin bombarded and batteries destroyed.

1858. November. Chinese rebels defeated at Nyan King.

1859. Saturday 25th June. The attack on the Peiho forts.

1859. Saturday 8th January. The capture of Shek-Tseng.

1859. Saturday 25th - 26th June. Attempt to force passage of Peiho. Cormorant, Plover and Lee lost.

1859. Saturday 22nd October. The formation of a separate Royal Marine Artillery Division.

1859 – 1872. The Island of San Juan. In 1855 as it seemed impossible for Canada and the United States to settle definitely to which this island belonged, a provisional agreement was made under which it was jointly occupied by a small garrison from each nation. In 1859 however, General Harney the C.O. in Washington Territory largely reinforced the Americans contingent and made an unqualified declaration that the Island belonged to the United States. This brought a British squadron on the scene which, after some negotiation between the British and the United States Government, was withdrawn on the understanding that the joint occupation by small bodies of troops should be continued for the present. General Harning was removed from his commanded in 1860, and for the next twelve years the British government was represented by a detachment of Royal Marines, its first commanding officer being Captain George Bazalgette. The British and the American detachments continued on terms of good fellowship until their two governments decided to have the question of ownership of the Island arbitrated upon by the German Emperor, who on Monday 21st October 1872 decided in favour of the United States. The Royal Marines detachment then commanded by Captain W.A. Delacombe, evacuated the Island on the 22nd of the following month. The old block house erected by the Royal Marines to protect their camp on the shore was still standing in 1905 and was still a source of much interest to tourists. The sites of both the British and the American camps are now marked by marble and granite columns with suitable inscriptions.

1859 - 1919. The Marines uniform of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

1860. Wednesday 28th March. Brigade from Niger took a Pah at Omata.

1860. Wednesday 27th June. The Fight at Pukitakaneri in New Zealand.

1860. Friday 13th July. The last man to be hanged from the yardarm in the Royal Navy was Marine John Dallinger, aboard HMS Leven in the River Yangtze, China.  Dallinger had been found guilty of two attempted murders.

1860. Tuesday 21st August. The storming of the Peiho forts.

1860. Thursday 23rd August. Surrender of Tienstsin to Coromandel and consorts.

1860. August. Battery at Tangkoo stormed and junks destoyed.

1860. Tuesday 18th September. The fight at Chang-Kia-Wan.

1860. Friday 21st September. The fight at Tung Chow by the Britsh squadron.

1860. Saturday 13th October. The taking of Pekin.

1860. A battery of mounted Royal Marines fought in Mexico during the Civil War.

1861. The Royal Marines moved into the existing barracks at Deal in Kent. Sometimes referred to as the Walmer Barracks. They consisted of adjacent Cavalry and Infantry barracks, and separate hospitals for the Army and Navy, later to be known as the South Barracks. The hospitals were also turned into Barracks and were known as North and East Barracks.

1861 - 1865. The Maori Wars in New Zealand.

1861. Wednesday 2nd January. The Band of the Royal Marine Artillery, Bandmaster Thomas Smyth, was formed at Fort Cumberland Portsmouth.

1861. Thursday 21st February. Saba in Gambia.

1861. Monday 25th February. Porto Novo in Lagos. Royal Marines and seamen from HMS Brune, HMS Bloodhound and HMS Alecto.

1861. Thursday 25th April. Battle of Saba. Brune, Bloodhound, and Alecto engaged.

1861. Friday 26th April. Enemy defeated at Porto Novo. Brune, Bloodhound, and Alecto engaged.

1861. Tuesday 10th December. Attack on Massougha. Brune, Bloodhound, and Alecto engaged.

1861. Thursday 19th December. Attack on Madonika. Brune, Bloodhound, and Alecto engaged.

1861 - 1862. A Royal Marine Battalion served in Mexico. England, France and Spain sent combined expeditions to demand guarantee for the safety of their subjects living in Mexico, and to urge their claims to the repayment of money borrowed by the Mexican Government, which had recently suspended payment. The British Contingent consisted of 4 officers and 63 RMA gunners and 28 Officers, N.C.O.s and Privates of the RMLI Lieutenant Colonel S.N. Lower RMLI was in Command. On Wednesday 8th January 1982 the combined expedition consisting of 600 Spanish and 2,600 French troops besides the British Marines landed and occupied Vera Cruz. The French had already 5,600 men in Mexico, and their claims on the Mexican Government became so extortionate that the British and Spanish Governments withdrew their troops on receiving a promise of repayment of the sums their countries had advanced, and the Royal Marine Battalion returned home disappointed in its expectation of seeing active service.

1862. Friday 11th April. An act to enable Her Majesty to issue Commissions to officer of Her Majesty's Land Forces and Royal Marines, and to Adjutants and Quartermasters of Her Militia and Volunteer Forces, without affixing Her Royal Sign Manual thereto.

1862. Thursday 1st May. Ningpo stormed and carried by Naval brigade ashore.

1862. Monday 12th May. Tsingpoo stormed.

1862. Saturday 17th May. Najaor captured.

1862. Friday 24th October. Kahding stormed and captured.

1862. The RMA & RMLI became a separate Corps.

1862 - 1870. The last small force of Marines served at Cape York in Northern Queensland Australian.

1862. The Marines name was once again slightly altered to that of the Royal Marine Light Infantry.

1863 - 1865. Operations in Japan involved a Royal Marine Battalion and Fleet Marines who occupied the batteries at Simonoski and were involved in other landings.

1863. Saturday 1st August. Reconnaissance of Paparoa. (Brigade from Harrier).

1863. Saturday 15th August. The bombardment of Kagoshima in Japan.

1863. Monday 16th - 25th November. Miranda and Esk in Thames, New Zealand.

1863. Friday 20th November. The capture of Rangariri Pah in New Zealand.

1864. Eastney Barracks was first occupied.

1864. Monday 22nd February. The Maories were defeated at Ta Awamuta and Rangiawhia.

1864. Thursday 28th April. Maketu shelled by Falcon and evacuated.

1864. Friday 29th April. The attack on the Gate Pah near Tauranga.

1864. Friday 29th April. Assault on Te Papa, Brigade repulsed.

Lieutenant Robert J. Pascoe. C.O.

Sergeant Morris Guiver. Acting Store keeper.

Corporal Daniel Dent. Supervising.

Charles Jarvis. Charles Jarvis.

Edgar Baxter. Shepherd.

Samuel Wilkinson. Carpenter.

Alias Barnes. Labourer.

Thomas Colwell. Drayman.

William O’Regan. Labourer.

George Tucker. Labourer.

John Saich. Labourer.

John Smith. Carpenter.

Edward Wallis. Carpenter.

William Carmichael. Supervisor Lance Corporal.

Chas Copley. Gardener.

Thomas Rice. Blacksmith.

James Bosworth. Carpenter.

Richard Whele. Carpenter.

William Timms. Labourer.

1864. August - July. A Royal Marine detachment commanded by Lieutenant Robert J. Pascoe RMLI (a Chatham Officer) and twenty men from Portsmouth, having been seconded and arrived at the Somerset settlement on Cape York in Northern Queensland Australia. (a distance of 7600 miles). They were to spend the next three years in isolation. The Officer and four men eventually returned to Sheerness in the UK on Wednesday 18th December 1867. While seven Marines chose to stay in Australia and did not leave until Monday 27th January 1868 when they were picked up by HMS Virgo.

The Somerset Settlement Royal Marine detachment.

1864. Sunday 21st August. On the official Foundation of the settlement of Somerset on Cape York in Northern Queensland Australia, a guard of honour was formed by the Royal Marines, in full uniform with Commander the Honourable J. Carnegie representing the Imperial Government. Mr John Jardine, the Police magistrate represented the Queensland government. The 17 year old Royal Marine bugler C. Clayton, sounded the appropriate bugle calls, and the settlement was founded. Somerset was unique at the time being the only port on the Queensland coast created for reasons other than as an export location of primary produce.

The early days of Somerset were far from peaceful. It is recorded that five Marines were speared at different times. One of these was Marine John Saich who, whilst on sentry duty, was speared and killed. Saich was the youngest of the Marines at only 22. He was to be the only Marine who was to lose his life at Somerset. The first few months proved to be the most vulnerable for the Marines. Having travelled from England to a new and very different environment a time of adjustment was required. It has been said that the Marines, having been trained to fight from the deck of a warship, they were no match for the Aborigines in their native bush. With no further deaths or wounding’s of Marines after the first few months, it would be difficult to sustain this argument. Acclimatisation was necessary and the Marines were no exception. Subjected to a minimum of supervision and parade ground routine, the undress uniform would have been the 'rig of the day' for much of the time.

James Bosworth. RMLI. Age 27 Cost of discharge £20 Died NSW 1916 Wife Elizabeth Belligen.

Charles Jarvis. RMLI. Age 38 Cost of discharge £15.

Johnathon Lawton RMLI. Age 26 Cost of discharge £20 Died NSW 1874 Wife Mary Darcy.

Thomas Rice. RMLI. Age 39 Cost of discharge £20 Wife Tereasa.

John Smith. RMLI. Age 25 Cost of discharge £20.

Richard Whele. RMLI. Age 25 Cost of discharge £20.

William Young. RMLI. Age 25 Cost of discharge £20.

Royal Marines who remained at th Somerset settlement for passage to Sydney and eventually discharge.

1864. The Rifle used by the Royal Marines at this time was the .577 Enfield percussion musket.

1864. Monday 5th - Tuesday 6th September. Action with the Japanese at Simonoseki. Lieutenant Cononel Suther and 2 battalions of Royal Marines.

1864. Wednesday 7th September. HMS Salamanda left the Somerset settlement (Cape York in Northern Queensland Australia) to return south, leaving the settlers and Royal Marines on their own with no support. The first serious problem arose with the Aboriginals the day after HMS Salamander departed. Corporal Daniel Dent and Marine John Smith were attacked by a group of Aboriginals. Dent was found by John Jardine, after his son had raised the alarm, running back to the settlement with a spear protruding from his shoulder. On arrival back at the camp it was discovered that Smith was quite seriously wounded, with two spear wounds, one spear had entered the right breast, passed through the ribs and had punctured a lung. Doctor Richard Cannon treated both men, and decided that Smith should be returned south to Sydney military hospital at the first opportunity. Jardine had seen the perpetrators of the attack and had recognised six of them. The next day Jardine with a party of Marines set out in the 30 foot whale boat to look for the Aboriginals who had attacked the two Marines. A canoe was seen and the occupants identified as the six they were seeking. They were shot and killed by the Marines and the canoe confiscated. Upon their return, Jardine gave the canoe to the Gudang tribe who were surprised as they had no missing canoes.

Not only had the Marine Detachment at Somerset been isolated, but the Salamander's crew had also felt insolated from the Royal Navy. Desertions and Absence Without Leave had been very high on the Salamander. During her three years stay these offences had been committed 104 times.

HMS Salamander Royal Marines detachment:

C/Sergeant John Bartley RMLI.

Corporal James Caines RMLI.

Bugler Charles Clayton RMLI.

John Evans RMLI.

John Brennan RMLI. AWOL 13th June 1864.

Joseph Easling RMLI.

Thomas Morris RMLI. AWOL 4th November 1864.

Edward Wigfall RMLI. Died 24th April 1865 Brisbane hospital.

Thomas Jarrett RMLI. Invalided to England 14th December 1865.

Henry Brown RMLI.

George Winter RMLI. Died Typhus 6th November 1867.

William Seaman RMLI. AWOL 13th October 1864.

Daniel Armstrong RMLI.

John Davis RMLI. AWOL 18th October 1864.

Peter McCarthy RMLI.

Robert Leitch RMLI. AWOL 7th March 1865.

John West RMLI. AWOL 7th March 1865.

Mathew Waterfield RMLI. Pensioned 29th June 1866.

Daniel Hambleton RMLI. On return to England in Hasler Hospital.

William Biggs RMLI.

William Young RMLI. Transferred to Somerset detachment.

1864. Friday 21st October. The official founding of the new colony at Somerset in North Queensland Australia, policed by a detachment of Royal Marines.

1865. Sunday 5th February. Edward Nicolls RM died at his residence in Blackheath, London. His widow, Lady Eleanor Nicolls, survived her husband by 15 years. Having suffered an injury in an accident at home on 14th November 1880, she died ten days later at the age of 88.

Promotions, awards, and titles:

Nicolls's promotions are noted in the Hart's Annual Army List editions of 1840 through 1865. The commissions of 18th and 19th century officers of British Marines were issued by appointment and promotions in the Corps respected seniority. Appointments and promotions were not open to purchase.

Second Lieutenant (H.M. Marine Forces) Tuesday 24th March 1795.

First Lieutenant (H.M. Marine Forces) Wednesday 27th January 1796.

Note: His Majesty's Royal Marine Forces were redesignated as the Royal Marines (RM) by George III in 1802. In 1855 the Royal Marines became the Royal Marines Light Infantry (RMLI). In 1862 their title was again modified to become the Royal Marine Light Infantry. Sir Edward Nicolls retired from the Royal Marines in 1835 as a Lieutenant Colonel.

For his dashing courage in the action of Saturday 5th November 1803, 1st Lt Nicolls was awarded by the committee of Lloyds with a sword valued at £30. On the same occasion a naval officer who had taken no part in the action was promoted in rank by application to the Admiralty.

Captain (Royal Marines) Thursday 25th July 1805.

Specially mentioned in the 'Gazette' in 1807, 1808, and 1809. Major by Brevet (British Army List) Wednesday 8th August 1810.

Lieutenant Colonel (Local Rank by authority of Vice Admiral Cochrane as Commander of a "battalion" of the Corps of Colonial Marines, from July 1814 in the Bahamas until after his departure from Spanish West Florida in May 1815.

Awarded a pension of £250 annually on Thursday 28th December 1815 for a total of 24 serious battle wounds suffered; and awarded a 2nd sword by Britain's Patriotic Fund. Lieutenant Colonel by Brevet (British Army List) Thursday 12th August 1819.

Although a titular (Brevet) Lieutenant Colonel on the British Army List, for purposes of seniority, and receiving an additional pension for serious wounds from 1815 on, General Edward Nicolls was paid as a Royal Marines Captain from 1805 until 1823. While Commandant of the garrison on Ascension, and later at Fernando Po, he received the pay of a British Army Lieutenant Colonel. Major (Royal Marines) confirmed Thursday 8th May 1828;

Major (Royal Marines) on reserve half pay status from Wednesday 8th April 1829 until Friday 15th May 1835 when placed in the retired full-pay status of a Royal Marines Lieutenant Colonel.

Friday 15th May 1835 Promotion to Lieutenant Colonel (Royal Marines) on full retired pay Tuesday 3rd November 1840 War Office (Brevet) of Colonel (British Army List), to date from Tuesday 10th January 1837.

Awarded a good-service pension of £150-a-year on Thursday 30th June 1842. Major General (British Army List) Monday 9th November 1846.

Lieutenant General (British Army List) Tuesday 20th June 1854.

Wednesday 20th June 1855 Brevetted General (British Army List) to date from Tuesday 28th November 1854 in conformity with Her Majesty's Order in Council of the Wednesday 13th September 1854.

Knight Commander of the Bath. KCB Thursday 5th July 1855.

1865. Friday 12th May. Boats of Wasp captured a slave dhow.

1865. November. The Admiralty advised that the whole Detachment of Marines under Lieutenant Pascoe, stationed at Somerset, Cape York, to be borne for the future on the books of the HMS Curacoa which will bring them under the jurisdiction of the Commodore of the Station.'

1866. Registered Numbers. The prefix ‘Depot’, followed by a number of up to three digits (Depot/1-Depot/688), indicates a rank entered on the establishment of the Depot, Royal Marines Deal, between 1866 and 1931. Ranks would have originally had a Divisional number, i.e. with Prefix CH, PO or PLY, but on being accepted for the staff of the Depot, they were allocated a new register number; ‘D’ or ‘Depot’ followed by three digits. The last number so allocated was in fact Depot 1688, after which in 1925, in common with all other RN and RM numbers an ‘X’ was added. In 1931 this practice was discontinued and the final number of these was Depot/X 45. Records were then transferred to Chatham, Portsmouth or Plymouth Divisions as appropriate and the next available register numbers were allocated.

1866. Attack on Katif Forts, Persian Gulf.

1867. Tuesday 4th June 1867. HMS Salamander sailed from Sydney for England, via Brisbane, Somerset and Batavia.

Due to the high cost of maintaining the Royal Marines at Somerset, they were returned to Britain on board HMS Salamander and were replaced by Queensland Police Officers accompanied by three Native Police Troopers.

1867. Thursday 8th August. The following Royal Marines finally left the Somerset settlement in North Queensland Australia.

Lieutenant Robert J. Pascoe RMLI age 25.

Sargent Daniel Dent RMLI age 34.

Private Thomas Colwell RMLI age 31.

Private William O’ReganAge 35 (time expired).

Private Joseph Blake age 40 (time expired).

The National Archives records that many of the Royal Marine detachment took their discharge around 1867 - 1868. They may have found life better in Australia and made their homes there, or perhaps tried their luck in the goldfields or perhaps had just seen enough of military life. Five had bought themselves out, Four were Invalided and Two had died out of a group of Seventeen Privates.

1867. Wednesday 18th December. Lieutenant Robert J. Pascoe RMLI and four Marines who had been seconded to a settlement in Somerset on Cape York Northern Queensland Australia returned to Sheerness in England. However, seven Marines of the original detachment had chosen to stay in Australia.

1867. December - May. The British Expedition to Abyssinia was a punitive rescue expedition and carried out by the armed forces of the British Empire against the Ethiopian Empire. Emperor Tewodros II imprisoned several missionaries and two representatives of the British government in an attempt to blackmail the British government into giving him military assistance to protect his country. In response the British sent a large military expedition that struggled badly with the terrain and long distance it had to travel. However, the formidable obstacles were overcome by the Commander of the expedition, General Robert Napier, who was victorious in every contact against the Emperors troops, and eventually captured the Ethiopian capital and rescued all the hostages.

1868. Monday 27th January. The seven Marines who chose to stay in 1867, at the Somerset settlement on Cape York in Northern Queensland Australia, were picked up by HMS Virgo and returned to Sherness in England.

1868. Friday 3rd January. Royal Marine Battalion in Ireland. Lieutenant Colonel John H. Steward in command.

1868. Friday 10th April. Enemy defeated at Arogie, Naval brigade ashore.

1868. Monday 13th April. The capture of Magdala. Detachments from HMS Dryad and HMS Satelite.

1868. November. Occupation of Yangchow.

1868. The punishments up to 1868 were flogging, drumming out and discharge with ignominy. flogging took place in rear of the barracks early in the day, but none since 1866.

Drummers used to do the flogging, for which they received three farthings a day. This was discontinued when flogging was abolished. Each drummer gave twelve strokes; if more were to be inflicted, the next drummer came in. The flogging was under control of the drum major, who gave the time each stroke should be given - generally every thirty seconds - in order that the drummer could disentangle his 'nine tails'. A doctor had charge of the man physically, and could stop the punishment at his discretion, as many did. Drummers used to practice flogging in their barrack room; the three farthings a day they got was called 'flogging money.' Drumming Out was a sad affair, in which the whole Division took part. After the victim had been stripped of his facings, ornaments, buttons, etc, by the drum-major in the centre of the parade, he was marched round the large square, formed by the men on parade, under the charge of the Provost Sergeant. The drums and fifes followed playing the 'Rogue's March', to the front gate when he would be handed over to the drum-major, who would take him into a small room to the side of the gate and there tattoo a B.C. on his left breast. The prisoner was then kicked out of the gate by the smallest drummer boy into the arms of a civil policeman, who took him away to gaol to do any imprisonment in addition awarded to him.

Discharge with Ignominy was similar to drumming out, but without the drumming. The man was simply stripped of ornaments, buttons, etc, tattooed, marched to the gate and kicked out. All these punishments were discontinued in 1868.

Pay was given out on parade, if fine, and under the colonnade if wet, three times a •week. There were no fires in the barrack-rooms, but hot pipes, and no meals were taken in the barrack-rooms, which were simply bedrooms.

The barracks being of nearly white brick, was played on by the boat's crew every Saturday. There were two fine colonnades, upper and lower. All meals were taken down in the basement, where the only fires were.

Passes, called the '11 o'clock passes' were the only ones given; no night passes, unless special. Belts, when going out after sunset, were not allowed to be worn, as they used to come into use in street fights, which did occur at times, if an unpopular regiment happened to be stationed at Woolwich, or a quarrelsome draft paid off from sea. It was quite a common sight to see Marines 'pay off' after being away on a four or five years commission, march into barracks looking half sailor and half marine, because in those days their clothing was not sent out to them as it is now, when a marine looks as smart coming home as he does going away.

The barracks were always full of men, as no large ships ever fitted out there. The last big ship commissioned at Woolwich Dockyard was the Bristol frigate, 42 guns, and the old line-of-battle ship Meemee three-decker, for China in 1868. She took a large draft, and the last Woolwich detachment to return to barracks from a large ship was that from the old Victoria, 104 guns, and now a coal hulk in Portsmouth. The detachment at Deptford was relieved every three months and was quite numerous. The annual sports were held on Woolwich Common.

The last wife of a Marine who embarked with her husband paid off early in 1865. Her name was Perry, whose son eventually became a drummer boy and her husband a nurse in the naval hospital. Her duties on board being more that of a laundress for officers' washing. 'Closing Memories of Woolwich Division'. by Sergeant Major T W Holdstock (Written in 1869).

1869. The earliest patent was granted for a process of rendering salt water fresh by distillation.

1869. Wednesday 17th March. The Woolwich Division is disbanded.

1870. A Royal Marine Battalion in Japan.

1871. Actions with Malay pirates.

1872. Destruction of Carang.

1873. Friday 13th June. The defence of Elmina on the Gold Coast. Lieutenant Colonel Festing RMA, and 110 RMA and RMLL.

1873. August. Boat expedition up river Prah.

1873. Tuesday 14th October. Enemy routed at Essaman.

1873. Tuesday 14th October. Akimfoo and Ampenee destroyed.

1873. Monday 27th October - 3rd November. Ashantees defeated at Dunquah.

1873. Monday 27th - 28th October. March to Assayboo, Naval brigade ashore.

1873. Tuesday 28th October. Bootry shelled and fired by Argus and Decoy.

1873. Actions with Chusan pirates.

1873. Wednesday 5th November. The battle of Abrakampra repulsed.

1873 - 1874. The Third Anglo Ashanti War, sometimes referred to as the First Ashanti Expedition. Kofi Karikari the King of Ashanti attempted to preserve his empire's last trade outlet to the sea at the old coastal fort of Elmina, which had come into British possession sometime between 1869 and 1872. In early 1873, the Ashanti army, a force of somewhere between 20,000 and 40,000 warriors, crossed the Prah River. After attacking the Fante, a tribe under British protection, they headed for the coast. The Royal Navy was called in and sent some Marines and sailors to man the old slave forts. Elmina was held against a furious Ashanti assault. A river reconnaissance up the Prah was ambushed at Chamah and forced to retreat. A number of landings and naval bombardments were able to slow the Ashanti but not stop them. London realised that an army would have to be sent out to deal with the situation. In 1874, a small mixed contingent of Royal Marines Artillery with two mountain guns and two hundred war rockets, plus 110 Marines of the RMLI were sent to restore order in West Africa and in doing so defeated two thousand Ashanti warriors.

1874. Thursday 29th January. The capture of Borubassie by Lieutenant Orosie RMLI, and 70 Royal Marines.

1874. Saturday 31st January. The battle of Amoaful.

1874. Sunday 1st February. Lieutenant Orosie RMLI and 70 Royal Marines were present at the fight of Bequah. In moving that the thanks for the House of Lords should be given to various officers employed in the Ashantee campaign, the Duke of Richmond said, “of Colonel Festing I would speak with the highest praise. His dispatches describing the operation which he himself conducted speak with natural modesty of his own achievements, but no one can read those despatches without realising the fact that the greatest possible thanks and praise are due to him and those who served under him (cheers). The Marines maintained their ancient prestige (cheers) and from the moment they landed showed that it was not without reason they bore the motto ‘Per Mare Per Terram’ (cheers).

1874. Wednesday 4th February. Ordashu carried and Coomassie taken.

1874. The Marines uniform of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

1875. August - September. Expedition against Congo pirates.

1875. Tuesday 2nd - 15th November. Enemy defeated at passir Sala, Perak.

1875. November - December. Brigade from Thistle in Sunghie and Lakut rivers.

1875. Sunday 13th December. Brigade from Modeste, in Laroot river.

1875. Monday 17th - 17th December. Capture of Kinta, brigade from Modeste and Ringdove.

1875. Operations at and capture of Mombasa.

1876. Tuesday 4th January. Malays defeated at Kotolama, Philomel's brigade.

1876. Tuesday 4th - 6th January. Naval brigade at Blanga.

1876. Thursday 21st January. The operations at Rathalma, Perak.

1876. Wednesday 5th July. The "Headdress Badge of the Portsmouth Division Royal Marine Light Infantry Band, bandmaster Mr J. F. C. Kreyer, to be adorned with the Price of Wales Plumes". This honour was granted by Queen Victoria for their musical support during the Royal Tour to India by HRH the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) on board HMS Serpis. This was the first recorded instance of a Royal Marines Band going to sea for an extended period of time.

1876. Operations against Niger pirates, etc.

1877. Tuesday 29th May. Shah and Amethyst engaged Huascar off Ilo.

1877. Operations against Dahomey.

1878. Thursday 7th February. Battle of Guintana, Active's brigade.

1878. Tuesday 19th November. Naval Brigade landed at Durban.

1878. Wednesday 11th December. Britain declared war against the Zulus in South Africa and launched what became known as the 'Anglo-Zulu War' after an ultimatum was rejected.

1878. Sunday 22nd December. The Zulus wiped out the British forces during the Battle of Isandlwana.

1878. Monday 23rd December. The British prevailed against a Zulu attack in the Battle of Rorkes Drift.

1879. The War in Zululand. The Royal Marines detachments of HMS Shah, HMS Boadicea and HMS Tenedos were present at the British of Gingelovo and the relief of Ekowe, with Captains Philips and Dowding RMLI. A battalion of Royal Marines was sent out from England to South Africa and landed under the Command of Lieutenant Colonel Bland Hunt RMLI. However, upon arrival on the 7th July, it was too late to take part in the war and they returned home on Tuesday 24th July.

1879. Wednesday 22nd January. Zulus defeated at Ineyzane.

1879. Friday 24th January - 24th April. Brigade from Active confined in Ekowe.

1879. Friday 7th March. More British troops that included Marines, arrived in Durban from all over the Empire.

1879. Wednesday 12th March. A force of 2,000 Zulus attacked a British camp at the Ntombi River in South Africa. Of the 60 men in the camp, only 15 escaped.

1879. Saturday 29th March. In the Northern Zululand in South Africa some 2,000 British troops and natives fought against over 20,000 Zulus. The Zulu warriors were formed in regiments by age, their standard equipment the shield and the stabbing spear. The formation for the attack, described as the “horns of the beast”, was said to have been devised by Shaka, the Zulu King who established Zulu hegemony in Southern Africa. The main body of the army delivered a frontal assault, called the “chest”, while the “horns” spread out behind each of the enemy’s flanks and delivered the secondary and often fatal attack in the enemy’s rear. Cetshwayo, the Zulu King, fearing British aggression took pains to purchase firearms wherever they could be bought. By the outbreak of war the Zulus had tens of thousands of muskets and rifles, but of a poor standard, and the Zulus were ill-trained in their use.

1879. Wednesday 3rd April. Relief of Ekowe, brigade from Boadicea and consort.

1879. Friday 4th July. The Zulus were eventually defeated at Ulundi and the war came to an end.

1879. Thursday 28th August. Zulu King Cetshwayo was eventually captured.

1879. 19th November. Operations against South Sea Islanders.

1880 - 1882. Royal Marine Battalion sent to Ireland. Lieutenant Colonel Maskery RMLI, and later Colonel H. S. Jones RMLI in command.

1880 - 1900. The Marines uniform of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI). 

1880. The last execution by hanging was carried out on board ship. Up to then execution by hanging at the yardarm was the normal punishment for mutiny in the fleet. As a capital punishment it was by no means instantaneous as is said to be with the case with a more modern practice. The prisoner's hands and feet were tied, and with the noose about his neck a dozen or so men, usually boats' bowmen (the worst scoundrels in the ship) manned the whip and hoisted him to the block of an upper yard, to die there by slow strangulation.

1881. Friday 28th January. British repulsed at Laing's Nek, Flora's brigade.

1881. Sunday 27th February. British defeated at Majuba Hill, Naval brigade ashore.

1881. Monday 5th December. Attack on slave dhow by boats of London at Pemba.

1881. Flogging was abolished as a punishment in the British forces in response to strong public opinion of the day. Another form of punishment was flogging around the fleet. The offender was secured to an upright timber in a ship's boat, and when it pulled alongside each gangway a boatswain's mate entered the boat and inflicted a certain number of lashes. For added effect the boat was accompanied on its rounds of the fleet by other boats, each with a drummer in the bows beating a roll on his drum.

1882. During the early part of Queen Victoria’s reign, it was decided that all Regiments should have their own regulated ‘March Past’.  Prior to this nothing official had been laid down. The usual ‘Quick March’ for the Royal Marines was “The British Grenadiers”, possibly on account of the Marines having been generally considered Fusiliers in all but name and the Fusiliers having a certain affinity with the Grenadiers this was the customary march past tune.

The Royal Marine Artillery used to march past to 'The Soldiers Chorus' from Faust.  According to Mr. Arrol, a former Bandmaster for the Portsmouth Division who joined the Corps in 1824, the march from 'Le Prophete' was generally used for the March Past at that Division at the beginning of the reign of Queen Victoria.  The reason being that this was a favourite air of the Prince Consorts.

When it was decided to have a regulation march past for the whole Corps it was proposed to adopt 'Rule Britannia'.  However, the officers of the 9th Norfolk Regiment protested so strongly; pointing out that ever since Queen Anne had granted them the figure of Britannia as their Regimental Badge, they had always marched past to 'Rule Britannia'.  Thus, the Corps gave up on this idea and adopted 'A Life on the Ocean Wave'.  For some time after however one of the Divisions ignored this and always used 'The Dark Blue Sea' as their March Past.  Of course, today there are no exceptions and the whole Corps marches to the same beat.  Long live 'A Life on the Ocean Wave'.

'A Life on the Ocean Wave' is a poem turned song by Epes Sargent and was published in 1838 and later set to music by Henry Russell.

One day Sargent was walking on the Battery in New York City watching the ships enter the harbour. The scene inspired Sargent to write a poem, which Russell later put to music. The song soon became popular in both the United Kingdom and the United States.

In 1882, the Deputy Adjutant General of the Royal Marines requested that the Bandmaster of each Royal Marine Division (Portsmouth, Plymouth, Chatham) submit an arrangement for a new regimental march for the Corps, if possible based on a naval song. Kappey, the Bandmaster of the Chatham Division, submitted an arrangement of 'A Life on the Ocean Wave', with an eight-bar trio from 'The Sea' by Sigismund Neukomm, which was authorised for use as the Regimental quick march of the Corps of Royal Marines in 1882.

In the United States, it is the official march of the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy.

In Portugal, it was adopted as the march of the Armed Forces Movement (MFA) that overthrew the dictatorship on 25th April 1974.

The tune, played by the Band of the Royal Marines, is played over the opening credits of the 1992 BBC television film 'An Ungentlemanly Act', about the first days of the invasion of the Falkland Islands in 1982.

1882. Tuesday 11th July. The bombardment of Alexandria.

1882. Friday 13th - 17th July. Ras-el-Teen occupied, Naval brigade ashore.

1882. Wednesday 2nd August. Occupation of Suez by a Naval brigade.

1882. Saturday 5th August. Engagement at Malaha Junction.

1882. Sunday 6th August. The action at Mallaha Junction. Lieutenant Colonel Tuson and the 1st battalion Royal Marines and the RMA.

1882. Saturday 12th - 13th August. Occupation of Mex Lines by a Naval brigade.

1882. Sunday 20th August. Suez Canal occupied by a Naval brigade.

1882. Sunday 20th August. Occupation of Port Said by a Naval brigade.

1882. Sunday 20th August. Occupation of Kantara by a Naval brigade.

1882. Sunday 20th August. Occupation of Chalouf by a Naval brigade.

1882. Monday 21st August. Occupation of Ismailia and Nefiche.

1882. Thursday 24th August. Action at Tel-el-Mahuta, party from Orion and consorts.

1882. Friday 25th August. The action at Tel-Elmahuta. Lieutenant Colonel H.B. Tuson and a battalion RMA and Lieutenant Colonel H. S. Jones and a battalion RMLI.

1882. Monday 28th August. The first battle of Kassassin. Lieutenant Colonel H.B. Tuson and a battalion of RMA, and Lieutenant Colonel H. S. Jones and a battalion of RMLI.

1882. Saturday 9th September. The second battle of Kassassin. Lieutenant Colonel H. B. Tuson and battalion RMA and Lieutenant Colonel H.S. Jones and battalion RMLI.

1882. 13th September. The battle of Tel-el-Kebir. Lieutenant Colonel H. B. Tuson and a battalion of RMA and Lieutenant Colonel H.S. Jones and a battalion of RMLI were present during the battle.

1882. Monday 21st September. Mouths of the Nile blockaded.

1882 - 1983. Major Noble RMA Captain H.H. Morgan and C.P. Boyd Hamilton RMLI, and 200 selected Royal Marines dressed in plain clothes, made up a detachment on special services in Dublin.

1882. Wednesday 13th September. Prime Minister, Gladstone, sent an expeditionary force to Egypt to restore order and install a new administration in the country. Between Thursday 13th July and Wednesday 6th September 1882, the two armies, one (24,000 strong) from Britain and the other (7,000 strong) from India, converged on Egypt under the command of Lieutenant General Sir Garnet Wolseley. Over 40 Royal Navy warships were involved in securing the Suez Canal from both the Red Sea in the south and the Mediterranean in the north.

At about 05.00am on Wednesday 13th September, the Highland Brigade approached the Egyptian positions in north western Egypt and there was a blaze of gunfire. The bagpipe players struck up and the Scots regiments charged the Egyptian defence. The British army had approached the lines at Tel-el-Kebir in a staggered formation and so attacked in waves from left to right.

The fighting was intense, but after just over an hour, the Egyptians fled. Once Tel-el-Kebir was in British hands, a number of infantry and cavalry divisions moved off to secure other positions. These included a triumphant march on Cairo on Thursday 1882 14th September. The Royal Marine Light Infantry lost two Officers and three NCO / Men. While one Officer and 52 NCO / Men were wounded.

1883. Mounted Royal Marines served as the Mounted Police (Mountie’s) in Canada on the North West Frontier.

1884. February - March. Alexandria and Ramleh garrisoned by Navy.

1884. February - March. Troops, seamen, and Marines at Suakin and Trinkitat.

1884. Wednesday 28th February. Battle of El-Teb, Naval brigade present.

1884. Tuesday 11th March. Advance to Tamanieb.

1884. February. The battle of El-Teb.

1884. Thursday 13th March. The Battle of Tamail. Lieutenant Colonel Ozzard and Royal Marine Battalion  on Police duty in Skye, Lieutenant Colonel Munro RMLI in command.

1884 - 1885. The Sudan Campaign. After a lot of public pressure the British government finally authorised a relief force to rescue General Charles Gordon, who was besieged in Khartoum Soudan. The expedition was to be commanded by Britain's only General at that time, Sir Garnet Wolseley. A plan was devised that included a long trip up the River Nile in whaler boats and to raise a Camel Corps that would take them across the desert.

The expeditions arrived in Egypt, and were joined by a company of Royal Marines totalling 101 men, under the command of Major W.H. Poe, along with Captain A.C. Pearson, Lieutenants C.V. Townshend and H.N. White. This detachment was included as the 4th Company Guards Camel Regiment. All of the Corps with the exception of the Royal Sussex Regiment was mounted on camels, with the camels only being used for transport. All fighting carried out by the infantry was on foot.

The Royal Marines wore a grey / khaki tunic with brass buttons and blue shoulders straps together with silver badges, trousers without puttees, and a light brown helmet with pagri, a buff waist cartridge belt, white haversack, black boots and a black bayonet scabbard. However, Major Poe continued to wear his red Marine Officers tunic.

Finally on the Wednesday 28th January 1885 they reached Khartoum, after having run a gauntlet of attacks and ambushes, only to find the enemy's flag flying over the town. Khartoum had fallen two days earlier on Monday 26th and Gordon was dead. Of the Royal Marines six men had been killed and Captain Poe together with thirteen men had been wounded. Colour Sergeant Drew was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal for his actions during the campaign. For their services with the Camel Corps the Marines also received the Egypt Medal with the clasps Abu Klea and the Nile 1884-8, and the Khedives Bronze Star dated 1884-85.

For the first part of the 20th Century, the Royal Marines' role was the traditional one of providing shipboard Infantry for security, boarding parties and small-scale landings.

1884. The Mounted Royal Marines fought in the Sudan.

1885. Tuesday 17th January. Engagement at Abu Klea Wells.

1885. Thursday 19th January. Battle of Abu Klea.

1885. Saturday 21st January. Reconnaissance of Matemnch.

1885. Sunday 22nd January. Bombardment of Shendy.

1885. Tuesday 3rd - 4th February. Lord Charles Beresford at Wad Habeshi.

1885. Tuesday 10th February. Action at Kirbekan.

1885. Friday 20th March. The battle of Hasheen.

1885. Sunday 22nd March. The battle of Tofrek and McNeills Zareeba.

1885. Thursday 2nd - 3rd April. Advance to Tamai, Naval Brigade present.

1885. Wednesday 1st July. Registered Numbers. The practice of allocating a number on the Divisional register to RM ranks came into use. The Admiralty ordered that every person belonging to the Royal Marines, except Commissioned Officers, shall be described by a Register Number in conjunction with letters indicating the Division to which he belongs, instead of his Company and Division. Until the registering System was introduced a man was known by the number of his company and his name. The new numbering system was introduced retrospectively and allocated based on the date of his enlistment.

The letters indicating the Division to which a rank belonged are ‘CH’ indicating Chatham Division Royal Marine Light Infantry, ‘PO’ Indicating Portsmouth Division Royal Marine Light Infantry, ‘PLY’ indicating Plymouth Division Royal Marine Light infantry, and ‘RMA’ indicating Royal Marine Artillery.

1885. Saturday 14th November. Boats of Turquoise captured a Burmese warship.

1885. Monday 23rd November. Naval Brigade captured Mayaugyan.

1886. Saturday 8th May - 7th June. Blockade of Greek Ports.

1886. A Battalion on Police duty in Tiree commanded by Colonel Heriot RMLI.

1887. Monday 30th May. Pinnace of the Turquoise captured slave-dhow.

1888. The magazine rifle Mark 1 was the first British rifle to incorporate a bolt action and a box magazine.

1889. The Regulations for enlistment of Buglers was laid down.

1889. Blockade of the Zanzibar coast.

1890. Friday 21st March. A Small Band under a Sergeant was formed at the Royal Marine Depot. This band was only utilised for recruit training purposes.

1892. Sunday 1st May. The Inaugural Edition of the 'Globe and Laurel' magazine. Major General CB (then Captain RMLI) Published the first magazine. Initially the magazine was published on the first day of each month and was printed by the Chatham Division Printer before being taken on by Ive and Lowe printers Chatham. The first two editions proved to be so popular that the June publication had a second print to keep up with demand. The 'Globe & Laurel' will be published on the first of each month, price1d, and can be obtained at all the canteens and messes of the Corps. it will be forwarded post free to all countries in the postal Union for an annual subscription of 1/6, which should be sent to the Editors, R.M. Barracks, Chatham. The Editors have communicated with all Commanding Officers ashore, also with all officers afloat, recruiting, serving with other Corps, and with as many retired officers as has been practicable, and hope that the Journal will be well supported. They invite articles or items of news on any subject of interest to the Corps: paragraphs of general interest will be very welcome. it is almost needless to state that no letters or articles of controversial or complaining nature will not find a place in the Journal.

1892. Divisional Band strength set at one Bandmaster, two Sergeants, two Corporals, twenty five musicians and ten Supernumeraries (six Buglers and four Gunners or Privates). Supernumaries to be trained to fit vacancies due to retirement. or other causes. The depot Band strength was to be one Sergeant for duty as Bandmaster, one Sergeant, one Corporal, seventeen Musicians and five Supernumaries (three Buglers and two Gunners or Privates).

1893. The enlistment of twenty six boys, in excess of the regular establishment of Buglers, to be enlisted with a view to training then as Buglers.

1894. "In matters referring to the Portsmouth Division RMLI, the division to be refered to by that name and not as is frequently the case at this time as the 'Gosport Division' ".

1894. February - March. Operations on the Gambia. Early in the year an expedition organised by Captain Gamble RN of HMS Raleigh against a chieftain named Fodi Sillah who had made himself troublesome to the British settlements on the Gambia River, was ambushed and cut up. Lieutenant Hervey of RMLI, 2 Naval Officers and 10 men were killed and 40 wounded. On the 22nd February a punitive force of 50 Royal Marines, 50 men of the West India Regiment and 1 gun under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Corbert RMLI attacked and destroyed a stockade at Suktta, after which a position was taken and entrench at Subaji to protect the frontier of British Kombo. Here on the 26th Coronal Corbert was attacked by 1,522 Mandigoes, who he defeated and drove back across the border. On the 1st march having been reinforced by 50 more Royal marines and 10 West Indians he took up another entrenched passion at Isswang and on the 5th having been further reinforced by seamen and others to a total strength of 500 men, marched to relieve Major Madden R.A. who with 200 men of the West India Regiment was entrenched at Busumbula. The following day Colonel Corbert returned to Sabaji with the greater portion of his command. Having re-embarked with the Royal Marines he went round with the squadron consisting of HMS Alecto, HMS Satelite, HMS Magpie and HMS Widgeon to the town of Gunjur, and after it had been subjected to a two days bombardment, landed with his men and with 270 seamen and a portion of the 1st West Indian Regiment destroyed the place. This operation brought the fighting to a close.

Captain Maynard

This information and life time achievements were found by chance during a house sale and are an astonishing testimony to the 50-year ­military career of dashing moustachioed Royal Marine, Captain James Maynard. Who signed up during Queen Victoria’s reign and later fought Hitler when he was 64 years old.

1894.He enlisted in the Royal ­Marine Artillery in 1894 aged 19, and spent many years attached to the Egyptian army fighting in the Sudan. Among the medals he won there was one from the Royal Humane ­Society for saving a ­native who had fallen into ­crocodile-infested waters.
He was also one of only 27 officers to be awarded the Queen’s Sudan medal, and earned the Khedive medal.
In 1909 Captain Maynard, who was born in Islington, London, was awarded the Long Service and Good Conduct ­Medal.
During the First World War he served on the Western Front.
He became an officer during 1916 and won the 1914 Star, British War Medal and Victory Medal.
In 1919, at age 44, he retired to Beccles in Suffolk, where he was thought to have a wife and at least two children.
It's evidently clear that James Maynard could not tolerate the lack of action and soon volunteered to serve with the Royal Irish Constabulary in Ireland. Serving for 18 months.
During the inter war years, he was appointed skipper of a private ocean-going yacht and in 1929 undertook and led a big game hunting party in central Africa.
At 63, he got involved in the Spanish Civil War, joining the Spanish non-intervention Organisation as a sea observation officer and helped escort ships into Spanish ports.
And when World War Two broke out in 1939, he volunteered for service, despite being 64 years of age, and was commissioned and made responsible to protect the Admiralty.
He won the Defence and War Medal, and in 1945 he resigned his commission just shy of 70 year birthday.
He died at his Suffolk home in 1968 aged 93.

1895. August. Major Denny and a detachment of the West African Regiment landed on Sacrifice island on the Bass River.

1895. "Bandmasters will, invariably, be in uniform when leading their Bands". The Bandmasts of the time usually wore civilian cloths whilst conducting the bands.

1896. January - June. The Island of Crete being in a very unsettled state on account of the insurrection against the Turkish Government, an International Gendarmerie was formed and Major Bor RMA was appointed to organise and command it in January 1897. He resigned his position in March, and took command of the European troops holding the fort of Izzedin during the insurrection. During the insurrection Major C.C. Britain RMLI with Lieutenants P. Molloy and F.A. Nelson landed with 1,400 N.C.O’s and men from HMS Rodney, HMS Revenge and HMS Balfleur to assist in the occupation of Canea by the European Powers and remained there for five weeks.

1896. June. The following letter was published in the Globe & Laurel, in the June Edition of 1896, and is probably the earliest reference of an Australian serving in the Corps:
Being an Australian, Sydney, N.S. Wales being my place of birth, and residence of my parents, relatives and friends, proud of my native country and the grand decision arrived at by our Premier, which has been received by the Colonial secretary and published to the world at large, I, in my present position, cannot rest without bringing to your notice the following regarding my civil, volunteer, military and naval career during the past 36 years, with a view that you will be pleased to peruse the same and publish it, being ready at any moment to again rally round the Standard. In the year 1860, being then 17 years of age (born in 1843), 1 joined (as a member) of the volunteer Corps on its first formation in Sydney, N.S. Wales, and during the same year we were called upon to perform various duties, mounting guards, patrols, escorts Etc., during the absence of the military, who were suddenly called away to the gold fields for the purpose of suppressing the riots between the miners and the Chinese. In 1861, having had some experience at cricket, I had the distinguished honour of being selected as one of the team to represent the Colony of N.S. Wales, to play against the first All England Eleven that visited Australia under the captaincy of H.H. Stephenson (Surrey). In 1863, on the breaking out of the war in New Zealand, volunteers from the Australian Colonies were called for by the New Zealand Government, for active service with the Imperial troops, I obtained H.M. commission with the rank of ensign, and left Sydney on board a chartered ship the "Kate," in charge of the first detachment of men that left the shores of Australia for the seat of war.
In the month of April 1865, after the storming and capture of Orakan Pah, then being under the command of the late Major General Carey, H.M. 18th Royal Irish, I obtained special promotion to the rank of Lieutenant, for my conduct with the 'flying column' in the field and at this engagement (In possession of medal with commissioned rank on edge). In 1866, at the termination of hostilities and the withdrawal of the troops, I returned to Sydney, N.S. Wales. In 1867, a special Mounted Police force was about to be enrolled to scour the bush and put down bushranging in the interior of the Colony. I formed one of a party for this dangerous and hazardous duty, until their career was checked by the apprehension of the ringleaders, execution of the brothers Clarke, death and transportation for life of the remainder of the gang after their long reign of terror in the southern district of New South Wales. In the month of May 1868, I left Sydney for Melbourne, and assisted in the transport of horses, forage etc., purchased for the government of India, for conveyance to Bombay for commissariat work during the Abyssinian campaign, obtaining an appointment in the civil service. After the capture of Magdala and return of the troops to Bombay, I remained in the Bombay residency until 1872, and in the month of November of that year, I paid my first visit to England, arriving a complete stranger on the 19th December. In January 1873, being then 30 years of age, not tired of military life, I made application to join the Royal Marines, and obtained a special order of enlistment on account of my past service. During my time in that distinguished and respected corps for a period of 21 years (ashore and afloat), I did my duty, and was discharged to pension as a non-commissioned officer on the 15th January 1894, and since that time have been employed in the dockyard reserve, Chatham. In conclusion, I am ready (as an Australian should be), to again undertake (being in my 54th year of age), any military or naval duty on behalf of my queen and country, for the glory honour and welfare of the constitution. I beg to subscribe myself:  Robert John Coulter, Late Corporal R.M.L.I. New Brompton, Chatham, Tuesday 21st April 1896.

1897. Wednesday 10th February – Saturday 20th February. The Benin Expedition.

1898. Captain Oldfield and N.C.Os of the Royal Marine Artillery, under took an Operation on the Nile.

1898. Tuesday 6th September. The Attack on British Forces at Candia.

1898. Wednesday 23rd November. Major Plumbe and 213 Royal Marines were in Belmont South Africa.

1898. Friday 25th November. During the Battle of Graspan Major Plumbe is killed. While Captain Marchant RMLI brings the Naval Brigade out of action.

1898 - 1901. The Boxer Rebellion was a violent anti foreign and anti Christian movement which took place in China towards the end of the Qing dynasty between 1898 and 1900. It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yihetuan), known in English as the 'Boxers', and was motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and opposition to foreign imperialism and Christianity trying to take over their country. The Eight Great Powers that were trying to dominate the eastern part of the world at that time consisted of Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States, and all had a military presence to protect their share of the country.

1899. Wednesday 11th October. The start of the Second Boer War, by the United Kingdom against the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State. The British war effort was supported by troops from all over the British Empire. The war ended in victory for Britain and the annexation of both republics. Both would eventually be incorporated into the Union of South Africa in 1910. The Royal Marines were with the Naval Brigade with a Corps strength of 19,000.

1899. Four RMLI Buglers were amongst the force that fought its way onto the Graspan heights during the South African War.