Royal Marines

Historical Time Line  


1900. The Royal Marine Depot Band brought up to strength and given offical recognition.

1900. Sunday18th February - 27th February. The Battle of Paardeburg. Major Urmston and Marchant and 160 Royal Marines.

1900. Wednesday 7th March. The Battle of Poplar Grove. Major Urmston and detachment of Royal Marines.

1900. Saturday 5th May. The Viet River. Major S.P. Peile and 70 men.

1900. Thursday 10th May. The Zand River. Major S.P. Peile and 80 men.

1900. The China 'Boxer Rebellion' was a violent anti-foreign and anti-Christian movement which took place in China towards the end of the Qing dynasty between 1898 and 1900. It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yihetuan), known in English as the 'Boxers', and was motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and opposition to foreign imperialism and Christianity trying to take over their country. The Eight Great Powers that were trying to dominate the eastern part of the world at that time consisted of Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States, and all had a military presence to protect their share of the country.

1900. June. The Boxers convinced that they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan 'Support the Qing, exterminate the foreigners.' The Foreigners and Chinese Christians sought refuge in the Legation Quarter, in response to reports of an armed invasion to lift the siege. The initially hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on Monday 21st June authorised war on the foreign powers. Diplomats, foreign civilians and soldiers as well as Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were placed under siege by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers for 55 days. Chinese officialdom was split between those supporting the Boxers and those favouring conciliation, led by Prince Qing. The supreme commander of the Chinese forces, Ronglu, later claimed that he acted to protect the besieged foreigners. The Eight Nation Alliance, after being initially turned back, brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, and captured Beijing on Tuesday 14th August, lifting the siege of the Legations. Uncontrolled plunder of the capital and the surrounding countryside ensued, along with the summary execution of those suspected of being Boxers.

The Marines played a prominent and major role during the rebellion. Captain Lewis Stratford Tollemache Halliday RMLI (1870 - 1966) was wounded but carried on fighting and was later awarded the Victoria Cross. This was also the first time the British and American Marines had fought alongside each other.

1900. Tuesday 12th June. The Battle of Diamond Hill. Major Peile and 60 Royal Marines.

1900. Sunday 17th June. The Capture of the Military College in Tien-Tsin.

1900. Sunday 24th June. While serving in the Boxer Rebellion in China Captain Lewis Stratford Tollemache Halliday RMLI. (1870-1966) was awarded the Victoria Cross.

His Citation reads: On the Wednesday 24th June 1900, the enemy, consisting of Boxers and Imperial troops, made a fierce attack on the west wall of the British Legation, setting fire to the west gate of the south stable quarters, and taking cover in the buildings which adjoined the wall. The fire, which spread to part of the stables, and through which and the smoke a galling fire was kept up by the Imperial troops, was with difficulty extinguished, and as the presence of the enemy in the adjoining buildings was a grave danger to the Legation, a sortie was organised to drive them out. A hole was made in the Legation Wall, and Captain Halliday, in command of twenty Marines, led the way into the buildings and almost immediately engaged a party of the enemy. Before he could use his revolver, however, he was shot through the left shoulder, at point blank range, the bullet fracturing the shoulder and carrying away part of the lung. Notwithstanding the extremely severe nature of his wound, Captain Halliday killed three of his assailants, and telling his men to "carry on and not mind him," walked back unaided to the hospital, refusing escort and aid so as not to diminish the number of men engaged in the sortie.

Halliday was 30 years old, and a Captain in the Royal Marine Light Infantry, during the Boxer Rebellion in China when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross (VC).

On Sunday 24 June 1900 at Peking, China, an attack was made on the British Legation by the Boxers who set fire to the stables and occupied some of the other buildings. It being imperative to drive the enemy out, a hole was knocked in the Legation wall and 20 men of the RMLI went in. Captain Halliday, leading a party of six men, was involved in desperate fighting and was severely wounded but despite his injuries, he killed four of the enemy. Finally, unable to carry on any further, he ordered his men to go on without him, after which he returned to the legation alone, telling his men 'carry on and not mind him', so as not to diminish the number of men engaged in the sortie. He walked 3 miles unaided to the hospital although his shoulder was half blown out and his left lung punctured.

On the Sunday 24th June 1900, the enemy, consisting of Boxers and Imperial troops, made a fierce attack on the west wall of the British Legation, setting fire to the West Gate of the south stable quarters, and taking cover in the buildings which adjoined the wall. The fire, which spread to part of the stables, and through which and the smoke a galling fire was kept up by the Imperial troops, was with difficulty extinguished, and as the presence of the enemy in the adjoining buildings was a grave danger to the Legation, a sortie was organised to drive them out. A hole was made in the Legation Wall, and Captain Halliday, in command of twenty Marines, led the way into the buildings and almost immediately engaged a party of the enemy. Before he could use his revolver, however, he was shot through the left shoulder, at point blank range, the bullet fracturing the shoulder and carrying away part of the lung. Notwithstanding the extremely severe nature of his wound, Captain Halliday killed three of his assailants, and telling his men to "carry on and not mind him," walked back unaided to the hospital, refusing escort and aid so as not to diminish the number of men engaged in the sortie.

He was promoted to Brevet Major for his part in the legation's defence and returned to the United Kingdom to receive the VC from King Edward during an investiture at Marlborough House on Thursday 25th July 1901.

His later service: Having recovered from his wound he returned to duty at the end of 1901. He commanded the Marine detachment aboard HMS Galatea, and then commanded the Marines aboard HMS Empress of India, the flagship of the home fleet. In 1907 having completed staff college at Camberley, he was appointed staff officer to the Portsmouth Division of his corps. He then commanded a company of Gentleman Officer Cadets at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst for four years during which time he was promoted to major. Among his cadets was the future Field Marshal Earl Alexander of Tunis. In early 1915 he was promoted to Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel and on 14th July of that year he was made lieutenant-colonel. In November 1915 he joined GHQ, Home Forces as General Staff Officer. 1920 he was appointed Colonel 2nd Commandant and on 1 January 1923 he became Colonel Commandant. Friday 11th December 1925 he was promoted to Major General, to Lieutenant-General on Saturday 11 June 1927 and to full General on Monday Saturday 1st October 1928. He was ADC to King George V in 1924 and 1925 and was Adjutant General of the Royal Marines from Saturday1st October 1927 to his voluntary retirement in 1930. Having been appointed as Companion of the Bath on Tuseday 3rd June 1913, he became Knight Commander of the Bath on Wenesday 1st January 1930.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Royal Marines Museum in Southsea, England.

1900. Tuesday 1st January. The London Gazette. No. 27262. p3.

1900. Wednesday 20th June. The commencement of the Siege of Pekin Legations.

1900. Friday 22nd June. Major Johnson and 180 Royal Marines Capture of Hsi-Ku Arsenal.

1900. Saturday 23rd June. The Relief of Tien-Tsin.

1900. Sunday 24th June. Captain Halliday RMLI is awarded the Victoria Cross after the Sortie from Pekin Legations.

1900. Monday 25th June. The Relief of Admiral Seymour’s column at His-Ku Arsenal.

1900. Wednesday 27th June. The Capture of the Pei-Tsang Arsenal.

1900. Tuesday 3rd of July. The USMC and Royal Marines were engaged together. The senior American Marine Officer, Captain John Twigg Myers, led a combined force of thirty US Marines, and twenty six British Royal Marines in an equally daring raid against the Chinese, the first real offensive operation since the siege had begun. Capt. Myers was badly wounded by a Chinese spear, but the attack succeeded completely. It proved a turning point in the siege, and the legations held out until relief arrived. This was not the first time British and American Marines had fought side by side. They had hardly ceased fighting against each other, in the war of 1812, when they went into action together to clear pirates out of the Caribbean. Later they were to fight side by side against the Chinese at Shanghai and against the Egyptians at Alexandria. But they had never face death together so starkly (until Korea 1950) as at Peking, and the American Marines' admiration for Captain Halliday RM, was matched only by British admiration of the Heroism of Captain Myers USMC. A bronze bas-relief in the Mall, in London commemorating the Royal Marines' Deeds at Peking, recognises this in a way unique in National Memorials: American Marines are shown with their British comrades in the place of Honour, and the figure of Captain Myers USMC, is conspicuously at their head. A memorial service is held each year to commemorate this event, with a senior Officer of the USMC in attendance.

1900. Saturday 14th July. The Capture of the Native City of TieTsin.

1900. Sunday 5th August. The Battle of Peit-Sang.

1900. Tuesday 14th August. The Relief of the Pekin Legations.

1900. Sunday 26th August. The Battle at Belfast in South Africa.

1900. Wednesday 5th September. Major F. White RMLI and the Defence of Ladybrand.

1901. January. The Band of the Chatham Division RMLI embarked on the SS Ophir to accompany HRH The Duke of York during the Royal Tour of the British Empire.

1901. Friday 1st February. Royal Marines duties during the funeral of Queen Victoria. The bands of the RMA and Portsmouth Division RMLI were massed under 2nd Lieutenant G. Miller Bandmaster RMLI and played during the funeral procession from Osborne House to Trinity Pier East Cowes. A Guard of Honour with Band and King's Colour of Portsmouth Division RMLI, was mounted at Clarence Yard Gosport, for the disembarkation of the King, the Royal Family, and the remains of the late Queen on the 2nd February. The band of the Chatham Division RMLI was the band chosen to represent the Royal Marines in the funeral procession through London on the 2nd February.

1901. December. Commodore Winsloe of the SS Ophir wrote to the colonel commandant of Chatham Division RMLI expressing his appreciation of the bands excellent behaviour and playing throughout the tour.

1902. Saturday 1st March. The White Rose of York was granted to the Chatham Division Band by the King. To be worn upon the Regiment cap badge and helmet plate. Granted in commemoration of the bands attendance upon The Duke of Cornwall and York during his voyage to the Colonies during 1901 and 1902.

1902. Sunday 9th March. HM the King presented the medal of the Victorian Order to Mr Winterbottom, Bandmaster of the Plymouth Division RMLI, on board the Royal Yacht Victoria and Albert.

1902. Saturday 20th December - Monday 14th February 1903. The Blockade of the Venezuelan Coast. Royal Marines in HMS Ariadne, HMS Charybdis, HMS Tribune, HMS Retribution and HMS Indefatigable.

1903. Wednesday 20th May. The establishment of the Royal Naval School of Music within the Royal Marine Artillery Barracks at Eastney. The Royal Marines assumed responsibility for the provision of music to the Royal Navy by training Royal Marine Bands to serve on board the ships of the Fleet.

1903. Registered Numbers. The prefix ‘RMB’ followed by a number of up to four figures (RMB1 – RMB 3087) indicates a rank who entered the Royal Naval School of Music between its foundation in 1903 and before October 1925. This sequence of numbers was resumed again later in August 1955, but from RMB 3400 to prevent any duplication.

1903. Friday 10th July. The Band of HMS Leviathan became the first band to transfer from the Royal Navy to the Royal Marines. The first man to sign his papers and become RMB(1) was Arthur William Shepard.

1903. Wednesday 22nd July. The Band of HMS Impregnable which had paid off on the 25th May, marched into the Royal Marines Artillery Barracks at Eastney as Royal Naval Bandsman, later to become the first Royal Marine Band produced from the Royal Naval School of Music.

1904. Thursday 21st April. The Storming of Illig off the Somali Coast. Major Kennedy RMLI and 51 Royal Marines in the Naval Brigade from HMS Hyacinth, HMS Fox and HMS Mohawk.

1904. Tuesday 31st May. Extra pay for Bandsmen serving in the Royal Yacht. The Admiralty approved an allowance of one shilling per day to a maximum of twenty band NCO's and Musicians whilst embarked and serving in HM Yacht, to take effect from 14th January 1904. The Admiralty stressed that Musicians embarked for Royal Yacht service would not necessarily be from the RMA Band.

1904. August. Buglers equipment will no longer include swords, scabbards and frogs. All items in service ashore to be withdrawn immediately, all those in service afloat to be withdrawn upon disembarkation.

1905. April. "Cap badge and special design to be worn by WO's, N.C.O's. and men of Royal Marines bands when embarked for service in HM Yacht. To be issued upon embarkation and returned to store when disembarking."

1907. Pursuing a career in the Marines had been considered 'social suicide' through much of the 18th and 19th centuries since Royal Marine officers had a lower standing than their counterparts in the Royal Navy. An effort was made through the common entry or 'Selbourne Scheme' to reduce the professional differences between RN and RM officers. This provided for an initial period of service where both groups performed the same roles and underwent the same training. Upon promotion to Lieutenant officers could opt for permanent service with the Royal Marines. The scheme was abandoned after three years when only two of the new entrants chose this option over that of service as naval officers, for whom promotion prospects were much greater. At the outbreak of World War I, the Corps was 58 subalterns under establishment.

1908. Saturday 11th January. Norman Finch signed on to join the Royal Marines, and received basic training at Eastney. For the next four years he served on various ships and shore stations. He went on to be awarded the Victoria Cross during the First World War.

1908. August. Temporary musical training of band ranks at Chatham and Plymouth to cease since this training is to be returned to the Royal Naval School of Music and RMLI Forton barracks as from 30th September 1908.

1908. Monday 30th November. Temporary musical training of band ranks at RMLI Barracks to cease and this training to be concentrated, as intended, at the Royal Naval school of Music, Eastney, as of the 30th November 1908. As a result of this concentration the new series of individual numbering (RMB series) would, henceforth, always be used. All clothing and equipping of band ranks now to be supervised by 1st Quartermaster RMA.

1910. Saturday 24th December. The Fight at Dabai in the Persian Gulf. In pursuance of the duty of putting down 'gun running' a party of 4 Officers and 79 Petty and N.C.O’s and men including Major Heriot and Lieutenant Brewer RMLI and 33 Royal Marines were landed from HMS Hyacinth, Flag ship on the East India Station, under Captain Dick RN the flag Captain, to search for arms in two suspected houses at some distance apart. After arms had been found by Major Heriot, fire was opened from the houses on the search partly and on the men left on the beach. Major Heriot entrenched himself on the beach and after a sharp skirmish the guns of HMS Hyacinth put an end to the attack. The Royal Marines lost Sergeant Capon killed and 4 privates wounded.

1910. The Royal Marines were with the Naval Brigade with a Corps strength of 19,000.

1911. Tuesday 2nd May. Lieutenant Eugene Louis Gerrard RMLI became the first Royal Marines Officer to qualify as a pilot.

1912. Monday 1st April. A special badge consisting of a gilt grenade on which was mounted the Royal Cypher 'GvR' and crown in silver surrounded by a gilt laurel wreath was conferred upon the Band of the Royal Marine Artillery by the King. This followed the voyage to India on board the P&O liner Madina.

1912. Tuesday 30th July. Private John Edmonds RMLI the first non-commissioned rank to qualify as a pilot.

1913. June. Norman Finch was promoted to the rank of Bombardier.

1913. Thursday 28th August. Sergeant F E Bishop RMA became the first Senior Non Commissioned Officer to qualify as a pilot.

1914. The Royal Navy became interested in landings by Naval Brigades. In these Naval Brigades, the function of the Royal Marine was to land first and act as 'Skirmishers' ahead of the sailor Infantry and Artillery. The skirmishing roll was the traditional function of Light Infantry.

1914 - 1918. Royal Naval Brigades used during the First World War were composed of both Marines and Sailors.

1914. Sunday 2nd August. Pensioners and Reserves Mobilised.

1914. Sunday 2nd August. Formation of Royal Mariness Brigade commenced.

1914. Saturday 4th August. The First World War was declared, and Royal Marines served in all HM Ships in all major engagements at sea. They also served on the Western Front during the First World War. The Division's first two commanders were Royal Marine Artillery Generals. Other Royal Marines acted as landing parties in the naval campaign against the Turkish fortifications in the Dardanelles before the Gallipoli landing. They were sent ashore to assess damage to Turkish fortifications after bombardment by British and French ships and, if possible, to complete their destruction. After 13 days of continuous fighting, the Naval Brigades took on the brunt of the Turks displaying great resolve.

1914. Saturday 4th August. Upon the declaration of the First World War, it was realised there was a surplus of almost 30,000 men in the Royal Naval Reserve, who would not find possitions on board HMS ships of war. It was also realised by the Admiralty that they could be used to form two seperate Naval Brigades and a Brigade of Marines to be used for operations on land.

1914. With the commencement of the First World War the Corps took up at once the traditional role, which it has performed in every war for the past three hundred and fifty years, and for which indeed it had been originally raised in 1664, that is to say the reinforcement of the personnel of the Royal Navy.
The mobilisation passed off smoothly according to plan, the telegram to mobilise Reservists was dispatched at 2-30 a.m. on Sunday 2nd August 1914, and by 8a.m. those living near the barracks were coming in. In the course of the next two or three days, practically all those in the United Kingdom had reported for duty, and had been allotted to their various appropriations, as far as they had been foreseen in peace time. Fortunately, after this had been done, there remained a good surplus of Reservists, for no sooner was the mobilisation proper completed than demands began to pour in for personnel for various Fleet services, most of which had not been foreseen in the pre-war arrangements. Added to this carne the demands of the Royal Naval Division and the RMA Batteries, which were very insistent both then and throughout the War. Though no doubt the batteries and battalions considered that they were not receiving the reinforcements that they required. It must never be forgotten that the reinforcement of the Fleet was the first consideration to which all else had to have to give way. The demand of the Fleet became larger and more urgent every month, and the Corps can make the proud boast that in no single instance did they fail to make the Naval requirements as they arose. The effect of the demand is shown by the fact that the numbers actually afloat (exclusive of shore garrisons, battalions, batteries, etc.) at the commencement of the war were 10,047, whilst at the close the same figures were 16,494, in spite of the heavy casualties and replacements due to sickness.
In the very early days numerous war vessels, being built for foreign powers in the United Kingdom were bought by the British Government and commissioned as soon as they were completed. At the same time other British programs were considerably accelerated.

1914. During the First World War, in addition to their usual stations aboard ship, Royal Marines were part of the Royal Naval Division which landed in Belgium in 1914 to help defend Antwerp and later took part in the amphibious landing at Gallipoli in 1915. It also served on the Western Front in the trenches. The Division's first two commanders were Royal Marine Artillery Generals. Other Royal Marines acted as landing parties in the Naval campaign against the Turkish fortifications in the Dardanelles before the Gallipoli landings. They were sent ashore to assess damage to Turkish fortifications after bombardment by British and French ships and, if necessary, to complete their destruction. The Royal Marines were the last to leave Gallipoli, replacing both British and French troops in a neatly planned and executed withdrawal from the beaches. It even required some Marines to wear French uniforms as part of the deception.

1914. Registered Numbers. During Mid-September six hundred Army recruits were transferred to the RMLI; 200 men from KOYLI went to Plymouth Division, and 200 from the Sherwood Foresters went to Portsmouth Division and another 200 from the Sherwood Foresters to Chatham Division. (LCpl Parker, who won the VC at Gallipoli was one of those transferred from the Sherwood Foresters) The 200 ex-KOYLI numbers started at Ply 12(S) and ended with Ply211(S), Portsmouth Division’s ex-Sherwood Foresters went from Po31 to Po230(S) and Chatham Division’s from CH1 to CH 200(S).

1914. Registered Numbers. The suffix ‘S’ to any of the ‘CH’, ‘PLY’, or ‘RMA’ numbers indicates a rank who entered one of these divisions for Short Service during World War 1. The short service register numbers began quite simply at ‘Ply/1 (S) (e.g. PLY 3287 (S) C C Anderson.), Po/1 (S) and Ch/1 (S) and RMA/1(S).

The prefix ‘RMB’ followed by a number of up to four figures (RMB1 – RMB 3087) indicates a rank who entered the Royal Naval School of Music between its foundation in 1903 and before October 1925. This sequence of numbers was resumed again later in August 1955, but from RMB 3400 to prevent any duplication.

1914. Registered Numbers. During the 1914-18 World War the prefix ‘Deal’, followed by numbers of up to four digits and the suffix ‘S’, were allocated to ranks enlisted for Short Service during World War 1. These ranks served mostly in miscellaneous units of the Royal Naval Division. Numbers were allocated as Follows:
RM Divisional Engineers RN Division D/1(S) to D1500(S).
RM Divisional Train D/1501(S0) to D/2762(S).
RM Medical Unit D/3000(S) to D/4400(S).
Ordnance Company RM Division D/4520(S) to D/4553(S).
RN Divisional Engineers D/5000(S) to D/5599(S).
(The ‘S’ can be shown as either a suffix or a prefix for these numbers. It is also often shown in lower case).
The prefix ‘D’ on its own seems to have been rarely used. To distinguish between Depot staff and men who were borne on the books.
At Deal for pay and admin (e.g. RMLC, RND Engineers, RM Medical Units), the ‘system’ seems to have been for staff to be recorded as Depot/123 and the latter as Deal/1234(S).

1914. Registered numbers. Prefixes ‘Z’ and ‘H’. There are two other short service number series, H1 to H18 and Z/1 to Z/102. Both were catalogued at Hayes. Before RM service papers were transferred to the National Archives, under ‘Miscellaneous Units WW1 and were referred to as ‘Belgian Units’ but the papers have not been seen since; however at least one CWGC headstone has been seen with a ‘Z’ number.

1914. Registered Numbers. The prefix ‘RME’, followed by a number, 300 to 8340 and the Suffix ‘S’. indicates a rank of the Royal Marine Engineers entered for short service during World War 1. This group of men was engaged on large scale construction and repair projects under the Admiralty Director of Works, principally to keep ports and harbours operating efficiently. The ‘RME’ prefix followed by a number of five digits, indicates a rank of the Royal Marine Engineers entered for HO service in World War ll (RME 10001 -RME 17823).

1914. Registered Numbers. The prefix ‘AUX’, followed by a number of up to four digits, indicates a rank of the Auxiliary Battalion formed at the beginning of World War ll. Subsequently, these ranks were transferred to Plymouth and allocated numbers in the six-digit sequence (PLY/X 120001 – PLY/X 121382).

1914. Thursday 6th August. HMS Amphion was mined in the North sea and 14 Royal Marines were lost.

1914. Thursday 6th August. Engagement between HMS Bristol and the Karlsruhe in the West Indies.

1914. Friday 7th August. Royal Marine Brigade concentrated at Eastney and Gosport.

1914. Saturday 8th August. Declaration of War with Austria.

1914. Tuesday 11th August. The Goeben and Breslau chased in the Dardanelles.

1914. Wednesday 12th August. The capture of the Spreewald by HMS Berwick in the North Atlantic.

1914. Thursday 20th August. Royal Marine Battalions returned to their own Divisions.

1914. Thursday 27th August. The Royal Marine Brigade was formed and was moved to Oostende although it returned four days later.

1914. Tuesday 25th - 31st August. An expedition to Ostend by the Royal Marine Brigade.

1914. Wednesday 26th August. HMS Highflyer sank the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse off North West Africa.

1914. Friday 28th August. The Battle of Heligoland.

1914. Friday 28th August. In China a detachment of 2/DCLI embarked in HMS Triumph as Marines.

1914. Friday 28th August. Ascention Island Garrison reinforced.

1914. August. The title of Commissioned Bandmaster Royal Marines, to be changed to Director of Music. Number of Directors of Music fixed at two, apart from the Musical Director of the Royal Naval School of Music to whom this order would not apply. On promotion to Director of Music the honorary rank of Lieutenant will be applied. After ten years of commissioned service the honorary rank of Captain will be given and, after a total of fifteen years commissioned service the honorary rank of Major will be awarded. Directors of Music to be compulsorily retired at the age of 65.

1914. Wednesday 2nd September. HMS Triumph involved in the attack on the German colony of Qingdao China.

1914. Friday 4th September. Landing party from HMS Cumberland at Victoria in the German colony of Cameroon.

1914. Wednesday 9th September. Bombardment and Landing at Suellaba Point in the German Colony of Cameroon.

1914. Friday 11th September. 200 RMA and RMLI to Dunkirk for service with Motor Cars of RNAS.

1914. Monday 14th September. HMS Carmania (Armed Merchantman Cruiser) sank Cap Trafalgar (Armed Merchantman) in the South Atlantic.

1914. Saturday 19th September. RMLI Brigade embarked for Dunkirk.

1914. Sunday 20th September. HMS Pegasus sunk by the Koenigsberg in Zanzibar Harbour.

1914. Sunday 20th September. The Royal Marine Brigade arrived at Dunkirk with orders to assist in the defence of Antwerp. In the haste to organise and move the units to Belgium, 80% went to war without even basic equipment such as packs, mess tins or water bottles. No khaki uniform was issued. The two Naval Brigades were armed with ancient charger-loading rifles, just three days before embarking. At this stage, it had no artillery, Field Ambulances or other ancillary units.

1914. Tuesday 22nd September. The sinking of HMS Aboukir (78 Royal Marines were lost), HMS Cressy (73 Royal Marines were lost) and HMS Hogue (50 Royal Marimes were lost).

1914. Tuesday 22nd September. Lieutenant Charles Herbert Collett RMA carried out the first ever strategic bombing raid in aviation history attacking the Zeppelin sheds at Dusseldorf for which he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order.

1914. Sunday 27th September. The occupation of Duala in the German Colony of Cameroon.

1914. Sunday 27th September. The St Helena garrison was reinforced.

1914. Thursday 1st October. Early action by RMLI Brigade at Douai in France.

1914. Friday 2nd October. Royal Marines from HMS Cumberland in action at Japoma Bridge in German held colony of Cameroons.

1914. Saturday 3rd - 4th October. Royal Marines Light Infantry were sent to Ostend and Antwerp.

1914. Sunday 4th - 10th October. The Defence of Antwerp.

1914. Monday 5th October. Two Royal Marine Brigades were moved to Dunkirk with orders to assist in the defence of Antwerp. In the haste to organise and move the units to Belgium, 80% went to war without even basic equipment such as packs, mess tins or water bottles. No khaki uniform was issued. The two Naval Brigades were armed with ancient charger-loading rifles, just three days before embarking. At this stage, it had no artillery, Field Ambulances or other ancillary units.

1914. Tuesday 6th October. The first attack on Jabassi in the Cameroons.

1914. Monday 12th October. RMLI Brigade returned to England.

1914. Wednesday 14th October. The occupation of Jabassi in the Cameroons.

1914. Thursday 15th October. HMS Hawke sank (78 Royal Marines were lost).

1914. Thursday 15th October. Royal Marine Motor Transport Company lent to the Army at St Omer at Flanders in France.

1914. Saturday 17th October. HMS Undaunted and Destroyers in action with German Torpedo Boats in the English Channel.

1914. Sunday 18th October. Small Royal Marine detachments with maxim guns landed from Monitors.

1914. Sunday 18th - 26th October. Bombardments on the Belgian Coast.

1914. Monday 19th - 22nd October. The first battle of Ypres.

1914. Tuesday 20th - 26th October. The experdition to Edea in the Cameroons.

1914. Wednesday 21st October. Royal Marine Artillery Contingent for South African Heavy Artillery left England.

1914. Monday 26th October. German Attack on Nieuport broken by HMS Venerable.

1914. Tuesday 27th October. HMS Audacious sunk by a mine off the North West coast of Ireland.

1914. Tuesday 27th October. Formation of Divisional Engineers commenced.

1914. Sunday 1st November. The Declaration of War with Turkey.

1914. Sunday 1st November. The Battle of Coronel.

1914. Tuseday 3rd November. A German raid on the UK coast.

1914. Tuesday 3rd November. The Bombardment of the forts in the Dardanelles.

1914. Tuesday 3rd November. The Attack on Tanga East Africa.

1914. Tuesday 3rd November. The Armoured Car Detatchments returned from France to England.

1914. Wednesday 4th November. Operations at Akaba against the Turks in the Red Sea.

1914. Saturday 7th November. The Capitulation of Qingdao in China.

1914. Saturday 7th - 8th November. A force including Royal Marines from HMS Ocean landed at Fao in the Persian Gulf.

1914. Monday 9th November. The Emden was sunk by HMAS Sydney in the Pacific.

1914. Thursday 12th - 18th November. The Buea Operation in Cameroons.

1914. Thursday 19th November. An Air raid (that included Lieutenant Collet RMA) on Airship sheds at Dusseldorf in Germany.

1914. Thursday 19th November. RMA Contingent for the Heavy Artillery arrived in South Africa.

1914. Thursday 26th November. HMS Bulwark was blown up at Sheerness with the loss of 107.

1914. Saturday 28th - 30th November. The Bombardment of Dar-Es-Salaam in East Africa.

1914. Saturday 28th - 30th November. The Formation of a Medical Unit Royal Marines commenced.

1914. Saturday 28th November. The Formation of Divisional train, Royal Marines commenced.

1914. Tuesday 1st December. A South African Heavy Artillery battery Commanded by RMA was sent  to Luderitzbucht (German South Western Africa).

1914. Tuesday 8th December. The battle of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic.

1914. Wednesday16th December. A German raid on Hartlepool and Scarborough on the east coast of the UK.

1914. Saturday 18th December. The occupation of Nyong in the Cameroons.

1914. Monday 20th December. The Occupation of Kribi in the Cameroons.

1914. Monday 20th December - 27th December. The occupation of Campo in the Cameroons.

1914. Friday 25th December. Captain C F Kilner RMLI, as a seaplane pilot, took part in the Cuxhaven Raid attacking German Zeppelin Sheds for which he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order.

1914. Friday 25th December. The landing of General Botha's Force at Walfisch Bay (German South West Africa).

1914. Friday 25th December. A SAHA Battery was sent to Walfisch Bay (German South West Africa).

1914. Sunday 27th December. Royal Naval and Royal Marines detatchment left Malta for Serbia.

1914. Thursday 31st December. HMS Doris operations on the Syrian Coast (Mediterranean).

1914. Thursday 31st December. Royal Marines from HMS Diana carried out reconnaissance at Akaba on the Red Sea.

1914. Lieutenant J d'Albiac RMA became the first RM officer to qualify as an observer in the RNAS and was awarded the Distinguished Service Order during operations off Dunkirk.  He qualified as a pilot in March 1918 and after transferring to the RAF rose steadily from senior appointment to senior appointment retiring after the WW2 as an Air Marshall.

1914. The Marines uniforms of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

1915. Bombardier Norman Finch was promoted to the rank of Corporal.

1915. Friday 1st January. HMS Doris operations on the Syrian Coast (Mediterranean).

1915. Friday 1st January. HMS Foridable torpedoed 86 Marines were lost.

1915. Wednesday 6th January. Operations in Campo area of the Cameroons.

1915. Thursday 7th January. Royal Navy and Royal Marines detachment arrived in Belgrade.

1915. Sunday 24th January. The Battle of the Dogger Bank in the North Sea.

1915. Tuesday 2nd - 5th February. The Turkish attack the Suez Canal.

1915. Friday 5th February. The formation of RM Submarine Miners authorised.

1915. Saturday 6th February. The Royal Marine Light Infantry (RMLI) Brigade less Portsmouth and Deal left for the Mediterranean. Plymouth and Chatham Battalions entrain at Shillingstone near Blandford and move to Devonport. They are temporarily known as the Royal Marine Special Service Force. While Portsmouth and the Deal Battalions remained at Blandford.

1915. Saturday 6th February. About 6pm Plymouth Battalion and the headquarters of the Royal Marine Brigade sail on the HMS Braemar Castle. The Chatham Battalion sails on HMS Cawdor Castle. Both arrived at St Paul's Bay (Malta) Sunday 14th February 1915, and sailed 8am on Friday 19th February. Arrive Tenedos 3.15pm on Sunday 21st February, Lemnos 4pm on Wednesday 24th February, and returned to Tenedos the next day. Sailed at 1am on Friday 26th February for Dardanelles, arriving 8am. The Ships return to Tenedos but at 5pm were ordered to Imbros. Orders to land on Gallipoli on Sunday 28th February cancelled due to bad weather at sea.

1915. Friday 12th February. Captain C.F. Kilner DSO RMLI, embarked in HMS Ark Royal and enroute to the Dardanelles, became the first aviator to take off and land an aircraft in Malta. Flying a seaplane he took off and landed back in Grand Harbour having completed a circuit of the island.

1915. Monday 15th - 23rd. February. A small Royal Marine detachment of HMS Cadamus assisted in quelling a mutiny in Singapore.

1915. Friday 19th - 20th February. The Naval bombardment of the Straits forts and emplacements commenced in the Dardanelles.

1915. Sunday 21st February. RMLI Brigade arrived in the Dardanelles.

1915. Thursday 25th February. Actions at Nonidas and Goaknontes in German West Africa.

1915. Thursday 25th February. Royal Marine Detatchments Garrison at Kribi in the Cameroons.

1915. Thursday 25th - 26th February. The Bombardments continued in the Dardanelles.

1915. Friday 26th February. The Fleet landing parties in the Dardanelles.

1915. During February and March elements of the 3rd Royal Marines Brigade (Brigadier C.N. Trotman RMLI), landed largely unopposed on the Gallipoli peninsula to dismantle Turkish defensive positions. After the unsuccessful naval attempts to force the Narrows in March, the Turkish Army reinforced the peninsula in strength. Thereafter a major amphibious operation was required. The Plymouth Battalion RMLI took part in the initial landing on Sunday 25th April but the Brigade did not land until the night of 28th-29th April when it went ashore at Anzac Cove to relieve 1 and 3 Australian Brigades. On Friday 30th April it was joined in the line by 1 Royal Navy Brigade (Brigadier D Mercer RMLI) which contained the Deal RMLI Battalion. For the next 13 days both brigades were engaged in continuous heavy fighting, bearing the brunt of the Turkish attacks and displaying great resolution. After a counter-attack in the Monash Valley by Chatham and Portsmouth Battalions on Monday 3rd May 1915 the Turks were driven back with heavy losses. Major Quinn, a great Australian VC, said to Major Jerram of the Royal Marines Brigade: "The bravest thing I've seen so far was the charge of your two Battalions up that hill on Bloody Sunday".

During another incident Lance Corporal W R Parker (Portsmouth Battalion RMLI) was awarded the Victoria Cross for his gallantry in evacuating a party of wounded men under fire. The Royal Marines  Brigade's casualties during this period were 21 officers and 217 men killed, 29 officers and 764 men wounded and 122 men missing. On 12 May both brigades were deployed to Cape Helles to re-join the RN Division for the remainder of the campaign.

1915. Monday 1st March. Royal Naval Division embarked for the Dardanelles.

1915. Monday 1st March. Royal Marine Light Infantry Brigade less Portsmouth and Deal Battalions sent to Imbros in the Dardanelles.

1915. Tuesday 2nd March at 5am. The ships were ordered to Tenedos. Operations once again cancelled due to bad weather.

1915. Wednesday 3rd March. The ships are once again moved to Imbros.

1915. Wednesday 3rd March. The Bombardment resumed in the Dardanelles.

1915. Thursday 4th March 8.30am. The Plymouth Battalion landed one company each at Kum Kale and Sedd el Bahrat Gallipoli, to cover the demolition of Turkish guns by raiding parties.
The Sedd-el-Bahr company re-embarks at 2.30pm, and Kum Kale at 7.15pm. Operations were successful, at cost of 22 dead and 22 wounded.

1915. Friday 5th March. The ships return to Tenedos.

1915. Friday 5th March. The Bombardment of Smyrna in the Dardanelles.

1915. Saturday 6th March at 2.30pm. The ships were ordered to Lemnos, and arrived 8.30pm.

1915. Saturday 6th March. No1 Howitzer RMA in action for the first time on the Western Front.

1915. Saturday 6th - 7th March. The Bombardment renewed at the Dardanelles.

1915. Sunday 7th March. Action between HMS Lord Nelson and HMS Agamemnon with the Forts at the narrows at the Dardanelles.

1915. Monday 8th March. The Dresden chased to Juan Fernandez by HMS Kent in the Pacific.

1915. Wednesday 10th - 13th March. The Battle of Neuve Chapelle on the Western Front.

1915. Thursday 11th March. The Bulair Lines were Bombarded in the Dardanelles.

1915. Thursday 11th March. The Portsmouth Battalion arrived at Lemnos from England on HMS Gloucester Castle and the Deal Battalion arrived on HMS Alnwick Castle.

1915. Friday 12th March. The Royal Marine Brigade reorganised and Royal Marine Special Service Force ceases to exist. The Brigade comes under orders of Royal Naval Division. The Deal Battalion is placed under orders of 1st Royal Naval Brigade. A contingent of Chatham Battalion (4 officers and 200 men) together with 2 officers and 20 men from Australian forces boarded HMS Cawdor Castle in preparation for a landing. The Ship sailed to Tenedos at daylight Thursday 18th March but this force was not used and returned to units on Tuesday 23rd March.

1915. Saturday 13th - 14th March. HMS Amethyst was heavily shelled.

1915. Sunday 14th March. The Dresden was sunk by HMS Kent, HMS Glasgow and HMS Orama in the Pacific.

1915. Thursday 18th March at 6.30pm. The Royal Marine Brigade sailed for a demonstration off Gaba Tepe, which was carried out at 5.30am the next day. 1.30pm the ships returned to Lemnos.

1915. Wednesday 24th March, The Royal Marine Brigade (now including the Deal Battalion) sails for Alexandria in Egypt. Orders are modified on route and force sails instead to Port Said, arrives Friday 26th - 27th March.

1915. Thursday 18th March. The Grand attack on the Dardanelles by the fleet.

1915. Thursday 18th March. HMS Dreadnought sank a German submarine in the North Sea.

1915. Friday 19th March. Demonstration by the Fleet off Gaba Tepe in the Dardanelles.

1915. Friday 26th March. Machine gun detachments of the Deal Battalion moved to the Suez Canal defences at Kantara.

1915. Friday 26th March. No3 Howitzer RMA embarked for France from Southampton.

1915. Monday 29th March - 7th April. The RMLI Brigade was in Egypt.

1915. April. The Royal Naval Reserve was became known as 1st (Royal Naval) Brigade.

1915. Wednesday 7th April. The Brigade re-embarked at Alexandria.

1915. Sunday 11th - 12th April. The Brigade arrived at Lemnos.

1915. Sunday 11th April. The renewal of the Bombardments in the Dardanelles.

1915. Sunday 11th - 13th April. The advance on Jaunde, Royal Marines operations at Kribi in the Cameroons.

1915. Monday 12th April. No3 Howitzer RMA embarked Marseilles (France) for the Dardanelles.

1915. Wednesday 14th April. No4 Howitzer RMA arrived in France.

1915. Friday 16th April. The Brigade was moved to Trebuki Bay, Skyros, where the Division was concentrating.

1915. Sunday 18th April. Bombardments and Reconnaissance of forts in the Dardanelles.

1915. Thursday 22nd April. A Royal Marine detachment from HMS Egmont sank an Austrian Monitor on the River Danube.

1915. Friday 23rd April. The Brigade sailed for the Gulf of Xeros.

1915. Friday 23rd April. Headquarters 'B' and part of 'C' batteries, AA Brigade RMA, reached Dunkirk in France.

1915. Saturday 24th April. The Fleet left Mudros for the Dardanelles.

1915. Sunday 25th April. The landings at Gallipoli commenced.

1915. Sunday 25th April. Division carried out feint landing at Bulair, while the British 29th Division landed at Cape Helles beach and the Australian and New Zealand forces at a beach near Gaba Tepe / Ari Burnu later to be named Anzac Cove.

1915. Sunday 25th April. Plymouth Battalion Landed at 'Y' beach.

1915. Sunday 25th - 26th April. Feint Landings by the Royal Naval Division at Bulair (Gallipoli).

1915. Monday 26th April. Action at Trekkopjes in German South Western Africa.

1915. Tuesday 27th April. Ships carrying the Brigade arrived off Cape Helles at daylight.

1915. Wednesday 28th April 5pm. HMS Gloucester Castle and HMS Cawdor Castle were ordered to move and anchor off Gaba Tepe. The Chatham and Portsmouth Battalions ordered to disembark and come under orders of 1st Australian Division on arrival. On completion of disembarkation at 8pm, the Brigade was ordered to take over No 2 Section of defences held by Australian and New Zealand forces. This was the western edge of Lone Pine plateau.

1915. Wednesday 28th April. The RMLI Brigade less Plymouth and Deal Battalions. landed at Anzac Cove Gallipoli.

1915. Wednesday 28th April. 'B' Battery, AA Brigade RMA were in action for the first time on the Western Front.

1915. Thursday 29th April. The Deal and Nelson Battalions together with Brigade Headquarters land at Anzac Cove in the evening and move up through Shrapnel Gully to the forward defences.

1915. Friday 30th April. The Turkish attacks at Anzac.

1915. Friday 30th April. Lance Corporal Walter Richard Parker RMLI (1881-1936) was awarded the Victoria Cross for displaying conspicuous bravery in rescuing wounded personnel in full daylight under heavy fire, at Gaba Tepe at Gallipoli.

1915. Saturday 1st May. Lance Corporal Walter Richard. Parker RMLI (1881-1936) was awarded the Victoria Cross (VC) for displaying conspicuous bravery in rescuing wounded personnel in full daylight under heavy fire. A London Gazette article was published on Friday 22nd June 1917 and it reads: On the night of Friday 30th April 1915, Lieutenant Epson, RMLI who was in command of an Isolated fire trench at Gabi Tepee sent a message asking for ammunition, water and medical stores; in the trench there were also 40 men and a number of wounded.

The message was received by Captain Sibson, RMLI Officer Commanding `C' Company, Portsmouth Battalion, who detailed a party of Non-Commissioned Officers and men to carry water and ammunition and called for a volunteer among the stretcher bearers. Lance Corporal Parker of the same battalion at once volunteered to go. There were no communication trenches, and in attempting to emerge from the nearest trench one of the parties was wounded. Lance Corporal Parker organised a stretcher party to take this man back and then started off for the trench which Lieutenant Epson occupied. It was now daylight. The intervening space was at least 400 yards and was completely exposed and swept by Turkish rifle fire; several Australians had already been killed while endeavouring to convey ammunition to Lieutenant Epson. Parker alone succeeded in reaching the trench: all the remaining Non-Commissioned Officers and men in his party were either killed or wounded. After his arrival he rendered assistance to the wounded, displaying extreme courage and remaining cool and collected in very trying circumstances. In the early morning of the following day the trench had to be evacuated and Parker helped to remove and attend to the wounded, although during this operation he was seriously wounded. Parker had during the three previous days displayed consistent bravery and energy whilst in charge of the battalion stretcher bearers during a very trying time, as in nearly every case the wounded had to be evacuated over exposed ground and under fire. Owing to the fact that the Commanding Officer, Adjutant, Sergeant Major and the Company Commander were all wounded at this juncture the recommendations for gallantry etc. for the Portsmouth battalion were much delayed. The Brigadier General Commanding the Royal Navy Division at the time, however, considers this man should be awarded the Victoria Cross. Severely wounded during the operation Parker was eventually invalided from the service in June 1916. Beside his VC he was awarded the 1914/15 Star, the British War and Victory Medals and a war gratuity. The men of the Division presented him with an inscribed marble and gilt clock. He never fully recovered from his injuries and died, aged 55, at Stapleford, Nottingham on Saturday 28th November 1936 and was buried in the local cemetery. A Memorial Service, in his honour, is held annually at Stapleford on the Sunday nearest 30th April by the local RMA.

1915. Saturday 1st May. The Turkish attacks at Anzac.

1915. Sunday 2nd May. Congratulatory message from HM the King to the Forces in Gallipoli.

1915. Monday 3rd May. Anzac, attacks on Chessboard, known as Black Monday.

1915. Monday 3rd May. A counter attack on the Monash Valley by the Chatham and Portsmouth Battalions pushed the Turks back with heavy losses. A Major Quinn, an Australian VC holder, said to Major Jerram of the Royal Marine Brigade: "The bravest thing I've seen so far was the charge of your two battalions up that hill on Bloody Monday." Between the 6th and 8th May 1915 HMS Drake, HMS Plymouth, HMS Howe, HMS Hood and HMS Anson' Battalions fought the Second Battle of Krithia.

1915. Tuesday 4th May. Landings at Gaba Tepe by detachments from HMS Triumph, HMS Bacchante and HMS Dartmouth.

1915. Thursday 6th - 8th May. The second battle of Krithia.

1915. Friday 7th May. The Lusitania was sunk off Queenstown in Southern Ireland.

1915. Saturday 8th - 13th May. The Battle of Frezenberg Ridge on the Western Front.

1915. Sunday 9th May. Bombardment of the Dardanelles and Smyrna.

1915. Sunday 9th May. The Battle of Aubers Ridge on the Western Front.

1915. Monday 10th May. The Chatham Battalion took the Turkish trenches at Quin's Post, Anzac.

1915. Monday 10th May. Plymouth Battalion repulsed a Turkish counter attack at Helles.

1915. Wednesday 12th May. 80 Royal Marines were lost when HMS Goliath was sank by Turkish Torpedo boats.

1915. Wednesday 12th May. RMLI Brigade left Anzac for Helles.

1915. Thursday 13th May. 1st Royal Naval Brigade left Anzac for Helles.

1915. Friday 15th May. The Battle of Festubert on the Western Front.

1915. Sunday 17th May. The first German submarine arrived in the Dardanelles.

1915. Tuesday 19th May. The Second squadron left for the Adriatic.

1915. Saturday 23rd May. HMS Albion and Canopus affair at Gaba Tepe in the Dardanelles.

1915. Sunday 24th May. AA guns gassed at Ypres on the Western Front.

1915. Sunday 24th May. A night advance and construction of Mercer Road.

1915. Tuesday 26th May. Whilst bombarding HMS Triumph was torpedoed and sunk by a submarine, 1 Royal Marine was lost.

1915. Wednesday 27th May. Night advance by RM Brigade and construction of the Trotman Road.

1915. Wednesday 27th May. HMS Majestic, lying off Gaba Tepe in the Daranelles, was torpedoed and sunk by a submarine and 4 Royal Marines were lost.

1915. Friday 4th June. The third Battle of Krithia at Gallipoli.

1915. Sunday 6th June. Action at Kanli Dere Gallipoli.

1915. Wednesday 16th June. AA Brigade in action at Ypres on the Western Front.

1915. Sunday 20th June. The first Battle of Bellewarde on the Western Front.

1915. Monday 21st June. The third action of Kereves Dere at Gallipoli.

1915. Tuesday 22nd June. Action at Kalkfeldt in German held South Africa.

1915. Wednesday 23rd June. Action at The Rectangle in the Dardanelles.

1915. Thursday 24th - 25th June. Construction of Parson's Road at Helles, Gallipoli.

1915. Thursday 8th - 15th July. Operations in the Nyong River, Cameroon.

1915. Sunday 11th July. The Koenigsberg was destroyed by monitors in the Rufiji river in East Africa.

1915. Monday 12th - 13th July. The Turkish trenches at Achi Baba were captured (Gallipoli).

1915. Friday 16th July. 'B' Battery AA Brigade in action at Nieuport on the Western Front.

1915. July. The air operation to sink the German cruiser Kőenigsberg off the coast of East Africa was commanded by Major R Gordon RMLI for which he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order.

1915. Monday 2nd August. 'A' Battery AA Brigade formed.

1915. Monday 2nd August. 1st (Royal Naval) Brigade was re-designated as 1st Brigade.

1915. Monday 2nd August. RMLI Brigade was organised into two Battalions.

1915. Friday 6th August. The landings at Suvla Bay Gallipoli.

1915. Friday 6th - 7th August. The capture of the Krithia Vineyard Gallipoli.

1915. Friday 6th - 7th August. Operations on the Compo River in the Cameroons.

1915. Monday 9th - 14th August. The cruiser HMS Juno in operations at Dilwar in the Persian Gulf.

1915. Sunday 15th August. Royal Naval Division took over left section of the line at Gallipoli.

1915. Tuesday 24th August. One gun of 'C' Battery AA Brigade destroyed at Ypres on the Western Front.

1915. Saturday 28th August. South African Heavy Artillery left for England, from German South West Africa.

1915. Thursday 9th September. HMS Pyranus and HMS Juno in action in the defence of Bushire in the Persian Gulf.

1915. Sunday 19th September. First RMLI Brigade party to Imbros for leave (Gallipoli).

1915. Saturday 25th - 28th September. The Battle of Loos on the Western Front.

1915. Sunday 26th - 28th September. The second Battle of Bellewarde on the Western Front.

1915. Tuesday 28th September. 'D' Battery AA Brigade RMA formed for the Western Front.

1915. Tuesday 28th September. Operations on the Compo River in Cameroon.

1915. Sunday 3rd - 8th October. The Battle of Belgrade in Serbia.

1915. Tuesday 5th October. The first troops landed at Salonica in Greece.

1915. Wednesday 6th October. The Battle of Semendria in Serbia.

1915. Wednesday 6th October. A Royal Marines detachment from HMS Sirius landed in defence of Molko Post in the Cameroons.

1915. Saturday 16th October. RMA Battery left England for Serbia.

1915. Thursday 21st October. The Bombardment of Dedeagatch in Bulgaria.

1915. Friday 22nd October. 'C' Battery AA Brigade moved to Louvencourt on the Western Front.

1915. Saturday 24th October. The Commencement of the Retreat from Serbia.

1915. Monday 26th October. 'A' Battery AA Brigade brought down a German reconnaissance aircraft ay Ypres on the Western Front.

1915. Monday 26th October. Heavy enemy shelling at Gallipoli.

1915. Monday 26th October. The Scapa Flow Garrison was increased.

1915. Wednesday 3rd - 11th November. RMA Battery put out of action during Rear Guard Actions in Serbia.

1915. Friday 5th - 6th November. Royal Marines from HMS Challenger in the capture of Metum and Mbula in the Cameroons.

1915. Wednesday 10th - 19th November. A visit by Lord Kitchener to discuss future policy.

1915. Saturday 13th November. Change of Command and Staff in Royal Marines Brigade.

1915. Sunday 21st November. Detachments reached Salonica in Greece.

1915. Saturday 27th - 28th November. Great Blizzard in Gallipoli and Salonica.

1915. Thursday 2nd December. HMS Agamemnon and HMS Endymion destroyed Kavak Bridge in the Gulf of Xeros.

1915. Wednesday 8th December. RMA AA Brigade in action at Nieuport on the Western Front.

1915. Sunday 12th December. Royal Marines Battalion took over the French sector.

1915. Monday 13th December. No's 5 and 6 Howitzers RMA arrived in France.

1915. Sunday 19th September. Evacuation of Anzac and Suvla, Gallipoli.

1915. Saturday 25th December. The Bombardment of Achi Baba, Gallipoli.

1915. Saturday 25th December. RMA AA Brigade action at Nieuport.

1915. Sunday 26th December. RMA Guns at Mersa Matruh for the Senussi campaign in Egypt.

1915. Monday 27th December. Royal Marine Detachment reached San Giovanni di Medua in Serbia.

1915. Friday 31st December. HMS Natal blown up at Cromarty with the loss of 57 Royal Marines.

1915. F.H. Sykes, an Army Officer was commissioned as a Colonel in the Royal Marines and appointed to command all Royal Naval Air Service operations in the Eastern Mediterranean including the Dardanelles. At the same time Major E L Gerrard RMLI was deployed to the Dardanelles in Command of No 2 Wing, RNAS.

1916. Registered Numbers. Royal Marine Submarine Miners. No special suffix or prefix exists for this unit, the majority of recruits were entered into the Chatham short service registers and each man issued the next CH (S) number that was available but the register was annotated with the letter RMSM at the top. ADM159/211 contains partial register entries for numbers 3278-3345, this register is titled Special Home Coast Défense and the numbers have no suffixes or prefixes. Each man in this register appears to have then been issued a PO (S) series number and their details are recorded fully in ADM159/208. They served with the RMSM.

Royal Marines Labour Corps (RMLC) and Suffix ‘N’. Ranks enlisted in the No.1 (Home Service) Labour Company in 1916 were given Chatham registered numbers in the series CH/14100(S) to CH/14343(S). Ranks enlisted or transferred to the RM Labour Corps, which was formed in 1917 (the RMLC OLD Formation), were allocated numbers with the prefix ‘Deal’ and with a suffix ‘S’ in brackets in the series Deal/8000(S) to Deal/15955(S). Ranks enlisted in the post-war RM Corps formed in 1919 (the RMLC New Formation) were allocated numbers with a ‘Deal’ prefix and the suffix ‘N’ in the series Deal/1(N) to Deal/ 1424(N).

1916. Monday 3rd January. The Bombardment of the Asiatic Coast in the Dardanelles.

1916. Thursday 6th January. HMS King Edward VII mined and sunk off North Scotland.

1916. Friday 7th January. The Royal Marines were the last to leave Gallipoli, replacing both British and French troops in a neatly planned and executed withdrawal from the beaches.

1916. Saturday 8th - 9th January. The Evacuation of Helles Sector at Gallipoli.

1916. January. The Military Service Act (1916 – 1920), was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Act specified that men from 18 to 41 years old were liable to be called up for service in the military unless they were married, widowed with children, serving in the Royal Navy, a minister of religion, or working in one of a number of reserved occupations.

1916. Friday. 28th January. Royal Marines from HMS Prince George occupied Fort Touzla in Salonica Greece.

1916. Friday 11th February. HMS Arethusa mined and sunk in the North Sea.

1916. Monday 14th February. Royal Marine Detachments from the East African Squadron formed Artillery Batteries.

1916. Tuesday 22nd February - 16th April. 1st and 2nd RMLI Battalions at Stavros Macedonia.

1916. Monday 28th February. HMS Alcantara torpedoed, Greif sunk by gunfire, 8 Royal Marines were lost.

1916. Thursday 2nd March. The Military Service Act passed in January came into being.

1916. Wednesday 8th March. No9 Battery in action at Salaita East Africa.

1916. Friday 10th March. No9 Battery in action at Latema- Reata East Africa.

1916. Thursday 16th March. RMA Detachment at Mersa Matruh and Sollum, Egypt.

1916. Saturday 25th March. Light Cruiser action against German Torpedo Boat in the North Sea.

1916. Saturday 1st April. British Forces withdrawn from the Cameroons.

1916. 16th April - 27th May. Royal Marines from HMS Doris occupied Long Island, Gulf of Smyrna in the Daranelles.

1916. Saturday 22nd April. No8 Howitzer RMA arrived on the Western Front.

1916. Tuesday 25th April. The Bombardment of Lowestoft on the UK East Coast.

1916. Thursday 27th April. HMS Russell mined and sunk with the loss of 10 Royal Marines.

1916. Thursday 27th April. Portsmouth Company arrived at Queenstown Ireland.

1916. Thursday 27th April - 15th May. Royal Marine Battalion formed and deployed in Ireland to combat the Easter Rising.

1916. Thursday 27th April. A 12 inch Railway Gun was mounted at Dunkirk in France.

1916. May. A Second Military Service Act extended liability for military service to married men, and a third Act in 1918 extended the upper age limit to 51. Men or employers who objected to an individual's call-up could apply to a local Military Service Tribunal. These bodies could grant exemption from service, usually conditional or temporary. There was right of appeal to a County Appeal Tribunal.

1916. Thursday 4th May. An air raid was made on the Zeppelin sheds at Tondern in Denmark. As it was considered that it might draw out the German High Seas Fleet, supported by the whole of the Grand Fleet. Though the raid was successful, the enemy refused to be drawn and there were no further results. However, at 10am, HMS Galatea and HMS Phaeton brought down the Zeppelin ‘L7’ by gun fire. On the next day away in the Aegean.

1916. Friday 5th May. HMS Agamemnon brought down a Zeppelin, which had previously bombed Salonica, the airship fell in the Vardar Marshes, where it was destroyed.

1916. Friday 19th - 20th May. Royal Naval Division arrived in Marseilles headed for the Western Front.

1916. Wednesday 31st May. 190th Machine Gun Company formed by the RMLI.

1916. Wednesday 31st May – 1st June. The Battle of Jutland, also known as the Battle of the Skagerrak. The only major encounter between the British and German fleets during World War I. Fought in the Skagerrak, an arm of the North Sea, about 60 miles (97 km) off the coast of Jutland in Denmark.

British naval intelligence had alerted admirals John Jellicoe and David Beatty that Admiral Reinhard Scheer had left port with his German High Seas Fleet. Beatty, in command of a scouting force of battle cruisers, spotted a similar German force under Admiral Franz von Hipper and pursued it toward the main German fleet. At about 4pm both sides opened fire. The British suffered heavy losses and turned back toward Jellicoe’s main British fleet, with the Germans in pursuit. After 6pm the main fleets encountered each other, and the battle raged again. In the dusk the British had the advantage, and Scheer soon turned away. However, when the German fleet turned once more to head for home, it again ran directly into the British fleet, which had maneuverer in such a way that it lay between the German fleet and the German ports. At this second crisis, Scheer ordered his battle cruisers and torpedo boats to charge the British fleet and thereby cover a second retreat of his battleships. Jellicoe, arguably overestimating the danger of torpedo attacks, also turned away, and the battle thus came to an indecisive end. Both sides claimed a victory. Germany because it had destroyed or damaged many more ships, and Britain because it retained control of the North Sea.

1916. Wednesday 31st May. The Battle of Jutland. Major Francis John William Harvey RMLI (1873-1916). Whilst serving on the HMS Lion was mortally wounded and almost the only survivor after the explosion of an enemy shell in 'Q' gun house. with great presence of mind and devotion to duty ordered the magazine to be flooded, thereby saving the ship. He died shortly after and the Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously. His Citation reads: Whilst mortally wounded and almost the only survivor after the explosion of an enemy shell in 'Q' gun-house, with great presence of mind and devotion to duty ordered the magazine to be flooded, thereby saving the ship. He died shortly afterwards.

This article is taken from the London Gazette, (Supplement) No. 29751. P 9067 Friday 15th September 1916.

1916. Wednesday 31st May. The Battle of Jutland (Within the British fleets and squadrons, ships were generally listed in order - Dreadnought, Battlecruiser, Cruiser, Light Cruiser, Flotilla Leader, Destroyer, only ships that were hit and lives were lost are listed as damaged).
The British Battle Cruiser Fleet (first in action) Casualties listed in order: HMS Lion, battlecruiser HMS Queen Mary, HMS Princess Royal, HMS Tiger, battlecruisers HMS Indefatigable, HMS Barham, HMS Malaya, HMS Warspite, Dreadnoughts HMS Dublin, HMS Southampton, light cruisers HMS Chester, light cruiser HMS Defender, destroyers HMS Turbulent, HMS Nestor, HMS Nomad, HMS Onslow, HMS Petard.

Fleet Flagship, Battle Cruiser HMS Lion, damaged, five ratings each died of injuries on 3rd, 4th, 7th, 23th June and 3rd July:
BACKHOUSE, George, Gunner, RMA, RMA 7532.
BAKER, Philip T A, Private, RMLI, 16416 (Ch).
BEER, William L, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10417.
BELL, James I, Gunner, RMA, RMA 11670.
BRADFORD, Charles E, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12849.
BROWNE, William E, Gunner, RMA, RMA 8409.
BURKE, Thomas, Gunner, RMA, RMA 8487.
CASE, William, Private, RMLI, 19125 (Ch).
CASEY, Nicholas, Private, RMLI, 16326 (Po).
CHAPMAN, Arthur G, Gunner, RMA, RMA 6254.
CHAPMAN, Frederick W, Private, RMLI, 15131 (Ply).
COLES, Percy R, Private, RMLI, 11291 (Ply).
COSSEY, Samuel J, Private, RMLI, 7884 (Ply).
DORMAN, Alfred G, Private, RMLI, 14493 (Po).
EVERRETT, George, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10620.
FARLEY, William H, Private, RMLI, 14957 (Ply).
FROOME, William H, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13780.
GREEN, Reginald G, Gunner, RMA, RMA 9415.
GREEN, Thomas, Private, RMLI, 14920 (Ply).
HARVEY, Francis J W, Major, RM - awarded posthumous Victoria Cross.
HAYES, John, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14204.
HENNESSY, Murlagh F, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12255.
HOAD, Joseph H, Musician, RMB, RMB 2195.
HOUGHTON, Tom, Private, RMLI, 15683 (Ply).
HOWCHIN, Charles W, Sergeant, RMLI, 13518 (Ply).
HUTCHINS, Thomas J, Corporal, RMA, RMA 11535.
KEMP, John S, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14169.
LUCKING, Charles W, Sergeant, RMA, RMA 7398.
MARTIN, William H, Private, RMLI, 13501 (Po).
MEARS, Walter, Gunner, RMA, RMA 11505.
NORRIS, Victor E, Gunner, RMA, RMA 7432.
OWEN, Walter L, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13739.
PIKE, Joseph, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13315.
POPE, William, Sergeant, RMA, RMA 6497.
POTTER, Robert, Private, RMLI, 13118 (Ply).
RAFFERTY, John H, Private, RMLI, 14910 (Ply).
ROGERS, Frederick J, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10896.
RULE, Frederick J, Corporal, RMA, RMA 5820.
SALES, Thomas, Private, RMLI, 14074 (Ply).
SCOTT, Arnold, Private, RMLI, 15989 (Ply).
SHEPPARD, Edward E, Corporal, RMLI, 13731 (Ply).
SMITH, Thomas M, Gunner, RMA, RMA 11662.
ULYATT, Wilfred R, Bombardier, RMA, RMA 13204.
WAGSTAFF, William, Gunner, RMA, RMA 8544.
WESTON, William H, Private, RMLI, 15076 (Ply).
WIGHT, Archibald T, Private, RMLI, 19121 (Ch).
WILLATTS, Vivian G C, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13741.
WYNNE, William, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13127’.

First Battle Cruiser Squadron 3 battlecruisers (HMS Queen Mary sunk, HMS Princess Royal and HMS Tiger damaged).
HMS Princess Royal, damaged, 1 rating each died of injuries on 2nd, 3rd and 5th June:
ANDREWS, Frederick C, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10303.
BODELEY, Henry J, Gunner, RMA, RMA 9217.
GAMBLIN, Ernest A, Gunner, RMA, RMA 6580.
GOMER, William R, Private, RMLI, 7085 (Ply).
HODGES, Percy A, Private, RMLI, 16046 (Po).

HMS Queen Mary, sunk:
ALLEN, William, Gunner, RMA, RMA 8650.
ARGENT, Charles W, Private, RMLI (RMR B 1258), 11232 (Po).
BAILEY, John T, Private, RMLI (RFR B 1015), 9305 (Po).
BAKER, William, Private, RMLI, 12745 (Po).
BARBER, Alphonso, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13163.
BARFOOT, Edwin A, Private, RMLI, 14966 (Po).
BARTON, Richard P, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12982.
BATCHELOR, Gilbert H, Private, RMLI, 18569 (Po).
BAYLIS, Albert D, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12065.
BILLING, James E, Private, RMLI, 11694 (Po).
BOND, Andrew, Private, RMLI, 18504 (Po).
BROWN, Arthur D, Corporal, RMLI, 13014 (Po).
BROWN, Thomas, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13044.
BUCHANAN, Percival G, Musician, RMB, RMB 1802.
BURRY, Albert C F, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13285.
BUTCHER, Charles G, Private, RMLI, 7503 (Po).
BWYE, William G, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14462.
BYATT, Alfred W, Private, RMLI, 10746 (Po).
BYSOUTH, Henry, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13116.
CARTWRIGHT, Joseph, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12994.
CATLEY, Charles, Gunner, RMA.
COLLINS, George, Private, RMLI, 9525 (Po).
COLSON, Victor H, Private, RMLI, 19503 (Ch).
COOPER, Henry, Private, RMLI, 16321 (Po).
COPE, Samuel, Private, RMLI, 16958 (Ply).
DAVIS, Frederick, Private, RMLI, 9828 (Po).
DUNCAN, William, Private, RMLI, 18927 (Ch).
DYKES, William, Musician, RMB, RMB 355.
ELLIOTT, Gideon, Private, RMLI, 9721 (Po).
ESCOTT, Albert, Private, RMLI, 14322 (Po).
ETHERINGTON, Arthur W, Private, RMLI, 17800 (Po).
EVES, Alfred F, Bugler, RMLI, 18194 (Po).
EWART, Victor A, Lieutenant.
EXFORD, George O, Private, RMLI, 12829 (Po).
FELTON, Isaac, Lance Sergeant, RMLI, 8250 (Po).
FERGUSON, John, Private, RMLI, 17859 (Ply).
FERGUSSON, Allan, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10254.
FITZWILLIAM, Joseph, Gunner, RMA, RMA 8666.
FRANKS, Walter H, Private, RMLI, 14738 (Po).
GARDNER, Robert L, Bombardier, RMA, RMA 12907.
GEARY, Archibald I, Private, RMLI, 15692 (Po).
GIBSON, Robert S, Musician, RMB, RMB 1304.
GROVES, Philip, Private, RMLI, 17844 (Po).
HAWORTH, Fielden, Private, RMLI, 12584 (Po).
HAYDEN, Edward J, Private, RMLI, 14838 (Po).
HEAD, Henry G, Lance Corporal, RMLI, 16317 (Po).
HERBERT, Charles J, Private, RMLI, 11139 (Po).
HERBERT, Henry, Act/Bombardier, RMA, RMA 7938.
HEWITT, William E, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13722.
HOWARD, William F, Colour Sergeant, RMLI, 10389 (Po).
HOWIE, Thomas, Private, RMLI, 12716 (Po).
HUMPHRYS, Arthur, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13028.
HUNT, Walter, Private, RMLI, 15164 (Po).
JACKSON, Harry, Private, RMLI, 17263 (Po).
JAGO, William E, Private, RMLI, 16310 (Po).
JONES, Albert F, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14035.
JONES, Charles F, Private, RMLI, 18935 (Ch).
JONES, George, Gunner, RMA, RMA 9385.
KELLY, Thomas, Gunner, RMA, RMA 5837.
KENEALY, John M, Gunner, RMA, RMA 11730.
LANDRAY, William H H, Private, RMLI, 18319 (Po).
LE MANQUAIS, Ernest G, Private, RMLI, 13223 (Po).
LOTHIAN, William J, Sergeant, RMA, RMA 7384.
LYNN, Robert, Gunner, RMA, RMA 8897.
MARR, Andrew H, Gunner, RMA, RMA 8298.
MARTIN, Horatio, Gunner, RMA, RMA 7992.
MASON, Thomas W, Private, RMLI, 16962 (Ply).
MCKAY, Donald, Gunner, RMA, RMA 8371.
MCLAUGHLIN, Frederick, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13706.
MERCER, Albert W, Private, RMLI, 16316 (Po).
MILLS, Harry, Private, RMLI, 1502 (Ch).
MOORE, Frederick, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13096.
MOORE, John J, Bombardier, RMA, RMA 10866.
MORAN, Albert E, Private, RMLI, 12908 (Po).
MUTTERS, William H, Private, RMLI, 16964 (Ply).
NEIL, William McK, Private, RMLI, 19585.Ch).
NOTTINGHAM, Leslie, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13806.
NUNN, Albert C, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12579.
ORME, George, Musician, RMB, RMB 1767.
OSBORNE, Frederick J, Corporal, RMA, RMA 5103.
OVERTON, Frank, Musician, RMB, RMB 891.
OWENS, John S, Musician, RMB, RMB 982.
PALLETT, Herbert, Private, RMLI, 16985 (Po).
PARKER, Arthur, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13053.
PICKFORD, George, Private, RMLI, 16315 (Po).
POOLEY, John A, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10473.
PRYKE, Joseph N, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13048.
RICHARDSON, Henry, Musician, RMB, RMB 1365.
ROONEY, Gerald C, Major, RMLI.
RUBICK, Arthur, Gunner, RMA, RMA 7378.
RULE, Frederick H, Private, RMLI, 16484 (Po).
SELWAY, Sydney J, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13045.
SIMMONDS, Arthur J, Gunner, RMA, RMA 8313.
SMALLMAN, Lewis G E, Lance Sergeant, RMLI, 13895 (Po).
SMITH, John, Private, RMLI, 16230 (Ply).
SMITH, Thomas H, Band Corporal, RMB, RMB 1294.
STEADMAN, James W G, Musician, RMB, RMB 1153.
STEVENS, Walter J, Private, RMLI, 15688 (Po).
STYLES, Charles R G, Bugler, RMA, RMA 11546.
SWAIN, Edward E, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10953.
TATE, Charles W, Gunner, RMA, RMA 1165.
TAYLOR, James A, Bandmaster 1c, RMB 458.
THOMPSON, Robert B, Musician, RMB, RMB 2191.
THOROGOOD, Edmund J, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13095.
TIZZARD, William, Private, RMLI, 18440 (Ch).
TULETT, Henry W, Private, RMLI, 9854 (Po).
WALLINGTON, John H, Gunner, RMA, RMA 1378.
WEBB, Ernest, Sergeant, RMA, RMA 9611.
WHITLOCK, Ernest W, Private, RMLI, 18929 (Ch).
WILMOT, Walter P, Musician, RMB, RMB 1876.
WOOD, Arthur O, Band Corporal, RMB, RMB 1174.
WOOD, Frederick W, Musician, RMB, RMB 824.
WOOD, Montague, Musician, RMB, RMB 501.
WOOLLACOTT, Herbert A, Corporal, RMLI, 18928 (Ch).

Second Battle Cruiser Squadron 2 battlecruisers (HMS Indefatigable sunk).
HMS Indefatigable, sunk:
ABRAHAM, Charles, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10681.
ANTROBUS, Harry J, Bugler, RMLI, 16147 (Ply).
ATKINS, Arthur C, Sergeant, RMA, RMA 8852.
BARBER, John, Private, RMLI, 10429 (Ply).
BARHAM, Gerald J, Bandmaster 1c, RMB, RMB 119.
BEAVEN, Harold, Private, RMLI, 15882 (Po).
BEESLEY, William, Private, RMLI, 17155 (Ply).
BEESTON, Stanley A A, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10331.
BLACKWELL, Arthur J, Private, RMLI, 10296 (Po).
BROADBRIDGE, Allan, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10435.
BROCKHURST, James, Private, RMLI, 15133 (Ply).
BUCKINGHAM, Edwin, Musician, RMB, RMB 1588.
BURROWS, Stanley, Corporal, RMLI, 15123 (Ply).
CAGNEY, Thomas, Musician, RMB, RMB 667.
CARRICK, George, Private, RMLI, 14722 (Ply).
CARTER, Francis A, Corporal, RMLI, 15569 (Ply).
CHAMP, William E, Private, RMLI, 16791 (Ply).
CHAPPLE, William S, Private, RMLI, 13947 (Ply).
CLARK, Wyndham W, Private, RMLI, 14012 (Ply).
COLLETT, John H, Private, RMLI, 14601 (Ply).
COLLIS, Robert, Gunner, RMA, RMA 11441.
COWELL, William E, Private, RMLI, 16531 (Ply).
CREELMAN, James, Musician, RMB, RMB 488.
DAVIS, William J, Private, RMLI, 15468 (Ply).
DEACON, Bertie W L, Musician, RMB, RMB 1830.
DEAN, William F, Gunner, RMA, RMA 6160.
DOYLE, Francis, Private, RMLI, 16787 (Po).
DYER, George G, Private, RMLI, 14004 (Po).
FALLON, William H, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14165.
FARQUHARSON, Nathaniel M, Private, RMLI, 13572 (Ply).
FELTHAM, William J, Private, RMLI, 6796 (Ply).
FIELD, George H, Gunner, RM.
FIELDING, Harry, Private, RMLI, 17558 (Ply).
FOSKETT, Henry J, Musician, RMB, RMB 856.
FREEMAN, Charles J E, Colour Sergeant, RMLI, 12208 (Ply).
GALLAGHER, Ernest J, Musician, RMB, RMB 1772.
GRAHAM, John, Private, RMLI, 17205 (Ply).
GRIFFIN, Ernest, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13878.
HARMAN, Richard J, Bombardier, RMA, RMA 12304.
HARRIS, Malcolm M, Corporal, RMLI, 14698 (Ply).
HARRIS, Stephen, Private, RMLI, 17641 (Ply).
HENLEY, Bernard R, Musician, RMB, RMB 1834.
HILL, George J, Bugler, RMA, RMA 6306.
HILL, Tom, Gunner, RMA, RMA 8162.
HULSE, Harold, Private, RMLI, 15427 (Ply).
HUNT, Albert, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12924.
JAMES, Frederick, Musician, RMB, RMB 1250.
JINKS, Albert J W, Gunner, RMA, RMA 11545.
KELLY, Joseph, Private, RMLI, 15555 (Ply).
KIRTON, Samuel P, Musician, RMB, RMB 1698.
KITCHING, Thomas, Private, RMLI, 13123 (Ply).
LEONARD, Joseph, Private, RMLI, 15543 (Ply).
LONGHORN, James H, Private, RMLI, 16826 (Po).
LOVELL, George, Gunner, RMA, RMA 11884.
MALLIN, John, Private, RMLI, 7041 (Ply).
MALLON, James, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13442.
MASSEY, Thomas, Private, RMLI, 17899 (Ply).
MATTRAVERS, Fred, Private, RMLI, 8256 .Ply).
MCCAUSLAND, William J, Private, RMLI, 17058 (Ply).
MILLS, Harry, Gunner, RMA, RMA 9027.
MITSON, George W, Private, RMLI, S 316.
MORELAND, Harry L, Private, RMLI, 16822 (Ply).
MORLEY, Thomas, Private, RMLI, 14577 (Ply).
MUDDLE, John G, Gunner, RMA, RMA 8415.
MURCH, Francis, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10673.
NUNN, Charles, Bombardier, RMA, RMA 10772.
PHILLIPS, Harry J, Sergeant, RMA, RMA 6341.
RANDALL, William H, Musician, RMB, RMB 413.
RICKMAN, Horace E, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13172.
ROURKE, James, Private, RMLI, 12748 (Ply).
ROWBOTHAM, Wilfred, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12894.
SCAMMELLS, William F, Private, RMLI, 11512 (Ply).
SCHUMMAKER, George C, Band Corporal, RMB, RMB 1011.
SEWELL, Herbert, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13084.
SIMPSON, Joseph C, Private, RMLI, 15320 (Ply).
SIZER, Edward, Act/Bombardier, RMA, RMA 11511.
SLOCOMBE, Richard F, Private, RMLI, 17896 (Ply).
SMEES, Alfred, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13109.
SMITH, Albert E, Ship's Corporal 2c, 229684 (Dev).
STAPLES, John W, Gunner, RMA, RMA.140.
STEPHENSON, Garton G, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12783.
STEWART, Samuel, Private, RMLI, 15164 (Ply).
SUTTON, Lawrence, Private, RMLI, 17713 (Ch).
SWEENEY, Patrick, Private, RMLI, 15445 (Po).
THOMAS, William J, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12889.
WATTS, George, Private, RMLI, 15635 (Ply).
WEAVERS, Harold, Musician, RMB, RMB 1044.
WHITE, Albert E, Private, RMLI, 17741 (Ply).
WIFFEN, William J, Musician, RMB, RMB 924.
WIGGINS, Edward J, Musician, RMB, RMB 1818.
WILDE, Percy M C, Captain, RMA.
WILTON, Harvey, Gunner, RMA, RMA 9630.

Fifth Battle Squadron (attached) 4 Dreadnoughts (HMS Barham, HMS Malaya, HMS Warspite damaged).
HMS Malaya, damaged, 10 ratings died of injuries on 1st June, and a further 13 ratings and 2 canteen staff on 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 7th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 15th, 23rd and 24th June:
FOUND, William A, Private, RMLI, 18424 (Po).
HAIGH, Harry, Private, RMLI, 18451 (Po).
LEE, Charles, Private, RMLI, 18419 (Po).
OSTRIDGE, William, Private, RMLI, 18428 (Po).
PORTER, Charles, Private, RMLI, 16901 (Po).
ROGERS, Arthur, Private, RMLI, 10521 (Po).
SOUTER, Samuel, Private, RMLI, 18440 (Po).

Second Light Cruiser Squadron, 4 light cruisers (HMS Dublin, HMS Southampton damaged):
MILLER, Richard T, Private, RMLI, 16072 (Po).
WOODLAND, William H, Private, RMLI, 12390 (Po).

Third Light Cruiser Squadron, 5 light cruisers (HMS Chester damaged):
HMS Chester, damaged, two ratings died of injuries on 1st June and one each on 2nd, 11th, 14th June and 27th July.
HMS Chester:
COOPER, William H, Ship's Corporal 1c, 225272 (Ch).
FASSNIDGE, Edward, Private, RMLI, 20012 (Ch).
GIBBS, John P, Private, RMLI, 16102 (Ch),
GRIMLEY, John M, Private, RMLI, 18024 (Ch).
PATTERSON, William J, Private, RMLI, 10319 (Po).
PRESTON, Thomas, Private, RMLI, 20048 (Ch).
SMITH, William, Private, RMLI, 14230 (Ch).
THORP, Raymond W, Bugler, RMLI, 18245 (Ch).
TUCKER, Albert H, Private, RMLI, 17433 (Ch).

Third Battle Cruiser Squadron (attached) 3 battlecruisers (HMS Invincible lost).
HMS Invincible:
ALLCHIN, George H, Private, RMLI, 10207 (Po).
ASTLE, Reginald H, Private, RMLI, 17356 (Po).
BARKER, Albert W, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13479.
BEATWELL, Ernest, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14398.
BECKETT, William, Musician, RMB, RMB 680.
BONCEY, Joseph J, Private, RMLI, 11603 (Po).
BOOKER, Frank W, Gunner, RMA, RMA 11432.
BROWN, William L, Private, RMLI, 18333 (Po).
BURFORD, William, Private, RMLI, 13944 (Po).
BURT, Alfred, Private, RMLI, 18338 (Po).
CALLIS, Sidney, Musician, RMB, RMB 1599.
CANNINGS, Willie G, Private, RMLI, 18247 (Po).
CARDEN, William F, Private, RMLI, 18183 (Po).
CHAMPION, Henry, Gunner, RMA, RMA 5375.
CHAMPION, William J, Private, RMLI, 15643 (Po).
CHANCE, Thomas J, Band Corporal, RMB, RMB 1031.
CHARLTON, Albert H, Private, RMLI, 7978 (Ply).
CHEESMUR, William S, Private, RMLI, 18276 (Po).
CLAPSON, Joseph, Ships Corporal 1c (Pens), 350021 (Po).
CLARK, Albert E, Musician, RMB, RMB 227.
CLARK, John, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10056.
COLLINS, Henry W, Private, RMLI, 7283 (Po).
COLQUHOUN, Robert C, Major, RM.
COOK, Reginald, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12724.
CORBON, George W M, Ship's Corporal 1c, 178738 (Po).
COX, Henry J, Private, RMLI, 18307 (Po).
CRUICKSHANKS, Robert, Sergeant, RMA, RMA 5526.
DANIELS, Ernest P, Private, RMLI, 14410 (Po).
DAVIS, Arthur V, Private, RMLI, 16715 (Po).
DENT, Harry, Private, RMLI, 18346 (Po).
DENYER, Frank C, Private, RMLI, 16714 (Po).
DEXTER, Edmond C, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12399.
DOLAN, Thomas J, Bombardier, RMA, RMA 12794.
DOLLING, Francis J, Musician, RMB, RMB 1010.
DOLTON, William F, Private, RMLI, 16710 (Po).
DUNDAS, Norman, Private, RMLI, 12917 (Po).
DUNN, Charles A, Musician, RMB, RMB 2262.
DURHAM, Arthur, Private, RMLI, 18357 (Po).
EMMETT, Maurice (real name, but served as Maurice Maher), Musician, RMB, RMB 1509.
EVERETT, George T, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13445.
EVERTON, Samuel, Private, RMLI, 274 (Ply).
FISHER, Herbert C, Private, RMLI, 16711 (Po).
FITZGERALD, Arthur D, Private, RMLI, 16684 (Po).
FLETCHER, James, Private, RMLI, 18358 (Po).
FREEMAN, Edgar, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10425.
FULKER, Charles F, Private, RMLI, 18360 (Po).
GILLMAN, Sidney G, Private, RMLI, 13019 (Po).
HARDING, William S L, Sergeant, RMLI, 9383 (Po).
HEARN, Albert V, Musician, RMB, RMB 1886.
HERRIDGE, George, Private, RMLI, 14195 (Po).
HERRING, William D, Private, RMLI, 16740 (Po).
HIBBERD, Frederick, Private, RMLI, 16713 (Po).
HIGGS, Sidney J, Corporal, RMLI, 14259 (Po).
HOBBS, Harry T, Private, RMLI, 16663 (Po).
HOWARD, Frank, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14243.
HOWARD, John M T, Musician, RMB, RMB 2045.
HUMPHREY, Charles, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14014.
HUTCHINGS, George W, Musician, RMB, RMB 1019.
HYSLOP, Norman, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12687.
JAMIESON, Robert F, Band Corporal, RMB, RMB 1184.
KEAN, John, Private, RMLI, 13732 (Po).
KEAR, William G, Private, RMLI, 14944 (Po).
KELHAM, Ernest, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13448.
KNIGHT, Albion H, Private, RMLI, 10412 (Po).
LE SEELLEUR, John T, Lieutenant, RMLI.
LEESON, Charles, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12221.
LEGG, Reginald, Private, RMLI, 15563 (Po).
LYNCH, John, Private, RMLI, 10585 (Po).
MANN, Ernest, Gunner, RMA, RMA 7006.
MILLARD, George, Private, RMLI, 15817 (Po).
MITCHELL, Walter, Private, RMLI, 15152 (Ply).
MOORE, Edward W, Sergeant, RMA, RMA 7916.
MORRIS, Herbert W, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13797.
NIXON, Albert E, Gunner, RM.
NORMAN, George, Musician, RMB, RMB 408.
ORR, Ernest F J, Private, RMLI, 13892 (Ply).
OTTAWAY, William J, Private, RMLI, 15405 (Po).
PARKER, Frederick W H, Corporal, RMLI, 15023 (Po).
PEARCE, Harry H F, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10567.
PEARSON, Reuben, Private, RMLI, 9217 (Ply).
PHELAN, John D, Bugler, RMLI, 16860 (Po).
REEVES, Robin M, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13456.
RENDALL, Frank H, Private, RMLI, 17293 (Po).
RIDGE, Francis, Musician, RMB, RMB 508.
ROBBINS, Samuel H, Private, RMLI, 15758 (Po).
ROLLS, John, Musician, RMB, RMB 678.
SHANKS, Thomas F, Private, RMLI, 18328 (Po).
SHEARING, Henry W, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10921.
SHERMAN, Arthur, Corporal, RMLI, 14665 (Po).
SIMMS, Albert, Private, RMLI, 18354 (Po).
SPOONER, Albert E, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12022.
STYLES, Albert H, Private, RMLI, 18329 (Po).
SUNDERLAND, Arthur, Private, RMLI, 18347 (Po).
TAYLOR, George E, Private, RMLI, 18316 (Po).
TEBBITT, William T, Bugler, RMA, RMA 13859.
TERRY, Ernest E J, Private, RMLI, S 1015 (Po).
THOMPSON, Frederick J, Private, RMLI, 17921 (Po).
TRICKS, Robert, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10665.
TURTON, Thomas F, Private, RMLI, 16707 (Po).
VINEY, John, Private, RMLI, 18294 (Po).
WAIT, William T, Private, RMLI, 14552 (Po).
WARD, Harry E, Private, RMLI, 14128 (Po).
WATSON, Alfred J, Musician, RMB, RMB 2063.
WHATLEY, William F A, Private, RMLI, 16736 (Po).
WILES, Theodore, Ship's Corporal 1c, 210928 (Po).
WILSON, George, Private, RMLI, 14939 (Po).
WILSON, Thomas, Private, RMLI, 11164 (Ply).
WOOD, Arthur, Private, RMLI, 15626 (Po).
WOOD, Frederick A, Corporal, RMA, RMA 10231.
YOUNGER, William E, Private, RMLI, 11888 (Ply).

First Cruiser Squadron four cruisers (HMS Black Prince, HMS Defence, HMS Warrior lost).
HMS Black Prince:
ARMSTRONG, Alfred J, Private, RMLI, 13778 (Po).
ASPINALL, Frederick S, Private, RMLI, 12580 (P0).
BARSBY, Thomas, Private, RMLI, 8311 (Po).
BLANDFORD, Sidney H, Private, RMLI, 15988 (Po).
BONNER, William, Private, RMLI, 15171 (Po).
BOWERMAN, Charles G, Private, RMLI, 17914 (Po).
BREWERTON, Abraham H, Private, RMLI, 16598 (Po).
BUTLIN, John H, Private, RMLI, 15447 (Ch).
CALLAGHAN, Bernard, Private, RMLI, 17172 (Po).
CHURCHER, Henry J, Private, RMLI, 16556 (Po).
CHURCHILL, Arthur E, Private, RMLI, 15713 (Po).
CONWAY, Harry, Private, RMLI, 14884 (Po).
COWARD, Thomas A, Private, RMLI, 16570 (Po).
CUOMO, Guiseppe, Bandsman, 363248 (Po).
DABBS, William, Private, RMLI, 16599 (Po).
DAVIS, Horace W, Private, RMLI, 17723 (Po).
DELVES-BROUGHTON, Alfred W, Captain, RM.
DENNING, Christian E, Private, RMLI, 17748 (Po).
DROVER, John E J, Private, RMLI, 17684 (Po).
DYER, James, Private, RMLI, 8856 (Po).
ELLIOTT, Henry G, Private, RMLI, 17171 (Po).
EYLES, Bertram A, Private, RMLI, 16333 (Po).
FISHER, James C, Private, RMLI, 16003 (Po).
FLACK, Arthur, Private, RMLI, 16585 (Po).
FORD, Richard H, Private, RMLI, 16569 (Po).
FORMOSA, Angelo, Bandsman, 354720 (Po).
FRENCH, Richard G, Private, RMLI, 16597 (Po).
GASKIN, Luke, Private, RMLI, 17697 (Po).
GIBBINS, George W, Private, RMLI, 15955 (Po).
GINGELL, Joseph F, Private, RMLI, 16630 (Po).
GOODCHILD, Arthur, Private, RMLI, 16348 (Po).
GREEN, George, Private, RMLI, 18483 (Po).
GUNNER, Christopher J, Private, RMLI, 17688 (Po).
HARRIS, Wilfred J, Private, RMLI, 17383 (Po).
HIGGINS, Frederick D Y, Private, RMLI, 16584 (Po).
HOAR, Charles H, Private, RMLI, 16031 (Po).
HOAR, Ernest W, Private, RMLI, 11167 (Po).
HOLT, Ernest A, Private, RMLI, 11268 (Po).
HOOPER, Charles H, Sergeant, RMLI, 12283 (Po).
INGLIS, Charles, Private, RMLI, 16583 (Po).
KIDSTON, Arthur S, Private, RMLI, 17784 (Po).
LANE, William K, Private, RMLI, 16557 (Po).
LEEDHAM, James G, Private, RMLI, 15331 (Ch).
LINSKILL, Frederick C, Private, RMLI, 15120 (Po).
LOCKLEY, Howard F, Corporal, RMLI, 14211 (Po).
LUGG, Reginald F, Private, RMLI, 17692 (Po).
MACDONALD, Thomas, Private, RMLI, 16562 (Po).
MARTIN, Edward, Private, RMLI, 13151 (Po).
MULROONEY, Edward H J, Bugler, RMLI, 18698 (Po).
NASH, Arthur G, Private, RMLI, 17101 (Po).
PARSONS, Roland W, Private, RMLI, 16620 (Po).
PENNY, Frederick C, Private, RMLI, 16610 (Po).
PHILLIPS, Frederick W, Private, RMLI, 16665 (Po).
PICK, Walter, Private, RMLI, 17710 (Po).
PORTOGHESE, Guiseppe, Bandsman, M 4348 (Po).
PORTOGHESI, Enrico, Bandsman, 114422 (Po).
PRICE, William H, Private, RMLI, 16600 (Po).
.PRIMMER, John H, Lance Sergeant, RMLI, 15167 (Po).
PRINCE, James, Corporal, RMLI, 15071 (Po).
READ, Henry W C, Private, RMLI, 8231 (Po).
ROBERTSON, Robert P, Private, RMLI, 16390 (Po).
ROBINSON, William G, Private, RMLI, 17852 (Po).
ROSMONDO, Mattio, Bandsman, 361392 (Po).
RUFF, John, Private, RMLI, 15267 (Po).
SANGER, Frederick, Private, RMLI, 16563 (Po).
SCOTT, Ernest, Private, RMLI, 17927(Po).
SHAW, Richard E, Private, RMLI, 15530 (Po).
SLAYMAKER, Edward T, Corporal, RMLI, 10971 (Po).
SMITH, Valentine, Private, RMLI, 16340 (Po).
SMITH, William J, Private, RMLI, 17751 (Po).
STEINTHAL, Geoffrey R, Act/Lieutenant, RM.
STIMPSON, Sydney A, Private, RMLI, 17924 (Po).
STOUT, Albert E, Colour Sergeant, RMLI, 7785 (Po).
STRANO, Domenico, Bandsman, 353263 (Po).
STRONACH, Charles, Private, RMLI, 15830 (Po).
STUART, William, Private, RMLI, 16616 (Po).
TAWNEY, Cyril V, Bugler, RMLI, 18659 (Po).
TILBURY, Lawrence A, Private, RMLI, 16560 (Po).
TUCKER, Harry, Private, RMLI, 14190 (Po).
TURNER, Henry W W, Private, RMLI, 16512 (Po).
UNGARO, Luigi, Band Corporal, 353485 (Po).
URSO, Giovannai, Bandsman, 356933 (Po).
VINEY, Bertie J, Corporal, RMLI, 15085 (Po).
WHITE, John M, Private, RMLI, 11691 (Po).
WILLS, Arthur S, Private, RMLI, 15597 (Po).
WILSON, Francis A, Private, RMLI, 17602 (Po).

HMS Defence:
ASHE, Robert, Private, RMLI, 15633 (Ply).
AYERS, Bertie W, Gunner, RMA, RMA 11442.
BAGNALL, Leslie J, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13055.
BALDACCHINO, Alberto, Bandsman, 157931.
BANKS, Harry, Private, RMLI, 17898 (Ply).
BEAGLEY, Frederick J, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13061.
BEET, Arthur, Gunner, RMA, RMA 11765.
BENNETT, Courtney W, Private, RMLI, 16123 (Ply).
BLACKMAN, Ernest A, Gunner, RMA, RMA 5538.
BLATCHFORD, Thomas H, Private, RMLI, 15599 (Ply).
BOLDERSTON, James J, Private, RMLI, 17342 (Ply).
BOWDEN, Alfred A T, Gunner, RMA, RMA 10630.
BOYLING, Albert, Private, RMLI, 14997 (Ply).
BROOKS, Francis G, Private, RMLI, 16429 (Ply).
BROWN, Harold, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14451.
BROWN, Lawrence, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14178.
BUCKELL, George H, Bombardier, RMA, RMA 10679.
BULLEN, Albert B, Private, RMLI, 17893 (Ply).
BURDETT, John E, Private, RMLI, 16739 (Ply).
BURRIDGE, Walter G, Private, RMLI, 14775 (Ply).
CARMANDO, Nunzio, Bandsman, 362456.
CAVALLAZZI, Agostino, Bandsman, 354475.
COLES, Albert, Private, RMLI, 6420 (Ply).
COLTON, James L, Lance Sergeant, RMA, RMA 11374.
CONQUEST, Claude F, Bombardier, RMA, RMA 13062.
.CONSIGLIO, Giovanni, Bandsman, 177581.
COOKE, Frederick, Private, RMLI, 15647 (Ply).
COOPER, Herbert J, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14544.
CROSSAN, Thomas L, Private, RMLI, 17318 (Ply).
CROWLEY, Jeremiah, Ship's Corporal 1c, 297253 (Dev).
DANIEL, Frank H, Bugler, RMLI, 16031 (Ply).
DAVIES, David, Gunner, RMA, RMA 11928.
DI MAURO, Virgilio, Chief Bandmaster, 158946.
EDWARDS, Robert, Private, RMLI, 15631 (Ply).
EDWARDS, Stanley F, Corporal, RMLI, 9819 (Ply).
ENGLAND, Albert F, Private, RMLI, 17359 (Ply).
FLINT, William E I, Private, RMLI, 17994 (Ply).
FONDACARO, Nicolo, Band Corporal, 163938.
FURLONG, William, Gunner, RMA, 12643.
GILLARD, William C, Private, RMLI, 17363 (Ply).
GLOVER, Joseph, Private, RMLI, 15628 (Ply).
GOSLIN, Cecil S, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13069.
GOSLING, James T, Sergeant, RMLI, 6621 (Ply).
GRANT, George D, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14651.
GRANT, Stanley W, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14469.
GREENWOOD, Leonard M, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12586.
GURNEY, William A, Gunner, RMA, RMA 6795.
HAMILTON, Alexander D P, Act/Lieutenant, RM.
HOARE, William, Private, RMLI, 15624 (Po).
HUBBARD, William, Colour Sergeant, RMA, RMA 4486.
JOHNSTON, Samuel C, Private, RMLI, 17830 (Ply).
JOLLIFFE, Victor, Act/Bombardier, RMA, RMA 11539.
JORDAN, James R, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13900.
KELLY, Patrick, Private, RMLI, 73880 (Ply).
KEYS, Alfred R, Act/Bombardier, RMA, RMA 13067.
LANGMEAD, Ernest J, Private, RMLI, 15637 (Ply).
LIGRESTISCHIROS, Emanuele, Bandsman, 363072.
LITTON, Tom, Private, RMLI, 13632 (Ply).
LONG, William A, Gunner, RMA, RMA 5271.
LOVEGROVE, Benjamin, Gunner, RMA, RMA 7480.
LYNCH, William, Private, RMLI, 13552 (Ply).
MACLEAN, Parry, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13461.
MCGUIRE, Alfred F, Gunner, RMA, RMA 8863.
MCNAMARA, William, Gunner, RMA, RMA 9609.
MONTESIN, Carmelo, Bandsman, 175642.
MONTGOMERY, John, Private, RMLI, 17190 (Ply).
MORLEY, Walter, Private, RMLI, 12335 (Ply).
MORRIS, Ernest J, Sergeant, RMA, RMA 6892.
MUSCARA, Corrado, Bandsman, 355168.
OSBORN, Samuel F, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14523.
O'SULLIVAN, William H, Ship's Corporal 1c, 217980 (Dev).
PACKER, Henry, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12664.
PITTEY, Charles J, Private, RMLI, 16469 (Ply).
POLATO, Antonio, Bandsman, 353280.
PORTELLI, Enrico, Bandsman, 353781.
PORTER, George, Private, RMLI, 10397 (Ply).
PRESTON, Alfred H S, Sergeant, RMLI, 8306 (Ply).
PRICE, James, Private, RMLI, 14572 (Ply).
PRIDE, James, Private, RMLI, 17756 (Ply).
RICHES, Lewis, Bombardier, RMA, RMA 13054.
RIDD, Albert J, Gunner, RMA, RMA 7827.
RONSISVALLE, Alfredo, Bandsman, 356550.
RUSH, Alfred W, Bugler, RMA, RMA 14253.
RYAN, William, Private, RMLI, 17775 (Ply).
SAINT, Frank P, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14470.
SALTER, Charles B, Ship's Corporal 1c, M 19147 (Dev).
ANDERS, William H D, Private, RMLI, 15062 (Po).
SANDHAM, Frederick J, Private, RMLI, 14180 (Po).
SHORROCKS, Bernard, Private, RMLI, 15632 (Ply).
SINGLETON, Tom, Private, RMLI, 14690 (Ply).
STEPHENSON, Albert V, Private, RMLI, 14109 (Ply).
STEVENSON, John W, Gunner, RMA, RMA 13059.
STOCKDEN, Thomas G, Bombardier, RMA, RMA 12867.
TAYLOR, John, Private, RMLI, 17174 (Ply).
TAYLOR, John C, Ship's Corporal 1c, M 16192 (Dev).
TAYLOR, Philip, Private, RMLI, 13635 (Ply).
TURNER, Bertie, Gunner, RMA, RMA 14531.
VENTURI, Roberto, Bandsman, 168700.
WALDEN, George W, Private, RMLI, 17781 (Ch).
WALKER, William, Gunner, RMA, RMA 12638.
WHIDDON, Albert, Corporal, RMLI, 15247 (Ply).
WILLIAMS, Sidney J, Private, RMLI, 15622 (Ply).
WOOD, Arthur W, Private, RMLI, 14132 (Ply).

HMS Warrior - damaged on 31st May, sank 1st June one rating each died of wounds on 1st, 3rd, 5th and 11th June.
HMS Warrior:
LETHEREN, Arthur G, Private, RMLI, 15588 (Ply).
TROTT, Frederick G, Ship's Corporal 1c, M 6036 (Dev).
WILLERTON, William, Bugler, RMA, RMA 7861.
Fourth Light Cruiser Squadron 5 light cruisers (HMS Calliope damaged) and 1 attached HMS Calliope, two rating died of injuries on 1st June, and one on 3rd:
BALCOMBE, Archer W, Sergeant, RMLI, 15620 (Ch).
HORSFALL, Frederick T, Private, RMLI, 10018 (Ch).

Eleventh Destroyer Flotilla 1 light cruiser (HMS Castor damaged), 1 flotilla leader, 14 destroyers (no lives lost).
HMS Castor, light cruiser, damaged:
FLORY, Albert E, Bugler, RMLI, 18169 (Po).

Thursday 1st June 1916.
Battle Fleet, Fourth Destroyer Flotilla, 2 flotilla leaders (HMS Broke damaged on 31st May, HMS Tipperary sunk on 1st June), 17 destroyers (HMS Shark, HMS sunk, HMS Acasta, HMS Porpoise, HMS Spitfire damaged on 31st May, HMS Ardent, HMS Fortune, HMS Sparrowhawk sunk on 1st June).
HMS Tipperary, Flotilla leader, sunk:
HICKS, William H C, Private, RMLI, 15272 (Po).
HOWARD, Temple, Private, RMLI, 15111 (Po).
LEVER, George, Private, RMLI, 5812 (Po).
SAFFERY, Henry T, Private, RMLI, 14720 (Po).
SMALLEY, William, Sergeant, RMLI, 7037 (Po).
STEWART, Neil, Private, RMLI, 15056 (Po).
WARREN, Arthur A E W, Private, RMLI, 16891 (Po).
WATERS, Charles, Private, RMLI, 16359 (Ch).

Died of wounds or injuries sustained in earlier actions.

Battle Cruiser Fleet:
HMS Malaya, Dreadnought battleship, Fifth Battle Squadron, damaged on 31st May:
MABBETT, Frank, Private, RMLI, 7273 (Po).
REDMOND, Michael, Private, RMLI, 687 (Po).

Battle Fleet:
HMS Calliope, light cruiser, Fourth Light Cruiser Squadron, damaged on 31st May:
COLLINS, William A, Private, RMLI, 19073 (Ch).

In all, 593 Royal Marines including bandsmen lost their lives during this sea battle alone.

1916. Monday 5th June. The Empire sustained an Irreparable loss, when HMS Hampshire, which was conveying Lord Kitchener and his staff to Russia, struck a mine off the Orkneys and was lost with all hands, except a few who were rescued from a raft. The Royal Marines in the Batteries at Hoy (Orkneys) found themselves helpless spectators and could only watch her sink, and search the shore for any survivors who might have been washed up in the rough seas. Captain C.S. Hazeon RMLI, who had narrowly escaped being blown up in HMS Natal, and 63 NCO’s and men of the RMLI were drowned.

1916. Wednesday 7th June. Royal Marines from HMS Talbot involved in the occupation of Tanga East Africa.

1916. Saturday 24th June. Royal Marines Cyclist Company of the Royal Naval Division disbanded while in Flanders France.

1916. Saturday 24th June. Headquarters AA Battalion RMA returned to England.

1916. Saturday 1st July. The Battle of the Somme Commenced - RMA Howitzer Brigade on the Western Front.

1916. Sunday 2nd July. The Royal Naval Brigade was broken up, and the staff joined the 3rd (Royal Marine) Brigade.

1916. Saturday 1st - 13th July. The Battle of Albert - RMA Howitzer Brigade on the Western Front.

1916. Wednesday 13th July. 1/RMLI take over trenches for the first time.

1916. Thursday 14th - 17th July. The Battle of Bazentin Ridge - No's 1, 2, 3 and 10 RMA Howitzers on the Western Front.

1916. Friday 15th July - 3rd September. The Battle of Delville Wood - No3 RMA Howitzer on the Western Front.

1916. Thursday 20th July. Royal Navy renumbered 63rd Royal Naval Division on the Western Front.

1916. Saturday 22nd - 26th July. HMS Talbot bombarded Bwem Bluff and Royal Marines landed at Pangani in East Africa.

1916. Sunday 23rd July - 3rd September. The Battle of Pozieres Ridge - No's 1, 2 and 10 RMA Howitzers on the Western Front.

1916. Thursday 27th - 29th July. Seamen and Royal Marines from HMS Talbot captured the village of Mkwadja in East Africa.

1916. Thursday 27th July. 1st Reserve Battalion RMLI formed at Blandford.

1916. Thursday 27th July. Royal Marine School of Musketry created at Browndown (later SASRM).

1916. Tuesday 1st August. Royal Marines from HMS Talbot with the gunboat HMS Thistle occupied Sadani in East Africa.

1916. Thursday 10th August. HMS India, armed merchant cruiser, torpedoed off Norway, 9 Royal Marines were lost.

1916. Tuesday 15th August. Royal Marines from HMS Talbot, HMS Vengeance and HMS Challenger captured Bagamoyo in East Africa.

1916. Thursday 17th August. 1st and 2nd Battalion RMLI carried out reconnaissance patrols at Angres on the Western Front.

1916. Saturday 19th August. Cruisers in action against submarines and light forces in the North Sea.

1916. Monday 21st August. Bombardment of Dar-Es-Salaam by HMS Talbot, HMS Vengeance and HMS Challenger in East Africa.

1916. Saturday 26th August. No 15 Royal Marine Battery occupied Morogoro in East Africa.

1916. Saturday 2nd - 5th September. Royal Marines from HMS Talbot, HMS Vengeance and HMS Challenger' occupied Dar-Es-Salaam in East Africa.

1916. Sunday 3rd - 6th September. The Battle of Guillemont - No's 3 and 10 RMA Howitzers on the Western Front.

1916. Thursday 7th September. Kilwa Kiwimc, and Kilwa Kisiwane surrendered to a Royal Marine force.

1916. Saturday 9th September. The Battle of Ginchy - No's 3 and 10 RMA Howitzers.

1916. Wednesday 13th September. A Royal Marines Force embarked in HMS Himalaya and landed at Mikindani in East Africa.

1916. Friday 15th - 22nd September. The Battle of Flers-Courcellette - No's 2 and 10 RMA Howitzers on the Western Front.

1916. Sunday 17th September. A Royal Marine force embarked in HMS Himalaya and later occupied Lindi in East Africa.

1916. Monday 18th September. HMS Challenger occupied Kiswere in East Africa.

1916. Monday 25th - 28th September. The Battle of Morval - No's 1 and 2 RMA Howitzers on the Western Front.

1916. Tuesday 26th - 28th September. The Battle of Thiepval Ridge - No's 1, 2 and 5 RMA Howitzers on the Western Front.

1916. Sunday 1st - 18th October. The Batttle of the Transloy Ridge - No 3 RMA Howitzers on the Western Front.

1916. Tuesday 10th - 11th October. The Battle of the Ancre Heights - No's 1, 2, 4, 5, 10 and 12 RMA Howitzers on the Western front.

1916. Wednesday 11th October. Royal Marines from HMS Exmouth and HMS Duncan occupied Lipso Island in Greece.

1916. Friday 13th October. General Paris, Commanding Royal Naval Division was wounded.

1916. Monday 13th - 15th November. The Battle of the Ancre-Beaumont Hamel - the 63rd Royal Naval Division and 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, and 12 RMA Howitzers.

1916. Friday 24th November. The 3rd Royal Marine Battalion took over the Garrison on the Aegean Islands.

1916. Friday 24th November. The Portsmouth Division RMLI Band sent to France for temporary duty on the Western Front.

1916. Friday 1st December. An RMLI Company inluded in the force landed at Athens in Greece.

1916. The pattern 1914 rifle was produced by three US firms after British manufacturers delay production.

1916. Corporal Norman Finch was promoted to the rank of and Sergeant.

1917. Monday 1st - 2nd January. No 15 Royal Marine Battery in action at Mgeta in East Africa.

1917. Monday 1st January. HMS Cornwallis was sunk in the Mediterranean with the loss of 3 Royal Marines.

1917. Friday 12th January. Royal Marines from HMS Topaz in the landing to capture Salif from the Turks in the Red Sea. The remote and mountainous country of Yemen was in 1917 theoretically part of the Turkish Empire, however during preceding years the Imam of Yemen had loosened Turkish ties so that only in the capital Sanaa, and in Red Sea coastal ports such as Hodeida, and along the Aden border was Turkish military authority paramount. The Turks in Yemen were confronting British troops across the border on Aden territory with what resources they possessed, but basically Yemen was a backwater. Lawrence of Arabia’s line-cutting exploits on the Hedjaz Railway ensured that reinforcements and military weapon and ammunition re-supplies did not get through. The Conspicuous Gallantry Medal was award, to James Francis McLoughlin Po. 8873 of the Royal Marine Light Infantry. For conspicuous gallantry during the capture of Salif. Just before its surrender he came across 11 unwounded and one wounded Turkish soldiers. Followed by one petty officer, Sergeant McLoughlin jumped among them, shooting one, and made seven of them surrender. Henry George Bartlett Po. 15558 of the Royal Marine Light Infantry. For conspicuous gallantry during the capture of Salif, he Single handed entered a hut occupied by two unwounded and one wounded Turks and three Arabs and took them prisoner. Henry George Bartlett of the Royal Marine Light Infantry was the third Royal Marine to be awarded the Conspicuous Gallantry medal, for Conspicuous Gallantry at the capture of Salif. When he single handed entered a hut occupied by two unwounded and one wounded Turk and three arabs and took them prisoners.

The Royal Navy maintained a blockade of Red Sea ports to prevent arms traffic, but this was not fully effective as British political considerations allowed ‘friendly’ nations to trade across the Red Sea without too much interference. Since 1915 the largest Yemeni island in the Red Sea, Kamaran, had been garrisoned by Indian Army troops based in Aden; this island was a quarantine station for pilgrims traveling to Mecca and there were some large and useful structures on it.

Opposite Kamaran was the small Yemeni town and port of Salif, garrisoned by around 100 Turkish troops with a few artillery pieces. Before the war the Turks had exported local rock-salt deposits from Salif, and a British company had been contracted to upgrade the port facilities. This company, Messrs Sir John Jackson Limited, had evacuated Salif quickly when hostilities were declared between Turkey and Britain, leaving some valuable heavy plant and equipment behind.

1917. Friday 2nd February. RMA Heavy Siege Train formed at Dunkirk.

1917. Friday 2nd February. Royal Marine Labour Corps formed at Deal.

1917. Tuesday 6th - 7th February. 2/RMLI occupied Grandcourt on the Western Front.

1917. Saturday 17th - 18th February. 1/RMLI and 2/RMLI in action at Miraumont on the Western Front.

1917. Friday 16th March. HMS Achilles sunk the German Raider Leopard in the North Sea.

1917. Friday 16th March. 'B' Battery AA Brigade armed with 3 inch guns at Dunkirk.

1917. Friday 16th March. 6 inch guns mounted and manned by Royal Marines at North Foreland.

1917. Friday 16th March. The Royal Naval Division Engineers transferred from the Royal Marines to the Royal Engineers on the Western Front.

1917. Saturday 7th April. While on the Western front Major Frederick William Lumsden DSO RMA (1872–1918) was awarded the Victoria Cross. His citation was published in 'The London Gazette,' No. 30122, dated Friday 8th June 1917, records the following and reads: For most conspicuous bravery, determination and devotion to duty. Six enemy field guns having been captured, it was necessary to leave them in dug-in positions, 300 yards in advance of the position held by our troops. The enemy kept the captured guns under heavy fire. Major Lumsden undertook the duty of bringing the guns into our lines. In order to effect this, he personally led four artillery teams and a party of infantry through the hostile barrage. As one of these teams sustained casualties, he left the remaining teams in a covered position, and, through very heavy rifle, machine gun and shrapnel fire, led the infantry to the guns. By force of example and inspiring energy he succeeded in sending back two teams with guns, going through the barrage with the teams of the third gun. He then returned to the guns to await further teams, and these he succeeded in attaching to two of the three remaining guns, despite rifle fire, which had become intense at short range, and removed the guns to safety. By this time the enemy, in considerable strength, had driven through the infantry covering points, and blown up the breach of the remaining gun. Major Lumsden then returned, drove off the enemy, attached the gun to a team and got it away.

1917. Monday 9th - 14th April. The Battle of Vimy Ridge on the Western Front. The 1/RMLI, No's 1, 11, and 12 RMA Howitzers were involved.

1917. Monday 9th - 14th April. The first Battle of Scarpe on the Western Front involved No's 3, 4, 6 and 10 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Saturday 21st April. HMS Swift and HMS Broke in action against German Destroyers off Dover in the English Channel.

1917. Monday 23rd - 24th April. The second Battle of the Scarpe on the Western Front involved No 11 RMA Howitzer.

1917. Saturday 28th -29th April. The Battle of Arleux on the Western Front involved 1/RMLI No's 10 and 11 Howitzers.

1917. Saturday 28th April. The capture of Gavrelle Windmill on the Western Frontinvolved 2/RMLI.

1917. May. The 25th Anniversary Edition of the 'Globe & Laurel' by editor Lieutenant Colonel F. P. Drury RMLI. At this point in the Journal's history its production had rotated between Divisions, utilising officers with capacity to edit the magazine. The editorship changed frequently depending on the officer's deployment. Lieutenant Colonel F.P.Drury RMLI was the first editor to be named in the Journal. Lieutenant Colonel Drury, an accomplished novelist and playwright with some of his works being made into movies in the 1920's, retired to the West Country, becoming the Mayor of Saltashe from 1929 - 31.

1917. Thursday 3rd - 4th May. The third Battle of the Scarpe on the Western Front involved No's 5 and 6 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Saturday 5th - 17th May. The Battle of Bullecourt on the Western Front involved No's 5 and 6 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Saturday 12th May. Royal Marine Detachments leave England with guns for coastal defence in the West Indies.

1917. Tuesday 15th May. HMS Bristol and HMS Dartmouth in action against Austrian Cruisers in the Adriatic.

1917. Sunday 20th May - 16th June. Actions along the Hindenburg Line involved No's 3, 4, and 6 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Sunday 3rd - 25 June. Souchez River on the Western Front invoved No's 1 and 11 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Thursday 7th June. The Battle of Meesines on the Western Front involved No's 2, 5, and 8 Howitzers.

1917. Tuesday 26th - 29th June. The capture of Avion on the Western Front involved No's 1 and 11 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Thursday 28th June. The capture of Oppy Wood on the Western Front involved No 12 Howitzer.

1917. Thursday 28th June. The first attack on Bullecourt on the Western Front involved No 11 RMA Howitzer.

1917. Thursday 28th June. The inspection of RMLI Battalion on the Western Front by Lord Charles Beresford.

1917. June - July. Royal Marines from HMS 'Talbot' landed for the defence of Port Amelia in East Africa.

1917. Monday 9th July. HMS Vanguard blew up and sank, 90 Royal Marines were lost.

1917. Tuesday 10th - 11th July. German Attack on Nieuport on the Western Front involved No's 2 and 5 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Tuesday 10th July. Heavy Casualties when No 12 Howitzer was shelled in Ypres on the Western Front.

1917. Sunday 15th July. Cruiser Action in the North Sea.

1917. Tuesday 31st July. Enemy shelling blew up RMA AA Brigade Ammunition Dump at Nieuport on the Western Front.

1917. Wednesday 1st - 2nd August. The Battle of Pilkem Ridge on the Western Front involved No's 4, 6, 11 and 12 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Friday 3rd August. RMA Battery successfully outgunned Germans at Tandamuti in East Africa.

1917. Wednesday 15th - 25th August. The Battle of Hill 70 on the Western Front involved No 1 RMA Howitzer.

1917. Thursday 16th - 18th August. The Battle of Langemarck on the Western Front involved No's 4, 6, 11 and 12 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Saturday 18th August. Guns which left England in May ready for action in the West Indies.

1917. Thursday 20th - 25th September. The Battle on Menin Road on the Western Front involved No's 4, 6, 11 and 12 Howitzers.

1917. Thursday 20th September. Increase of RMA Garrisson when RGA(T) ranks were withdrawn from Scapa Flow.

1917. Thursday 4th October. The Battle of Broodseinde on the Western Front involved No's 4, 6, 8, 11 and 12 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Tuesday 9th October. The Battle of Poelcapelle on the Western Front involved No's 4, 6, 8, 11 and 12 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Tuesday 9th October. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between Russia and Germany, Austria, Hungary and Allies, on the Eastern Front.

1917. Friday 12 October. The 1st Battle of Passchendaele on the Western Front involved No's 4, 6, 11 and 12 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Friday 12th October - 26th November. The 2nd Battle of Passchendaele on the Western Front involved the 1st and 2nd No's 4, 6, 11 and 12 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Saturday 27th October. Royal Marine Officers and NCO's directing fire of Monitors during the third Battle of Gaza in Palistine.

1917. Saturday 3rd November. A large number of British Cruisers in action in the North Sea.

1917. Saturday 17th November. A large number of British Cruisers in action in the North Sea.

1917. Tuesday 20th November - 3rd December. The Battle of Cambraion on the Western Front involved No's 1 and 10 RMA Howitzers.

1917. Friday 30th November. No1 RMA Howitzer at Gouzeaucourt on the Western Front.

1917. Friday 30th November. The Royal Marines assumed overall responsibility for the Aegean Islands.

1917. Sunday 16th December. No1 (Home Service) Labour Company formed at Mining Depot, Granton Edinburgh.

1917. The abolition of a fee to a Drum Major for training of Buglers.

1917. November. The Women's Royal Naval Service was formed. Women were allowed to enlist in the Auxiliary Services with WRNS (The Women’s Royal Naval Service or ‘Wrens’), when serving with the Royal Marines they were known as ‘Marens’. Wrens and Maren’s were stationed at each of the barracks and undertook a wide range of shore-based duties, such as clerks, mess waitresses, cooks, wireless telegraphers and boat crew members. The Admiralty restricted the WRNS to 3,000 women who were only allowed to do shore service. Their number eventually doubled, as Wrens were able to undertake many different jobs for which women had been thought unsuitable.

1917. Sunday 30th December. Lt. T. Thomas Westby MC. MID. RMLI. (190th Brigade Machine Gun Company. RND France 1917, MC Passchendaele Friday 26th October 1917.  Killed in Action (KIA) on Sunday 30th December 1917, at Welch Ridge. Born Wathe-on-Dearne Saturday 24th August 1895.
Eldest son of Francis Wasing Westby, educated at Rothwell, Leeds and the Holgate Grammar School, Barnsley. Pre-war worked on the staff of the Union of London and Smith's Bank.
He Joined the Inns of Court OTC early 1915 age 19. Granted a Temporary Commission as 2nd Lt. RM on Wednesday 10th November 1915. Awarded the Military Cross 30th November 1917, published in the London Gazette Friday 18th January 1918 for gallantry at Passchendaele on Friday 26th October 1917 whilst in charge of four mobile machine guns, after making a reconnaissance under heavy fire, disposed them with such skill that he achieved his task with negligible casualties.Mentioned in Dispatch of Field Marshal, Commander-in-Chief, the British Armies in France, for gallant service & devotion to duty, Published in the London Gazette on Friday 7th December 1917.

1918. Thursday 3rd January. The Bombardment of Yarmouth on the UK East Coast.

1918. Sunday 20th January. Sortie of the Goeben and Breslau, a camp of 3 RM Battalion at Imbros shelled in the Dardanelles.

1918. Monday 21st January. Royal Marine Batteries leave for the UK from East Africa.

1918. Monday 21st January. The Royal Marine Garrison for coastal defence increased on the Shetland Islands.

1918. Wednesday 14th February. Brigades of the 63rd Royal Naval Division reorganised into three Battelions on the Western Front.

1918. Thursday 21st February. 4th Royal Marines Battalion concentrated to train at Deal for a raid on Zeebrugge.

1918. Thursday 21st February. The 5th Battalion was formed for anti submarine and AA duties with the Dover Patrol.

1918. Friday 1st March. 63rd Royal Naval Division Machine Gun Battalion formed on the Western Front.

1918. Thursday 7th March. On 7 March 1918, His Majesty King George V visited the Depot Royal Marines, at Deal in Kent. On this occasion he inspected Royal Marines Recruit squads, and took the salute of the 4th Battalion at a March Past. Six weeks later the 4th Battalion were to storm ashore on to the Mole in the raid on Zeebrugge, where they won great fame and two Victoria Crosses. To mark his visit, His Majesty directed that the senior Recruit squad in Royal Marines training would in future be known as the King's Squad. He also directed that his Royal Cypher, surrounded by a Laurel Wreath, would be known as the King's Badge, and would be awarded to the best all round recruit in the King's Squad, provided that he was worthy of the honour. The badge was to be carried on the left shoulder, and worn in every rank. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II was graciously pleased to approve that the custom and privilege of the King's Squad remain unaltered. The King's Badge is not awarded to every squad, and is only presented if a Recruit measures up to the very exacting standards required.

1918. Corps strength at that time was 55,000.

1918. Saturday 9th March. A trench raid by 2/RMLI on the Western Front.

1918. Monday 18th March. The Bombardment of Carac Battery of the RMA heavy Siege Train at Dunkirk.

1918. Tuesday 21st March. The Battle of St Quentin, and retreat commenced.

1918. Wednesday 22nd March. 2/RMLI repulsed an attack in Havincourt Wood on the Western Front.

1918. Wednesday 22nd March. No1 RMA Howitzer in action near Metz during German offensive on the Western Front.

1918. Wednesday 22nd March. No10 RMA Howitzer in action at Havrincourt Wood before being dismounted on the Western Front.

1918. Thursday 23rd March. Sergeant Norman Finch joined the 4th Battalion.

1918. Sunday 24th - 25th March. 63rd Royal Naval Division engaged in the 1st Battle of Bapaume on the Western Front.

1918. Sunday 24th March. 63rd Royal Naval Division in action at Bertincourt on the Western Front.

1918. Monday 25th March. 188 Brigade Rear Guard Action at Thiepval-Martinpuich on the Western Front.

1918. Tuseday 26th March. No6 RMA Howitzer shelled when dismounted at Neuville Vitasse on the Western Front.

1918. Tuesday 26th March. The 63rd Royal Naval Division withdrew across the Ancre river, on the Western Front.

1918. Wednesday 27th March. A Counter attack by 188 Brigade in Aveluy Wood on the Western Front.

1918. Wednesday 27th March. Royal Marine Engineers commenced to form with an HQ at Chatham.

1918. Monday 1st April. The RNAS and RFC merged and became the Royal Air Force. Ten former RM officers transferred to the new service. The first Chief of Air Staff was (by then) Major General F H Sykes a former, albeit temporary, Colonel RM.

1918. Wednesday 3rd April. Royal Marines from HMS Suffolk landed at Vladivostock in Siberia.

1918. Friday 5th April. A Counter attack by RMLI Battalion in Aveluy Woods on the Western Front.

1918. Saturday 6th April. 4th Battalion embarked and orders were issued for the Raid on the Zeebrugge Mole but were later postponed.

1918. Wednesday 10th - 11th April. The Battle of Messines on the Western Front involved No's 4 and 5 RMA Howitzers.

1918. Wednesday 10th April. No5 RMA Howitzer at Kemmel on the Western Front were ordered to retire and demolish gun.

1918. Tuesday 23rd April. A 'Corps Remembrance Day' and the St Georges day raids on Zeebrugge and Ostend. The 4th battalion Royal Marines formed the landing force for the raid in which two Victoria Cross's were awarded to members of the Corps. The battle took place at Zeebrugge in Belgium. It was mounted by two thousand men of the Royal Navy and Royal Marines under the command of Vice-Admiral Sir Roger Keyes. This port was a base for German submarines, from which they attacked and sank Allied shipping. They accounted for over a third of all the tonnage sunk in World War One. It was vital that this port was denied to them and this raid was to ensure that it was. The battle was fierce and the attacking force faced fierce opposition and suffered heavy losses. Marines and Sailors landed on the Mole and stormed the enemy defence. Whilst the fighting was in progress three 'blocking' ships (HMS Thetis, HMS Intrepid and HMS Iphiginia and also HM Submarine C3) were scuttled, rendering the trapped German submarines useless. Royal Marines played a major role in the raid, when the Royal Navy tried to block the Belgian port of Bruges. Two of three block-ships were scuttled in the narrowest part of the Bruges Canal and one of two submarines rammed the viaduct, which linked the shore and the mole, to isolate the German garrison. However, the block-ships were sunk in the wrong place and the canal was re-opened after a just few days to submarines at high tide. The British casualties were numbered 583 men while the Germans lost 24 men. The raid was publicised as a great British Victory and many medals were awarded.

Sergeant Norman Augustus Finch RMA (26th December 1890 - 15th March 1964), was the second in command of the pom-pom and Lewis gun in the exposed foretop of HMS Vindictive. During one period, the Vindictive sustained hits every few seconds. The officer in command and Finch maintained a continuous covering fire. Two heavy enemy shells hit them directly on the foretop, killing or disabling the others. While severely wounded, Sergeant Finch kept harassing the enemy, entrenched on the Mole, from his battered and exposed position. Another direct hit finally put the rest of the armament out of action.

Whereas Sergeant Finch had been selected for the award of the Victoria Cross by his fellow Royal Marines on account of his indomitable spirit initiative and daring despite Captain Bamford being wounded. Captain Edward Bamford DSO RMLI (28th May 1887- 29th September 1928) was chosen for his award of the decoration on the grounds of his magnificent example, of leadership under fire. The account of Captain Edward Bamford of the Royal Marines Light Infantry was that on the night of the 22nd and 23rd of April 1918, from HMS Vindictive, landed under great difficulty in the darkness. On the Mole with three platoons of Royal Marines In the face of intensive enemy fire and led the Company with great disregard for personal danger, setting a magnificent example to his men. When he was satisfied with the safe establishment of the first strong point, he then led his men in an assault on an enemy battery on the left.

Both Captain Bamford and Sergeant Finch VC's were published in the London Gazette on 23rd July 1918.

After the St Georges day raid on Zeebrugge, in the selection of the Men to receive the Victoria Cross Rule thirteen was not strictly adhered to in this instance. It is believed that it was the intention to award just one VC and it is clear that only one ballot took place. The evidence being the results of the vote by the members of the 4th Battalion. In fact two men were awarded the Victoria Cross from the ballot held on the 26th April at the Royal Marine Depot at Deal. The ballot contained both Officers and Men of the 4th Battalion, contravening Rule 13 of The Royal Warrant for the Victoria Cross, dated the 29th of January 1856. The men were assembled on the Parade ground, where slips of voting paper were handed to those present. (It is not known whether the hospital wounded voted or not, but it is known that they were included in the ballot.) The ballot resulted in two Victoria Cross's being awarded, to Sergeant Norman Finch with 91 votes, and Captain Edward Bamford 64 Votes.

Ballot paper from

1918. Monday 29th April. The Battle of Schepenberg Ridge on the Western Front involved No 12 RMA Howitzer.

1918. Monday 29th April. The Amalgamation of 1/RMLI and 2/RMLI as 1/RMLI on the Western Front.

1918. Monday 29th April. Royal Marine Recruits lent to Royal Aggison Artillery for 3 month period to man Coastal Defence Batteries.

1918. Monday 29th April. Royal Marines establishment Bases at Kyles of Lock Alsh and Inverness, etc for UK coastal defence.

1918. Friday 3rds May. No 527 Siege Battery mobilised for service with the RGA in France.

1918. Tuesday 7th May. No 525 Siege Battery mobilised for service with the RGA in France.

1918. Wednesday 8th - 10th May. A Royal Marine detachment of HMS Colhrane landed to defend Pechenga in North Russia.

1918. Thursday 9th May. No 526 Siege battery mobilised for service with the RGA in France.

1918. Friday 10th May.  No 528 Siege Battery mobilised for service with the RGA in France.

1918. Saturday 18th - 19th May. An outpost raid by 1/RMLI at Hamel on the Western Front.

1918. Monday. 20th May. Royal Marines Force embarked from Newcastle in the UK for service in North Russia.

1918. Friday 24th - 25th May. 1/RMLI raided German trenches in the Ancre Valley on the Western Front.

1918. Friday 31st May. Royal Marines Field force lands at Murmansk in Russia.

1918. June. Owing to difficulties at RM Divisional HQ in training Buglers to replace those transferring to the ranks, twelve boys were enlisted at the Depot RM Deal for training as Buglers. Four would be transferred to each RMLI Division. On completion they will be transferred to their Divisional HQ and further Buglers trained in their place.

1918. Sadurday 8th June. Royal Marines Field Force Officers and NCO's sent to raise Finnish Legion in Northern Russia.

1918. Saturday 29th - 30th June. Royal Marines Field Force disarmed Bolsheviks in Northern Russia.

1918. Saturday 29th June. Royal Marines from HMS Suffolk disarmed Bolsheviks at Vladivostock in Siberia.

1918. Saturday 29th June. Royal Marines from HMS Talbot landed at Quilimane, Zambesi River mouth in East Africa.

1918. Saturday 29th June. Special Battery from the RMA AA Brigade arrived in Dunkirk from Chatham.

1918. Sunday 7th July. Royal Marines from HMS Attentive restored order at Soroka in Northern Russia.

1918. Wednesday 17th July. The Finnish Legion in action near the Finnish Frontier North Russia.

1918. Wednesday 17th July. Royal Marines Guard formed from the 3rd Royal Marines Battalion in Corfu.

1918. Thursday 1st August. A detachment from Royal Marines Field Force was involved in the capture of the Modjyuski Batteries in North Russia.

1918. Thursday 8th August. The Commencement of the British Offensive on the Western Front.

1918. Tursday 8th - 28th August. Royal Marines from HMS Suffolk on the Ussuri River Operations.

1918. Sunday 11th August. Royal Marines from HMS Jono and HMS Diana leave Basra in Iraq to join the 'Dunster' 'Force.

1918. Sunday 18th August. Action of Outsteen Redge on the Western Front involved No4 RMA Howitzer.

1918. Sunday 18th August. No's 5 and 6 RMA Howitzers formed No 1 Siege Battery, RMA at Audricq on the Western Front.

1918. Wednesday 21st - 23rd August. The Battle of Albert at Logeast Wood on the Western Front involved the 63rd Royal Naval Division and No's 3 and 10 RMS Howitzers.

1918. Sunday 25th August. Action at Grevillers and Les Barque on the Western Front involved the 63rd Royal Naval Division.

1918. Monday 26th August - 15th September. Part of the 'Dumpster' Force in the Siege and Evacuation of Baku on the Caspian Sea.

1918. Thursday 29th August. Armoured Train with guns manned by Royal Marines from HMS Suffolk left Vladivostock for the River Volga in Siberia.

1918. Saturday 31st August - 2nd September. The second Battle of Bapaume on the Western Front involved the 63rd Royal Naval Division and No 3 RMA Howitzer.

1918. Monday 2nd - 3rd September. The Battle of Drocourt-Queant Line on the Western Front involved the 63rd Royal Naval Division.

1918. Wednesday 4th September. The attack on Canal du Nord on the Western Front involved the 63rd Royal Naval Division.

1918. Thursday 5th September. Guns and Royal Marines from 'Dumpster' Force leave Ruz on the Caspian Sea.

1918. Thursday 12th September. The Battle of Havrincourt on the Western Front involved the No 3 RMA Howitzer.

1918. Saturday 14th September. Royal Marines in the monitor HMS M25 in action at Chamova, on the River Dwina in Northern Russia.

1918. Wednesday 18th September. The Battle of Epehy on the Western Front involved No 3 RMA Howirzer.

1918. Friday 27th September. The Battle of Canal du Nord on the Western Front involved the 63rd Royal Naval Division and No's 1, 3 and 8 RMA Howitzer.

1918. Friday 27th September. The capture of Anneux on the Western Front involved the 63rd Royal Naval Division.

1918. Saturday 28th September. A 9.2 inch Gun on a Railway Mounting supported the Offensive - No 1 RMA Siege Battery on the Western Front.

1918. Saturday 28th - 29th September. The Bridging of Canal de L'Escaut on the Western Front involved the 63rd Royal Naval Division.

1918. Saturday 28th September - 3rd October. The Battle of Ypres on the Western Front involved the 63rd Royal Naval Division.

1918. Sunday 29th September. The Seizing of a Crossing of the Escaul on the Western Front involved the Drake and Hawke Battalions.

1918. Sunday 29th - 30th September. The attacks on Cambrai on the Western Front involved 188 and 190 Brigades.

1918. Sunday 29th September - 2nd October. The Battle of St Quentin Canal on the Western Front involved No 1 RMA Siege Battery and No's 5, 6 and 12 RMA Howitzers.

1918. Monday 30th September. Bulgaria Surrendered on the Southern Front.

1918. Tuesday 1st October. The attack on strong point at Cambrai on the Western Front involved D Company 1/RMLI.

1918. Monday 5th - 7th October. The Battle of Sambro by 63rd Royal Naval Division.

1918. Monday 7th October. The formation of 'A' Hun Battery from 1 RMA Siege Battery on the Western Front.

1918. Tuesday 8th - 9th October. The Battle of Cambrai and Capture of Niergnies on the Western Front involved the 63rd Royal Naval Division and No 8 RMA Howitzeron.

1918. Thursday 10th October. 'B' AA Battery at Nieuport fired its last shot on the Western Front.

1918. Wednesday 11th October. An Armoured Train arrived at Ufa South Russia.

1918. Saturday 12th October. No's 11 and 12 RMA Howitzers formed No 2 RMA Siege Battery on the Western Front.

1918. Monday 14th - 16th October. RMA Heavy Siege Train supported offensive in Belgium.

1918. Thursday 17th - 25th October. The Battle of Selle on the Western Front involved 'A' Hun RMA Battery.

1918. Thursday 31st October.The Armistice with Turkey was signed aboard HMS Agamemnon at Mudros.

1918. Thursday 31st October. Merchant ships seized and converted into warships on the Caspian Sea.

1918. Monday 4th November. An armistice was signed with Austria.

1918. Monday 5th - 11th November. The pursuit to Mons by 63rd Royal Naval Division.

1918. Saturday 9th November. HMS Britannia was torpedoed by a submarine off Cape Trafalgar (12 Royal Marines were lost).

1918. Monday 11th November. The capture of Mons on the Western Front by 63rd Royal Naval Division .

1918. Monday 11th November at 0550. H.L. Eaves of the 13th Hussars B Company had the honour of sending a wireless message that was to end the First World War. The original message was in French, and read: The Commandant in Chief orders that hostilities that are happening on all of the fronts are to cease at 11th November at 11 o’clock for all the troops and allies. They are to wait until news of where to go and at what hour. Signed Marshal Foch 0550.

1918. A total of five Royal Marines were awarded the Victoria Cross during the First World War, two at Zeebrugge, one at Gallipoli, one at sea during the battle of Jutland and one on the Western Front.

1918. Tuesday 12th November. 3rd Royal Marine Battalion occupied the Turkish Forts in the Bosphorus and dismantled the guns.

1918. Tuesday 12th November. Headed by HMS Superb the Allied Fleet passed through to Constantinople.

1918. Thursday 14th November. Guard of Honour from HMS Superb at Constantinople for the GOC.

1918. Friday 15th November. An element of 1/RMLI took part in the official entry into Mons, on the Western Front.

1918. Saturday 16th November. HMS Suffolk's Armoured Train in action on the river Volga in North Russia.

1918. Thursday 21st November. Almost 5,000 Royal Marines were at the Surrender of the German High Seas Feet at Rosyth, Scappa Flow.

1918. Sunday 1st December. Detachment of HMS Temeraire landed to take over the Railway Station and Wharves at Sevastopol.

1918. Sunday 8th December. Royal Marines manning guns in armed merchant ships in action against Bolshevists (Caspian).

1918. Monday 9th December. Occupation by the 3rd Royal Marines Battalion to evacuate German troops from Sevastopol.

1918. Tuseday 17th December. Royal Marines Field Force concentrated at Kandalaksha in North Russia.

1918. Sunday 29th December. Royal Marines in armed merchant ships bombarded the Bolshevists at Star-Techernaya on the Caspian.

1918. Monday 30th December. HMS Temeraire and 3rd Royal Marines Battalion handed over to the French at Sevastopol.

1919. Monday 20th January - 17th March. Detachment from HMS Suffolk in garrison at Omsk Siberia.

1919. Thursday 13th February. Royal Marine detachments sent out in June 1917, returned to England.

1919. Friday 21st February. Royal Marines manning guns when Base opened at Petrosk on the Caspian.

1919. February - March. Royal Marines from HMS Ceres and HMS Cardiff in operations at Libau and Riga on the Baltic.

1919. Monday 10th March. Royal Marines Field Force training at Kem in Northern Russia.

1919. Tuesday 25th March. HMS Glory's Detachment to Knabja Ghuba to assist in repatriation of Finnish in Northern Russia.

1919. Tuesday 15th April. Royal Marines from HMS Kent relieve Royal Marines from HMS Suffolk at Omsk in Siberia.

1919. Thursday 17th - 22nd April. HM Ships in operations off Sevastopol and crushed Bolshevist attack on Kertch in the Crimea.

1919. Saturday 3rd May. Royal Marines Field Force advance and captured Maselskaya in Northern Russia.

1919. Tuesday 6th May. A tug commissioned as Kent and a barge Suffolk at Perm in Siberia.

1919. Wednesday 14th May. The Suffolk barge in action against the Bolshevist on the Viatka River in Northern Russia.

1919. Saturday 17th - 18th May. Royal Marines Field Force captured Medveyja Gora in Northern Russia.

1919. Wednesday 21st May. The Bombardment of Fort Alexandrovsk on the Caspian.

1919. Saturday 24th May. The Kent and Suffolk in action at Elabouga in Siberia.

1919. Thursday 29th - 30th May. The Kent and Suffolk in action on the Bielava River in Siberia.

1919. Tuesday 3rd June. The Kent in action at Sarapoul in Siberia.

1919. Wednesday 4th - 10th June. The Kent and Suffolk in engagements on the Kama River in Siberia.

1919. Friday 6th June. Inspection of details of the 63rd Royal Naval Division by HRH The Prince of Wales in London.

1919. Saturday 14th - 15th June. Details of RMA Howitzer Brigade return to Eastney from France.

1919. Thursday 19th - 21st June. Royal Marines from the Naval Flotilla in action at Topsa and Troitsa in Northern Russia.

1919. Thursday 26th June. The first occasion that a Royal Marine Band appeared as the resident band at the Royal Naval, Military and Air Force tournament - later the Royal Tournament - when Mr P.S.G. O'Donnell and the Band of the Plymouth Division, RMLI undertook this duty. This was the first Tournament since 1914.

1919. Saturday 28th June. The tug Kent and barge Suffolk dismantled at Perm in Siberia.

1919. Saturday 28th. Sergeant W.H. Beime Chatham RMLI, Sergeant G.H. Locker Plymouth RMLI represented the Royal Marines at the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in France.

1919. Tuesday 8th July. Action at Troitsa on the River Dwina, during a mutiny by White Russians in Northern Russia.

1919. Thursday 10th July. Royal Marines Field Force embarked at Archangel for England.

1919. August. The award of a distinctive badge for musical efficiency. RNSM Musicians who have reached the standard required for the granting of the Musical Proficiency Allowance (KR & AI vol II, App XV, Part III, No 11) were issued with a badge, red star, to be worn on the right arm below the elbow.

1919. Friday 1st August. HMS Caradoc bombarded the Bolshevists at Kinburn in the Crimea.

1919. Friday 1st August. 6th Royal Marines Battalion embarked at Tilbury for Northern Russia.

1919. Friday 1st - 8th August. HMS Caradoc engaged in operations on the Rivers Bug and Dnieper in Southern Russia.

1919. Sunday 10th August. Royal Marines from the naval Force in action on the Selmenga River in Northern Russia.

1919. Sunday 17th August. 6 Battalion in action on the Railway at Kapaselga in Northern Russia.

1919. Saturday 30th August. 'C' Coy 6 Battalion in the first skirmish at Koikori in Northern Russia.

1919. Tuesday 2nd September. Details of the Caspian Naval Force leave Petrovsk.

1919. Monday 8th - 10th September. 6 Battalion in action at Ussuna and Koikori in Northern Russia.

1919. Tuesday 16th September. Royal Marines from the Naval Force in action on the Vaga River in Northern Russia.

1919. Tuseday 30th  September. The Naval Force evacuated Archangle in Northern Russia.

1919. Thursday 8th October. 6th Royal Marines embarked at Archangle for England.

1919. 11am Tuesday 11th November. The Offical end of the First World War.

1919. The list of Medals the British government agreed to award its military personel for taking part in the First World War. (taken from 'Britains Sea Soldiers 1914 - 1919 by Sir H. E. Blumberg).

After the Armistice certain honours were awarded to Royal Marine Officers in conjunction with Naval Officer for their services afloat in the Grand Fleet.
C.B. Major and Brevet Leiutenant Colonel B.C. Gardiner. RMLI who had been Fleet W/T Officer since August 1914.
C.M.G. Major A.G. Little. RMLI. Senior Officer RM. afloat since 1916.

 Major H.E. Gillespie RMLI.
Major G.H. Jooye RMA.
Captain H.R. Haines RMLI.
Captain C.A. Lucas RMLI.
Captain E.J. Jukes-Hughes RMLI.

RM Gunner J. Cameron.
RM Gunner F.O. Botterill.
Rm Gunner E. Kimber.
Bandsman J.G. Welsh.

The following is a list of those awarded as members of the Corps Afloat.
Seageant W. H. France RMA.
Seageant W. H. France RMA. Miscellaneous.
Gunner A. Fenton RMA. Miscellaneous.
Sergeant A. V. Proctor RMA. Mediterranean.
Lance Corporal R. D. Hale RMLI. (Portsmouth). Patrol Cruisers.
Private R. Burns RMLI (Portsmouth). Patrol Cruisers.
Colour Sergeant N. Sears (Portsmouth) Patrol Cruisers.
Lance Corporal G. Short (Plymouth). Patrol Cruisers.
Private R. Burns RMLI (Portsmouth). Patrol Cruisers.
Colour Sergeant N. Sears (Portsmouth) Patrol Cruisers.
Lance Corporal G. Short (Plymouth). Patrol Cruisers.
Sergeant A. B. Cox (Portsmouth). Miscellaneous.
Sergeant J. Dix (Portsmouth). Patrol Cruisers.
Private F. S. Paul (Plymouth). Mediterranean.
Colour Sergeant F. M. Thompson (Chatham). Mediterranean.
Private J. Wilson (Portsmouth). Patrol Cruisers.
Sergeant A. E. Bowen (Chatham). Egyptian Division.
Sergeant W. H. Padwick (Portsmouth). Egyptian Division.
Sergeant H. Hayes (Chatham). Aegean.
Sergeant F. W. Ladd (Chatham). Belgian Coast.
Private J. M. Stevenson (Plymouth). Miscellaneous.
Sergeant B.W. Hatcher (Portsmouth). Dover Patrol.
Private W. Marriott (Portsmouth). Dover Patrol.
Private T. H. Wïgley. (Plymouth). Aegean.
Private W. G. Geary. (Portsmouth). Miscellaneous.
Corporal D. Griffiths. (Portsmouth). North Russia.
Corporal W. J. Last. (RMA). North Russia.
Sergeant A. Levett. (Portsmouth). North Russia.
Private W. E. Lewington. (Portsmouth). North Russia.
Private W. E Peters. (Portsmouth. North Russia.
Sergeant E. C. White. (Portsmouth). North Russia.

Post-war demobilisation had seen the Royal Marines reduced from 55,000 during 1918 to 15,000 in 1922. Treasury was pressured for a further reduction to 6,000 or even the entire disbandment of the Corps. As a compromise an establishment of 9,500 was settled upon, but meant that two separate branches could no longer be maintained. The abandonment of the Marine's artillery role meant that the Corps would subsequently have to rely on Royal Artillery support when ashore, that the title of Royal Marines would apply to the entire Corps and that only a few specialists would now receive gunnery training. As a form of consolation the dark blue and red uniform of the Royal Marine Artillery now became the full dress of the entire Corps. Royal Marine officers and SNCO's however continue to wear the historic scarlet in mess dress to the present day. The ranks of Private, used by the RMLI, and Gunner, used by the RMA, were abolished and replaced by the rank of Marine.

1920. Sergeant Norman Finch V.C. returned to the Corps and was promoted to Colour Sergeant after recovering from his sever injuries during the battle of Zeebrugge. He later became an Instructor of Coast Defence Gunnery and was made Colour Sergeant on 12th August 1920.

1920. Sunday 18th January. The Memorial Silver Bugles first sounded by Portsmouth Division RMLI. The officers of the Royal Marines purchased thirty two Silver memorial Bugles for Officers killed during the First world War. Issued in groups of eight to the RMLI Division at Chatham, Portsmouth, Plymouth and also the Depot.

1920. Tuesday 24th August. bandmaster W.E.F Faithfull, veteran of antwerp and Gallipoli (where he was wounded and earned a Mention in Despatches), became the first Band Boy to reach Commissioned rank when he was promoted Lieutenant and QM.

1920. November. Confirmation of rank 'BdCSgt' and 'BdSgt' being substituted for Bandmaster 1st Class and Bandmaster 2 nd Class. Previously described in 1920.

1920. Tuesday 9th November. Colour Sergeant Norman Finch V.C. was a member of the guard of honour mustered at Westminster Abbey during the internment of the Unkown Warrior.

1920. December. Warrant Rank was assigned to those who had been appointed as a Bandmaster or Commissioned Bandmaster provided the appropriate qualifications had been attained.

1920. Friday 24th December. The Award of the Prince of Wales Plumes to Plymouth Division Band following the Royal Tour to Canada on HMS Renown. This band was selected for its Musicianship and for its dedication to duty whilst on active service during the great war.

1920. Captain and Brevet Major A.R. Chater, the Adjutant at the Depot, Deal, presented a pair of silver and ebony drumsticks to be used by the most efficient Drummer at the depot each year. Awarded to Bugler Crane (1920), Bugler Tyler (1921) and Bugler Astle (1922). The tradition then lapsed but the drumsticks were retained and are now part of the Royal Marines Museum Collection.

1920. 'A Life On The Ocean Waves', written by Henry Russell and arranged by Jacob Kappey (Chatham Division Band RM) was officially recognised as the 'Regimental Quick March' of the Royal Marines by Lords Commissioners of the admiralty. (Thirty eight years after the same recognition by the War Office).

1921. Friday 18th February. The first six Band Boy Section leaders appointed at RNSM. Selected by the Superintendent based upon 12 months service, 2nd Class Certificate of Education, 'VG' in Infantry Drill, Physical Training and fire Control and having passed the swimming test. Cleanliness, appearance and behaviour, musical ability and sportsmanship were also taken into account. Object was to encourage Band Boy of exceptional ability and those likely to be candidates for future promotion.

1921. Saturday 5th March. On this day the set of five Memorial Silver Drums and a silver finished bass drum Dedicated as the Official Royal Naval School of Music War Memorial and presented at a parade held at the RNSM Eastney. Over one hundred and forty men of the RNSM plus fifty five Buglers and also two Musicians from Royal Marine Divisional Bands lost their lives during World War 1.

1921. Tuesday 2nd August. Three O'Donnell Brothers promoted Lieutenant as Directors of Music on the same day.

1921. Friday 11th November. The Service of Remembrance at the Cenotaph, unveiled the previous year, including the Royal Marines Buglers (Chatham Division) sounding Reveille immediately after the two minutes silence and the singing of 'O God, Our Help in Ages Past'. This was repeated in 1922 but in 1923 there was a reduced Service.

1921. Titles 'Band Colour Sergeant' and 'Band Sergeant' was withdrawn and the old titles of 'Bandmanster 1st class' and 'Bandmaster 2nd Class' reinstated.

1922. Post-war demobilisation had seen the Royal Marines reduced from 55,000 (1918) to 15,000 in 1922.

1922. The Royal Marines 8th Battalion served in Ireland.

1923. Saturday 28th April. Gosport War Memorial Hospital opened, commemorating the 68 officers and 1,703 other ranks of the Portsmouth Division RMLI from Forton Barracks who died during World War 1. This number includes seventeen Buglers.

1923. There was Treasury pressure for a further reduction of Royal Marines down to 6,000 or even the entire disbandment of the Corps. As a compromise an establishment of 9,500 was settled upon but this meant that two separate branches could no longer be maintained. The abandonment of the Marine's artillery role meant that the Corps would subsequently have to rely on Royal Artillery support when ashore, that the title of Royal Marines would apply to the entire Corps and that only a few specialists would now receive naval gunnery training. As a form of consolation the dark blue and red uniform of the Royal Marine Artillery now became the full dress of the entire Corps. Royal Marine officers and Senior NCO's however continue to wear the historic scarlet in mess dress to the present day. The ranks of Private, used by the RMLI, and Gunner, used by the RMA, were abolished and replaced by the rank of Marine.

1923. Friday 22nd June. During most of their history Royal Marines had been organised as fusiliers. On this day the separate Artillery and Light Infantry forces were formally amalgamated into the Corps of Royal Marines. The 11th Battalion were serving in Turkey. While the 12th Battalion were in Shanghai.

The Royal Marine Genealogical Tree 1664 - 1923.

1923. Friday 22nd June. The Royal Marine Artillery and Royal Marine Light Infantry were amalgamated. The Portsmouth Division RMLI, located at Forton Barracks, Gosport, closed, and all ranks moved to the previous home of the RMA at Eastney Barracks, Southsea which became Portsmouth Division Royal Marines. The prefixes ‘CH’, ‘PLY’, and ‘PO’ were retained and the Corps title reverted to ‘Royal Marines’, as in 1802. The register number allocated to a rank entered at one of the Divisions after the amalgamation simply ‘followed on’ the last number allocated before 22nd June 1923, e.g. CH 12346 George Smith (RMLI). Who say joined on 1st June 1923 was followed by CH 12347 William Brown (RM) who say joined on the 1st July 1923. All numbers of up to five digits which follow the prefixes ‘CH’, ‘PLY’ or ‘PO’ indicates ranks entered in the Royal Marine Light Infantry (and subsequently Royal Marines) Divisions before October 1925, including in the cases of Chatham and Plymouth Divisions, former RMA men transferred on amalgamation.
All numbers of up to five digits which follow the prefix ‘RMA’ indicates who had entered in the Royal Marine Artillery before the amalgamation. On amalgamation RMA ranks were transferred to one of the new RM (formally RMLI) divisions. RMA ranks transferred to Chatham and Plymouth Divisions were given new CH and PLY five-digit numbers, but for those transferring to Chatham and Plymouth Divisions the number ‘2’ was added to their old number, so RMA/17000 Thomas Greenslade (RMA) became PO/217000 Thomas Greenslade (RM). Thus the Portsmouth Division ranks with a six-digit register number beginning with 2 can be instantly identified as an ex-RMA.
The suffix ‘S’ to any of the ‘CH’, ‘PLY’, or ‘RMA’ numbers indicates a rank who entered one of these divisions for Short Service during World War 1. In 1914 the short service register numbers began quite simply at ‘Ply/1 (S) (eg PLY 3287 (S) C C Anderson.), Po/1 (S) and Ch/1 (S) and RMA/1(S).
The prefix ‘RMB’ followed by a number of up to four figures (RMB1 – RMB 3087) indicates a rank who entered the Royal Naval School of Music between its foundation in 1903 and before October 1925. This sequence of numbers was resumed again in August 1955, but from RMB 3400 to prevent any duplication.
The prefix ‘Depot’, followed by a number of up to three digits (Depot/1-Depot/688), indicates a rank entered on the establishment of the Depot, Royal Marines Deal, between 1866 and 1931. Ranks would have originally had a Divisional number, ie with Prefix CH, PO or PLY, but on being accepted for the staff of the Depot, they were allocated a new register number; ‘D’ or ‘Depot’ followed by three digits. The last number so allocated was in fact Depot 1688, after which in 1925, in common with all other RN and RM numbers an ‘X’ was added. In 1931 this practice was discontinued and the final number of these was Depot/X 45. Records were then transferred to Chatham, Portsmouth or Plymouth Divisions as appropriate and the next available register numbers were allocated.
During the 1914-18 World War the prefix ‘Deal’, followed by numbers of up to four digits and the suffix ‘S’, were allocated to ranks enlisted for Short Service during World War 1. These ranks served mostly in miscellaneous units of the Royal Naval Division. Numbers were allocated as Follows:
RM Divisional Engineers RN Division D/1(S) to D1500(S).
RM Divisional Train D/1501(S0) to D/2762(S).
RM Medical Unit D/3000(S) to D/4400(S).
Ordnance Company RM Division D/4520(S) to D/4553(S).
RN Divisional Engineers D/5000(S) to D/5599(S).
(The ‘S’ can be shown as either a suffix or a prefix for these numbers. It is also often shown in lower case.)
The prefix ‘D’ on its own seems to have been rarely used. To distinguish between Depot staff and men who were borne on the books
At Deal for pay and admin (e.g. RMLC, RND Engineers, RM Medical Units), the ‘system’ seems to have been for staff to be recorded as Depot/123 and the latter as Deal/1234(S).

1923. Friday 3rd August. As part of the amalgamation of the Royal Marine Artillery and the Royal Marine Light Infantry the Portsmouth Division of the RMLI, based at Forton Barracks was integrated with the Royal Marine Artillery at Eastney Barracks. This resulted in the special badge of the Prince of Wales Plumes, awarded Wednesday 5th July 1876 to the Band of the Portsmouth Division RMLI, being transferred, along with many members of the branch, to the Royal Marine Depot Deal Band. While the Colours were transferred to Eastney. The photo is of the Royal Marine Genealogical Tree 1664 - 1923.

1924. Tuseday 11th November. The Service of Remembrance at the Cenotaph again featured sixteen Buglers from the Chatham Division. Despite the 1923 amalgamation they were still wearing red tunics. RAF trumpeters, involved for the first time, played the last post. This is the year that the ceremony took the form that is used today.

1924. The Fleet Air Arm of the RAF was created and volunteers were called for from the Royal Marines and 19 officers volunteered.

1925. Colour Sergeant Norman Finch V.C. was promoted Quartermaster Sergeant.

1925. Thursday 3rd September. The first direct recording from a radio broadcast by a military band took place when the RM Band of HMS Calcutta was recorded, playing as an orchestra in Canada.

1925. Design of divisional Drum major's Dress Belts standardised by the Adjutant General Royal Marines, as a result of the RMA / RMLI amalgamation.

1925. Registered Numbers. The Letter ‘X’ was added to the prefixes to indicate men enlisted or re-entered under the revised rates of pay, i.e. entries on and after 5th October 1925. (A new sequence of numbers beginning at 1 was started in each register for ranks who re-entered after a break in service of less than five years before 2nd November 1925).

1926. Standard pattern for design of Drum Majors staffs to be used by the Royal Naval School of Music and by the Bands of Commanders in Chief at Portsmouth, Plymouth, Atlantic Fleet, Mediterranean Fleet and China fleet.

1927. Friday 11th March. Additional music approved for use and inclusion in KR & Al: RN March Past Hearts Of Oak, Royal Marine March Past: A Life On The Ocean Waves; RN / RM Advance in Review Order: Nancy Lee; General Salute for British Flag Officers not entitled to Rule Britannia - lolanthe; General Salute for Governors etc - Garb of Old Gaul.

1927. Royal Marines Forton Barracks Gosport were closed.

1928. Friday 30th September. Captain Edward Bamford VC died of pneumonia while aboard the HMS Cumberland en route to Hong Kong, where he held the appointment of Instructor of Small Arms and Musketry Officer at Hong Kong. He was buried in the Bubbling Well Road Cemetery in Shanghai. A 1930s photograph in the RM Museum shows a picture of his grave and headstone. All remaining cemeteries containing ‘foreigners’ were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. Bubbling Well Road Cemetery is now Jing'an Park.

Memorials to Edward Bamford are in the Depot Church in Deal and there is a Bamford House in the RM Barrack at Eastney. On 3rd April 2004, the Royal Marines presented a plaque in his memory to the Officials of Zeebrugge. His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Royal Marines Museum in Southsea, England.

1929. Tuesday 26th November. Lieutenant Owen Cathcart Jones, Royal Marines, carried out the first night deck landing in a single seater fighter on board HMS Courageous.

1929. Thursday 26th December. Quartermaster Sergeant Norman Finch V.C. retired from the Royal Marines, to work as a postman, and then as a bank messenger.

1929. Standard pattern for design of Divisional Band Drum Major's staffs introduced.

1929. Drill for Buglers formalised for adoption at Royal Marine Establishments - included the 'Flourish'.

1930. Wednesday 1st October. The Royal Naval School of Music moved from Eastney Barracks to the Depot, Deal. The School had outgrown the space and the facilities that Eastney had provided, The Depot Band, under Lieutenant Ricketts, had been disbanded a few months earlier.

1930. 31st December. 514 Kings Squad Passed for Duty.

1931. Norman Finch V.C. was granted a special distinction by being appointed as a member of the Kings's Bodyguard of the Yeomen of the Guard. This entailed wearing a distinctive Tudor-style uniform as escort to the sovereign on several occasions throughout the year.

1934. Saturday 27th January. 195 Kings Squad passed for duty from Deal.

1934. Tuesday 20th March. The first performance of bandmaster A C Green's musical setting of sunset took place in the Alarneda Gardens, Gibraltar. This had been specially arranged in responce to Admiral Fishers request for a "specacular show for the visit of the First lord and the Board of Admiralty".

1934. Wednesday 23rd May. The first performance in Malta of Bandmaster A.C. Green's musical setting of the Sunset call.

1935. Friday 24th August. Royal Marines carried out London Duties for the first time - the Jubilee year of the King's Reign - during the period 17th August - 19th September. The Massed Bands consisted of thirty five from Chatham Division, nineteen from Portsmouth Division and eleven from Plymouth Division. In addition there were eleven Drummers ( two tenor and nine side drums) plus thirty three buglers. Chatham Division Drum Major (Sgt. W.Day) and Bugle Major (Sgt. E.B. Astle) were in command of Drummers and Buglers respectively whilst the Massed bands were under the direction of the Senior Director of Music, Royal marines, captain P.S.G. O'Donnell of Chatham Division. Buglers and Drummers wore Bugle Cords, Royal, for the first time. As well as the Royal Palaces the Corps provided the Bank of England Picquet and the Hyde Park magazine guard.

1935. Royal Marines served in Alexandria as part of the Base Defences in the Mediterranean. Corps Strength at that time was 9,800.

1936. Dress Cords, Royal, to be worn by Bugler Majors and Buglers (Corporals and below) in review order and when on leave.

1937. Saturday 30th October. 268 Kings Squad passed for duty.

1939-45. The Second World War in which Royal Marines served on all HM Ships in all major engagements at sea around the world.

1939. Saturday 11th February. 313 Kings Squad passed for Duty.

1939. Saturday 2nd September. 337 Kings Squad passed for duty at Deal.

1939. Sunday 3rd September. The British government declare war on Germany. However, Britain was not prepared for war and although she sent an expeditionary force to France to try and stop the Germans racing across Europe capturing most countries, it failed. The British Force was pushed back to towards the English Channel and the beaches at Dunkirk.

After the defeat and evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from the beach at Dunkirk. Winston Churchill realised that Britain was not in a position to launch any form of major military attack against the Germans. However, a series of short quick spectacular hit and run attacks would do a great deal for the morale of the British people. Winston ordered the creation of a 'butcher and bolt' small group raiding unit. At the out break of war the Corps strength was 12,000.

1939. With the outbreak of the second World War Norman Finch V.C. returned to the Portsmouth Division Royal Marines as a Quartermaster Sergeant.

1939. Thursday 14th September. Lieutenant Guy Griffiths RM became the first RM aviator casualty of World War 2. Dive bombing a German submarine he was brought down by the blast from his own bomb and rescued by the crew of the submarine before spending the rest of the war as a prisoner.

1939. Saturday 2nd September. 337 Kings Squad passed for duty at Deal.

1939. October. Registered Numbers. The prefix ‘EX’, followed by a number of three or four digits (EX 501 – EX 5909), indicates a special Reservist entered in the register of Exton ‘Division’ between October 1939 and July 1940.

1939. Saturday 4th November. 345 Kings Squad passed for duty.

1939. The Rifle number 4 Mark 1, was adopted just after the beginning of the Second World War.

1939. The system of conscription from 1939 to 1960 was called National Service. However, between 1939 and 1948, it was often referred to as War Service in documents relating to National Insurance and Pension Provision.

1940. The Royal Marines role was to continue providing detachments for manning ships guns, undertake landing operations, special amphibious operations in conjunction with other services, and to provide units for the rapid establishment and temporary defence of Royal Navy & Fleet Air Arm bases.

1940. Wednesday 10th April. Two Skua squadrons, one commanded by Captain 'Birdie' Partridge RM flew from Hatson in the Orkneys to attack and sink the German cruiser Kőenisgsberg in Bergen harbour. The 'Coup de grace' was delivered by Captain E.D. McIver RM who was tragically killed during another raid four days later.

1940. Sunday 14th April. A small party of Royal Marines were first ashore at Namsos Norway. Where they seized the approaches to the Norwegian town in preparation for a landing by the British Army two days later.

1940. Thursday 30th May. Band Boys were evacuated from Depot, Deal to RM Reserve Camp Exton, at Lympstone because of the Depots proximity to the battle of France. Two weeks later the remainder of the RNSM followed and moved into a fort at Plymouth.

1940. Sunday 9th June, a department in the War Office was created to deal with the issues surrounding the creation of such a force. This office was to become known as 'Combined Operations' as it involved all three services. Churchill had called for 20,000 men, who he called 'Leopards' ready to spring at the throats of the Germans at short notice. Recruits were drawn from the British Army and even the British Police Force. Churchill himself ordered that they should be equipped with the best equipment.

1940. Monday 24th and Tuesday 25th June. The first Commando raid took place along the Northern French coast at Boulogne le Touquet. Known as 'Operation Collar' although officially it was not carried out by a Commando unit, but by No 11 Independent Company.

1940. July. The Special Boat Section was formed by Commando officer Roger Courtney. Courtney became a commando recruit in mid-1940, and was sent to the Combined Training Centre in Scotland. He was unsuccessful in his initial attempts to convince Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger Keyes and later Admiral Theodore Hallett, commander of the Combined Training Centre, that his idea of a kayak brigade would be effective. He decided to infiltrate HMS Glengyle, a Landing Ship, Infantry anchored in the River Clyde. Courtney paddled to the ship, climbed aboard undetected, wrote his initials on the door to the captain's cabin, and stole a deck gun cover. He presented the soaking cover to a group of high-ranking Royal Navy officers meeting at a nearby Inveraray hotel. He was promoted to captain, and given command of twelve men, the first Special Boat Service/Special Boat Section. Although it was initially named the ‘Folboat Troop,’ after the type of folding canoe employed in raiding operations.

1940. Saturday 20th July - 11th November. Captain O. Patch RM took part in a night torpedo attack on Tobruk harbour, sinking two Italian destroyers.

1940. Friday 10th August. 390 Kings Squad was the first Kings Squad to pass for duty at the Lympstone Camp. After completing their basic training at RM Depot Deal and Naval Gunnery at Chatham.

1940. Thursday 22nd August. Captain O. Patch RM led a flight of three swordfish against Italian ships in Bomba Bay. The flight sank four ships with three torpedoes, an exploit which won him the Distinguished Service Order.

1940. September. The Royal School of Music moved from Plymouth to a camp outside Malvern, Worcs.

1940. Monday 11th November. Captain O. Patch RM took part in the epic raid on Taranto and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross.

1940. 30th November. 387 Kings Squad Passed for duty at Plymouth .

1940. Royal Marines landed in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway, Holland and France.

1940. The British Army created its first Commando unit. Their task was to land in Nazi-occupied Western Europe usually at night, to destroy vital targets and leave as quickly as possible.

1940. A detachment of Royal Marines, under the command of Maj Franklin F. Clark was stationed at HMS 'St Angelo'. It initially manned Lewis gun positions at the fort, the Dockyard power station and at Corradino Heights.

1941. Early. The Special Boat Section was renamed ‘No1 Special Boat Section’ and attached to Layforce, and moved to the Middle East. They worked with the 1st Submarine Flotilla based at Alexandria and carried out beach reconnaissance of Rhodes, evacuated troops left behind on Crete and several small-scale raids and other operations.

1941. Sunday 22nd June. Lieutenant (R.A.) ‘Tug’ Wilson and Royal Marine Hughes were delivered by Submarine and then canoed to the beach on the Western Coast of Italy. Their task was to blow up a railway track and the entrance of a tunnel. It was the first successful attack upon the Italian metropolis and birth of the ‘Special Boat Service’.

1941. Friday 22nd August. The Royal Naval School of Music was split in two and, on this date, the senior Wing moved to two Hotels in Scarborough whilst the Junior wing moved to Howstrake camp on the Isle of man.

1941. Friday 5th September. The Royal Marines camp at Lympstone was originally built during 1939 for the training of Reservists in the build up at the beginning of the Second World War. At that time it was known as the 'Royal Marines Reserve Depot', Exton. However, a year later it received its first name change and became known as the Royal Marine Depot for the training of all Royal Marine recruits. On 5th September it officially became known as the Royal Marine Depot, Lympstone. (Although it was referred to by several different names during the Second World War). However, by the end of the war it was commonly known or referred to as Lympstone. The original RMITC training school at that time comprised of 17 weeks training incorporated into 2 phases, and was carried out at the Dalditch camp.

The course comprised of kitting up, lectures (including Corps history), PT, drill, bayonet fighting, basic small arms and Bren Gun drills, and the receiving of many injections. Followed by the assault course, advanced weapon training, range work, night firing and field-craft, involving cooking and survival. The last week of which was usually spent under canvas near the village of Ottery St Mary during the latter stages of the Dalditch era.

On Friday 1st November 1946 and the Dalditch camp was closed down. Phase 1 of the training was moved to Depot Deal for both Continuous Service and National Service recruits. Phase 2 was moved to Lympstone along with a name change to that of ‘Infantry Training Centre Royal Marines’ (ITCRM).

Marine Smith-Howell from Sussex was recorded as the first 'recruit' to sign in at Lympstone, although it is extremely doubtful that he was actually the first to pass through the main gate once the camp was set up.
It's estimated that once the camp was up and running and at full capacity that between 1000 and 1500 recruits were under training at any given time.

Upon completion of training at Lympstone some Marines went on to the Bickleigh Infantry School for specialisation or to the Commando Training Centre at Towyn (N Wales) which for a short time had taken over the role from Achnacarry in Scotland before it too eventually closed down.

Early in 1951 the Officer Training Wing moved to Lympstone from Bickleigh Infantry School. There were just six men in the first intake, two of whom were Corps Commission candidates and parachutists, and were joined later by further batches totalling a complement of 40.

During February 1960 the SNCOs Training Wing and Specialised Training moved to Lympstone, followed by the Commando Specialist Training in April, which included Heavy Weapons, Cliff Assault, and Assault Engineers. These bodies joined up with the resident 'X' Troop to form a new Commando Training Wing centred on the old 'C' Company Lines. Previously there had been four recruit companies, A, B, C and D, of these only A and C survived, with the former as the National Service Company, but to make way for the new units these then amalgamated into a single Recruit Training Wing in February.

During 1950's and early 1960's the accommodation for the recruits was several rows of Nissan huts. Each had two coke fired stoves down the middle of the room, and around twenty to thirty double bunk beds positioned around the room. While at the so called front door was a little room for a Corporal whose job it was to keep an eye on the recruits in his room. While at the other end was a door that lead to an outdoor covered walkway leading to the showers. 1960 saw the present day Drill Shed erected.

1961 and the last of the National Service recruits in 939 Squad, finished their Phase Two training at Lympstone.
Friday 12th July 1963 Lt Gen M.C. Cartwright-Taylor opened 'D' Block (Salerno) the first of the new four storied recruit accommodation blocks, by which time four others were also erected, and awaiting completion. 'A blot on the rural skyline' according to a report in the 'Western Morning News'.

Early 1967 the Mess-and-recreational block, including the Main Galley, Dining Halls, NAAFI and Junior NCOs Club were completed. Nearby were the NAAFI quarters and a trading centre designed to house the UIF-run amenities, Barber Shop, Pressing Shop, Laundry and Drying Room, a civilian Tailor's Shop, and the new automatic telephone exchange which came into operation during January. Also in progress were the practice rooms, stores and offices of the Plymouth Group Band, and the seventh barrack block. While sports grounds were provided in the field opposite the main gate.

Monday 24th August 1970 the camp under-went another name change to that of 'Commando Training Centre Royal Marines' (CTCRM).

Monday 28th October 1974 at 11-58am D block the last of the new four storied accommodation blocks that were started back in 1962, was finally opened. D block had the distinction of being officially opened at precisely 11-58 am on Monday 28th October 1974, exactly 310 years (to the minute) after the founding of the Corps, back in 1664.

The Junior Entries Wing (Normandy) as it was called was built to a completely different design and contained 20 barrack rooms, plus 4 'Quiet Rooms', 3 television and 2 hobbies rooms, along with Company and Troop offices.
January 1976 and the Junior Marines Block and an extension to the Officers' Mess had been completed, work progressed on the new Sergeants' Mess and sadly the last tree holding the 30 foot ropes of the Old Assault Course was felled.

Monday 3rd May 1976 a unique event occurred when the Mayor of Exeter joined the Commandant General and senior railway executives on an inaugural train service from Exeter scheduled to stop at the camp's very own station, Lympstone Commando. Not only the first new station to be built in the western region this century, but the only one in the country designed exclusively for servicemen.

1941. Wednesday 10th December. The Plymouth Argyll Royal Marines. “I thought they were heroes,” an able seaman later commented, “because they fought non-stop and there were shell cartridges lying all over. They were kicking these over the side into the sea… they never stopped firing right up to the end.” 
When the end came, aboard HMS Prince of Wales, turret captain Sgt Terry Brooks, the youngest sergeant in the Corps, ordered his men to remove their boots, inflate their rubber life jackets and jump into the sea. After going below to the ship’s magazine to bring out three more of his men, Sgt Brooks too plunged overboard. The escorting destroyers picked up survivors and returned them to Singapore.

A few days later the very basically re-kitted 210 Royal Marine detachment survivors from HMS Prince of Wales and Repulse, including the six officers, were formed into a Naval Battalion under Captain R.G.S. [Bob] Lang RM. They were deployed to guard the Naval Base, RN Wireless Transmission Station at Kranji and the RN Armaments Depot. Apart from Bob Lang the other officers were Captain Claude Derek Aylwin and Lieutenants Charles Verdon, Jim Davis, Tom Sherdan and Geoffrey Hulton.

1941. Wednesday 24th December. Forty of these Royal Marines, after rudimentary jungle training, were sent up-country into Malaya to join Roseforce (Major Angus Rose 2A and SH) involved in special operations behind the Japanese lines. The speed of the Japanese advance, however, led to their employment in demolition work and they returned to Singapore on Wednesday 14th January 1942. 

1941. December. Roger Courtney returned to the United Kingdom where he formed No2 Special Boat Section and No1 Special Boat Section became attached to the Special Air Service (SAS) as the Folboat Section.

1941. Saturday 27th December. Operation Archery in Norway.

1941. Captain G.V.B. Cheesman flying a Walrus seaplane was appointed a Member of the British Empire for rescuing the crew of a torpedoed freighter 100 miles off the coast of Africa after attacking the guilty German submarine. He gathered the survivors together and with his aircraft towed the ships boats to safety. He subsequently was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for leading his squadron on operations against the Tirpitz in Norway and later in 1945 was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for operations in the Pacific.

1941. Registered Numbers. Six Digit Numbers during WW2. The prefixes ‘CH/X’, ‘PLY/X’, ‘PO/X’ followed by numbers of six digits in the 100000 series, indicated ranks entered for ‘Hostilities Only’ (HO) Service during World War ll, (CH/X119200; PO/X127790; PLY/X117156).

1942. Thursday 29th January. 210 Royal Marines were moved to Tyersall Park Camp, Singapore, to join the 250 Argyll's, all that remained of Lt Colonel Ian Stewart’s 2A&SH who had fought a gallant and effective delaying action in the north of Malaya before being decimated at Slim River on Wednesday 7th January 1942. Subsequently, the survivors of the battalion had acted as rear guard during the crossing of the Causeway to Singapore. On Tuesday 3rd February the Argyll's and Marines were amalgamated into a composite battalion known as the Plymouth Argyll's. The Argyll's old association with Plymouth, their influence on the creation of its football team and the fact that the Marines were of the Plymouth Division were good reasons for this nickname. Lt Colonel Stewart trained the Plymouth Argyll's emphasising cooperation between armoured cars and widely dispersed infantry.

1942. Sunday 8th February. The Japanese successfully crossed the Straits of Johore and gained a foothold on Singapore’s north western shore. As exhausted and demoralised Australian defenders withdrew, the Plymouth Argyll's were ordered late on the morning of Monday 9thFebruary to advance northwards up the Bukit Timah Road then westward along the Choa Chu Kang Road towards Tengah airfield. Shortly after debussing into the rubber and advancing on foot, the Royal Marines came under air attack and suffered casualties. Some sections became lost in wide night time dispersal in unfamiliar terrain. Two more days of fighting followed as the Plymouth Argyll's engaged the Japanese between Tengah and the Dairy Farm that lay east of the Upper Bukit Timah Road. Most of the Argyll's were cut off when the Japanese brought their tanks down the road, smashing through two Plymouth Argyll roadblocks. The main body of Royal Marines escaped across the Dairy Farm and down the Pipeline to the Golf Course, stretchering away a wounded Argyll officer. No sooner had they arrived back at Tyersall Park than the camp and the neighbouring Indian Military Hospital were destroyed in an air attack. In the confusion that followed and subsequent shelling and mortaring, there was a further dispersal of men including those wounded. When the surrender came on Sunday 5th February only some 40 Royal Marines remained in the trenches in the burnt out Tyersall Park. 

Many Royal Marines, either deployed to Keppel Harbour or lost in the Bukit Timah fighting spent the final days before the surrender assisting with the evacuation of civilians from Singapore to Sumatra. 25 Marines were ordered aboard HMS Tapah (captured); others on HMS Grasshopper (sunk) and Mata Hari (captured). Some escaped on Chinese junks, prahus and yachts. Most of those who survived entered captivity in Sumatra at Palembang and Padang, but some 22 made it to Ceylon as did 52 Argyll's. 31 Royal Marines were killed-in-action, died of wounds at Singapore or were lost at sea assisting in the evacuation of civilians to Sumatra.

The Argyll's and Marines at Tyersall Park were on Tuesday 17th February ordered by the Japanese to march to Changi. Headed by Piper Charles Stuart they marched out of Tyersall Park. Hundreds of soldiers from other units stood to attention as they passed. In fact, Captains Aylwin, Lang and Slessor (2A & SH) had no intention that their men march to Changi. A few hundred yards along the way what was left of the battalion transport drew up and embussed them into captivity passed marching columns of POWs. At first the Plymouth Argyll's were quartered in the Changi Village shops area. Many were subsequently sent to smaller work camps at River Valley, Havelock Road and Kranji. 

1942. February. The Infantry Battalions of the Royal Marine Division were re-organised as Commandos, joining up with the Army Commandos. While the Division Command structure became a Special Service Brigade.

Selection for the new Commando force was necessarily demanding. Men had to be physically very fit. However, they also had to show that they did not need the traditional chain of command to operate in the field as in the heat of battle such chains of command could break down. Initiative was considered to be a vital commodity. Some 400 men passed through the first phase of recruitment that included training with live ammunition.

Lieutenant-Colonel Dudley Clark of put forward the name 'Commando' for the new force, after the term used in the Second Boer War. Churchill himself approved of the title while senior military figures did not, they preferred the title 'Special Service' and the two were used alongside one another for a long time to come.

Training was undertaken in Scotland where a special training centre was created at Lochailort. 'Combined Operations' created an all forces amphibious centre at Inveraray in the Scottish Highlands. While in 1942, a specific commando training base was also established at Achnacarry Castle, also in Scotland. Scotland was picked for the training as it was thought that the conditions were right for testing the military personnel in survival, living off the land and map reading. All of which would be of great help when landing in a foreign country and having to fend for yourself.

1942. February The combination soldier-sailor concept of the Royal Marines was absolutely necessary for amphibious warfare. The Royal Marines were not available until 1942, but men could be trained in the use of boats and landing craft whether they were Marines or not. Land training was equally important since the sea was only a means to reach the land.

Physical fitness was required both for admission and as a continuing standard to be maintained. Marches and exercises were directed toward this end. A few calisthenics before breakfast was not what commando instructors considered to be physical training. If a man were physically fit by the standards set, marching seven miles in one hour was no more difficult than an uphill march in two hours and fifteen minutes. Physical fitness trained the men for the long marches they would have to make in the field. Even more important was the realisation that a man who was alert enough to master a number of physical tasks was more alert mentally as well. Therefore, physical training included not just marches, but obstacle courses, such as cliff climbing and also swimming. Practice landings and assaults were executed with live ammunition so that the men would be able to function under fire.

Forty of the 25,000 men who trained at the Achnacarry center were killed in training. Mock graves were set up at the entrance to impress this fact on newcomers. The men were also taught night fighting, hand-to-hand combat, and woods craft to enable them to live off the land, concepts established by Keyes.

The first training center was at Lochailort Castle in Scotland. Operations started there in 1940. The instructors included men who would later make their own mark in the history of the war, David Stirling who started the SAS, Lord Shimy Lovat who commanded No. 4 Commando at Dieppe, and Michael "Mad Mike" Calvert who commanded a Chindit batallion in Burma.
Another center was established at Achnacarry, Scotland, in 1941. Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Vaughn took over in 1942 and pushed commando training to a new level of excellence. Amphibious exercises were carried out at Inveraray, Scotland, at the head of Loch Fyne. Training was always logical and practical. Nothing was ever initiated in training that did not have a purpose or objective. It rested on the desire of the individual to excel. Therefore, the only disciplinary measure was R.T.U., meaning ‘Returned to Unit.’ This was used by commanders and instructors to weed out the physically and psychologically unfit, and it could be instituted without explanation. This left the initiative and discipline entirely up to the individual. The men were often left to find their own transportation to and from places, and they were given an allowance and left to find their own quarters in private homes. There was no sergeant to police the barracks. All of this was aimed at developing the individual initiative of the soldier. If a man could not discipline himself and stay out of trouble, he could stay in the regular army. If he could not use his head to look out for himself, he was of no use to the commandos. The man for the organisation was the man who could use his brain and not have to sit around, mindlessly waiting for an order. The commandos were above all else an elite of individuals. They received the most varied training in modern warfare, but it was a means to an end, not an end unto itself.

The commando concept itself was never static, it developed with the war. The commandos began in 1940 as enthjsiastic amateurs, but by 1945 they were among the most sophisticated shock troops in the world. In 1942 the Royal Marines entered the commando organization to form the RM commandos. The Marines were actually closer to the soldier sailor concept of the commandos; but they had been held back for home defense in 1940, and the task had gone to the Army commandos. Despite some initial rivalry, the two groups worked well together in brigade formations. By the end of the war, they were both part of a homog geneous fighting unit that was well equipped and properly deployed. The commandos' tactical and strategical contributions have already been covered in some detail. Aside from the purely tactical success achieved by the raids, the raiding program allowed Britain to resume the initiative that she needed to wage war. The raids also helped to develop the technique of amphibious v/arfare. Because Allied strategy was largely amphibious, this was a considerable contribution. The commandos also developed many new ideas in the area of field tactics and fighting, which were passed on to the regular . 10 forces. Aside from all this, the commandos made an enormous contribution to the concept of the soldier in modern warfare. They stressed the development of the intelligent, independent, motivated soldier, not the mass production of mindless killing machines. What the commandos tried to cultivate was the intelligent, self-reliant individual. COHQ did not want a group of half-wits who had to wait for an order before they could act. The responsibility given to the commandos was gladly received by the young men of the British Army, who were tired of inertia, incompetence, and a defensive attitude.

1942. February. 40 Commando RM was formed at Deal with A, B and X companies. It was briefly known as 'A' RM Commando before being designated 40 RM Commando.

1942. May. The 50th Anniversary edition of the 'Globe & Laurel', editor by Lieutenant Colonel L.D. Briscoe RM. Now printed by Holbrook & Son Ltd on Queen Street Portsmouth. The magazine was untypically light on the Corps activity due to war time restrictions, concentrating more on sport, promotion and honours to fill the pages. However, a prisoner of War section kept families informed while the advertisements helped with information on how to find difficult to get rationed items.

1942. June. No2 Special Boat Section (SBS) took part in airfield raids on the isle of Crete in the Mediterranean.

1942. June. The movement of POWs from Changi to Thailand to build the Death Railway began. From Singapore to Ban Pong in crowded rice wagons then force marched to Kanchanaburi and Chungkai and then on to jungle camps further up the line to Burma. Many of those who survived this were sent in 1944 by sea to Japan as slave labour, many of the ships being sunk by Allied submarines on the journey with huge loss of life. When liberation finally came in September 1945 33 Plymouth Argyll Royal Marines had died in captivity.

1942. Wednesday 19th August. One of the first raids the Royal Marines were involved in was during the raid on Dieppe in France. That involved No3 and No4 Commando's and the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, and known as 'Operation Jubilee'. The raid did not go as planned. The casualties included 3,367 Canadians and 275 British Commandos. The Royal Navy lost one destroyer and 33 landing craft, suffering 550 dead and wounded. The RAF lost 106 aircraft to the Luftwaffe's 48, while the German army also suffered 591 casualties.

One month after Dieppe, most of the 11th Royal Marine Battalion were killed or captured in an amphibious landing at Tobruk during 'Operation Agreement' that also included the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders 1st Battalion.

1942. September. No2 Special Boat Section (SBS) carried out Operation Anglo, a raid on two airfields on the island of Rhodes, from which only two men returned. After destroying three aircraft, a fuel dump and numerous buildings, the surviving SBS men had to hide in the countryside for four days before they could reach the waiting submarine. After the Rhodes raid, No2 SBS was absorbed into the SAS due to the casualties they had suffered.

1942. Saturday 10th October. 41 Commando RM was formed at Pembroke Dock. It was briefly known as B Royal Marine Commando.

1942. October. After the Dieppe raid, the Commando changed internally from a company to a troop organisation, with five troops of some 65 men. 'A' Troop was commanded by Captain Mike Ephraums MC RM (who was killed in Italy the following year). He was a keen fan of the novels by Leslie Charteris, most of which revolved around the adventures of one Simon Templar, whose pseudonym was 'The Saint'. The 'Saint’s' emblem was a matchstick figure with a halo, and this is still used today by A Company. (from Mr M G Little RM Museum Archivist & Librarian) Photo from Terry Aspinall. Was always worn out of sight.

1942. Monday 7th December. The Cockleshell Heroes raided on the Nazi occupied French port of Bordeaux. They succeeded in sinking one ship and severely damaging four others and doing enough damage to greatly disrupt the use of the harbour for months to come. Such was the significance of the raid that Winston Churchill said that it helped to shorten to World War Two by six months.For a number of months during the war, merchant ships had used Bordeaux to supply the German military that was stationed in that part of France. German U-boats used the area as a base. Any supply ships that came through the English Channel could be dealt with but plenty of merchant ships were willing to sail to Bordeaux harbour via the Mediterranean and there was little the British Navy could do about it. A raid by bombers would have led to many civilian casualties – so this was excluded. The task of the Cockleshell Heroes was simple, destroy as many ships in the harbour as was possible so that the harbour itself would be blocked with wreckage, thus rendering it incapable of fully operating as a harbour. This was to be called Operation Frankton.

The Cockleshell Heroes were Royal Marine Commandos. These men got their nickname as the canoes they were to use were nicknamed ‘cockles’. After months of training, they were ready to set off for their target, except that none of them knew what their target was. This was only made known to them once the submarine HMS Tuna had surfaced off of the French coast.
The twelve men that formed the Cockleshell Heroes were taken by submarine and dropped off the coast of Bordeaux. The plan was for the six teams of two men to paddle five miles to the mouth of the River Gironde, paddle seventy miles up it, plant limpet mines of the ships in the harbour and then make their way to Spain.

The raid started badly once the HMS Tuna. The two Royal Marines who were meant to have used this canoe – called ‘Cachalot’ – could not take part in the raid. It is said that Marines Fisher and Ellery were left in tears at their disappointment.
The leader of the raid was Major ‘Blondie’ Hasler. His partner was Marine Bill Sparks. Their canoe was code named ‘Catfish’. As the canoes approached the mouth of the Gironde they hit a violent rip tide. The waves were five feet high and the canoe ‘Conger’ was lost.

The two crew of Conger – Corporal George Sheard and Marine David Moffat – were towed by the other canoes. Once near the shoreline, both men had to swim to the shore as they were slowing down the remaining canoes. Neither men made it to the shore nor they were assumed to have drowned.

The crew of the canoe ‘Coalfish’ – Sergeant Samuel Wallace and Marine Jock Ewart - were caught by the Germans and shot.
The crew of the ‘Cuttlefish’ – Lieutenant John Mackinnon and Marine James Conway had to abandon their canoe after it was damaged. They were also caught by the Germans, handed over to the Gestapo and shot.

With four canoes down, the raiders were only left with two canoes. Along with ‘Catfish’, ‘Crayfish’ was left crewed by Marine William Mills and Corporal Albert Laver.

By now, the Germans knew that something was up and they had done a great deal to increase patrols along the river. The two crew paddled at night and hid during the day.

The two canoes got to the harbour. Here they were spotted by a sentry who failed to raise the alarm – possibly he mistook what he saw for driftwood as both crews remained motionless in their canoes as they had been trained to do.

The crew of both remaining cockleshells placed limpet mines on the merchant ships they found in the harbour. They had an eight minute fuse on them, giving the Marines time to get away. Both ‘Crayfish’ and ‘Catfish’ escaped on the tide. The damage to Bordeaux harbour was severe. Now the crews had to leave their canoes, move on foot and link up with the French Resistance at the town of Ruffec. The Germans automatically assumed that the men would travel south to Spain. In fact, they travelled 100 miles north of Bordeaux – a journey that took them two months.

Laver and Mills, who were moving separately from Sparks and Hasler, were caught by the Germans and shot. With the help of the French Resistance, Hasler and Sparks reached Spain and then Gibraltar. Even here, Sparks met problems. Hasler used his rank to get transported back to Britain.

However, Sparks did not have such luck and was arrested. In fact the Chief of Combined Operations, Lord Louis Mountbatten, had assumed all the men were dead, so anyone claiming to be them would have been treated with suspicion. Sparks was put under guard by the military police. However, he slipped these guards at Euston Station in London and, after visiting his father, made his way to the Combined Operations Headquarters.(author can not be contacted).
Catfish - Major Hasler and Marine Sparks - Both escaped after the raid and survived the war.
Crayfish - Cpl. Laver and Marine Mills-Betrayed after raid, captured and executed.
Cuttlefish - Lt. MacKinnon and Marine Conway - Capsized, captured and executed.
Coalfish - Sgt. Wallace & Marine Ewart - Capsized, swam to shore, captured and executed.
Conger - Cpl. Sheard & Marine Moffatt - Capsized, towed to near shoreline, but lost at sea.
Cachalot - Marine Ellery & Marine Fisher - Canoe damaged on HMS Tuna, returned to base.
Reserve - Marine Colley - Returned to base from Submarine.

Lord Louis Mountbatten Chief of Combined Operations In the foreword to the book ‘Cockleshell Heroes’ Admiral of the Fleet Earl Mountbatten of Burma wrote: "Of the many and dashing raids carried out by the men of Combined Operations Command, none was more courageous or imaginative than ‘Operation Frankton’. An immense amount of trouble was taken over the training of the small handful of picked Royal Marines who took part under the indomitable leadership of Lieutenant-Colonel ((sic) (Major) Hasler. They maintained their object in spite of the frightening losses of the first night and the subsequent ever-increasing difficulties they encountered. Although the force had been reduced to four men, the objective was finally achieved. The account of this operation brings out the spirit of adventure always present in peace and war among Royal Marines. It emphasizes the tremendous importance of morale - pride in oneself and one's unit - and what a big part physical fitness plays in creating this morale. It also stresses the need for careful detailed planning of operations. I commend it to all as an account of a fine operation, carried out by a particularly brave party of men."

1942. Monday 7th December. Operation Frankton. Corporal George Sheard and Marine David Moffat as crew of the canor ‘Conger’ were both lost at sea.

1942. Wednesday 9th - Thursday 10th December. Sergeant Samuel Wallace and Marine Jock Ewart were captured by the Germans and executed after two days. Both were the crew of canoe 'Coalfish.'

1942. December. 463 Kings Squad passed for Duty.

1943. Saturday 13th March. 410 Kings Squad passed for duty at Chatham.

1943. Saturday 20th March. Ten military class Naval Trawlers were constructed by Cook Welton & Gemmel Ltd of Beverly who launched 75 Trawlers to Royal Navy designs, based on commercial ships.
The 'HMS Royal Marine' (ASW Trawler Type) was ordered on Saturday 20th March as part of the 1943 Trawler program. Heavy demands were made on the Trawlers during the war years for A/S and M/S work in the opening stages of the war and they proceeded far afield, even to providing the A/S screen for some of the ocean convoys. Their weatherly qualities always of the highest order, often resulted in their being the only form of escort operative in bad weather and they could keep to the seas when even destroyers were compelled to seek shelter.
These ships had a displacement of 750 tons and were powered by a steam reciprocating engine producing 1,100 S.H.P giving a top speed of 11 knots. She was armed with a single 4in gun plus Four 20mm A.A guns. 'Royal Marine' survived the war and was later sold out of navy service to become the 'Sisapon' in 1946. She was later converted to a deep water trawler with diesel engines for Icelandic fishing.
She was ordered on the Saturday 20th March 1943.
Laid down on the Tuesday 30th March 1943.
Launched on the Saturday 22nd July 1944.
Commissioned on the Monday 30th October 1944.
Was de-commissioned and sold Thursday 11th April 1946.
Commands listed for HMS Royal Marine (T 395)
T/S. Lt. Leonard Norman Holmes, RNVR. September 1944 to Tuesday 29th May 1945.
Lt. Wallace Melville Baird, RNR. Tuesday 29th May 1945 to Thursday 13th December 1945.

HMS Royal Marine

1943. April. The 1st Special Air Service (SAS) was divided into two with 250 men from the SAS and the Small-Scale Raiding Force, forming the Special Boat Squadron under command Major the Earl Jellicoe. They moved to Haifa and trained with the Greek Sacred Regiment for operations in the Aegean.

1943. Quartermaster Sergeant Norman Finch V.C. was promoted to temporary Lieutenant in charge of stores. Serving at 104 (training) RM Brigade, RM Training Group Dalditch Devon.

1943. Sunday 1st August. 42 Royal Marine Commando was formed from the 1st Royal Marine Battalion.

1943. Sunday 1st August. Forton Barracks Royal Marines Light Infantry (RMLI) was closed.

1943. Saturday 7th August. 45 Royal Marines Commando was formed at Burley Hampshire from the 5th Royal Marine Battalion.

1943. August. 45 Commando RM was formed at Burley Hampshire during the first week of August.

1943. August. 41 Commando was formed.

1943. August. 43 Commando RM was formed as 43 RM Commando it was disbanded at the end of the war.

1943. August. 47 Commando was formed.

1943. Wednesday 1st September. The 3rd Headquarters Special Service Brigade was formed from Headquarters 102 Royal Marine Brigade.

1943.  Saturday 30th October. A first-hand account from Jack Eaves, RM CH\X 111853. Bowman LCA 994, to the author.

535 and 536 Flotillas joined HMS Glenearn, in the Murray Firth, (N.W. coast of Scotland) at Cromarty. When the Flotilla’s left Dartmouth College, they were sent to West Cliff near Southend, from there they went to Fort William on the West coast of Scotland. We stayed there a little while. There was a castle that we practiced abseiling down the buttress, forward! Flying Fox etc. This was the western end of the Caledonia Canal, our LCA’s were delivered there and we took them thru’ the canal to Inverness, and were billeted in the Cameron Barracks, from there we had exercises on the Firth for a while. Our officers were, Lieutenant Richards and 2nd Lieutenant Jefferies. Then 535 and 536 Flotillas joined HMS Glenearn on the 30th October 1943, on the Murray Firth.  Not as stated in London during December 1943. 536 Flotilla later transferred to the Empire Cutlass, and 543 Flotilla came on board. My service records confirm this Lieutenant Webber joined the Flotilla about December 1943, and 2nd Lieutenant Jefferies left. Therefore, Lieutenant Jefferies was not with us during the ‘D’ Day Landings.

The number of the Flotilla was determined largely by the number of davits available. On the Empire ships there were 18 davits. On HMS Glenearn there were 24 davits so there were two flotillas of 12. Although everything changed with 543 flotilla as it had 12 LCA’S, and 3 LCM’S which were carried on deck. on the HMS Manawa they could accommodate a flotilla of 20 lCA’s. Although there were photos of the Empire ships with a LCVP on deck. To tell them apart HMS Cutlass had a huge 'CS' painted on the side, HMS Battleaxe had a huge 'BX', HMS Broadsword had a huge 'BD' on the side. The little cross channel ships only carried 6 LCA’s. Therefore it varied immensly. The Ships had names and the flottila's had numbers.

1943. 40 & 41 Commandos land in Sicily during Operation Husky.

1943. 41 Commando land at Salerno in Italy during Operation Avalanche. The Royal Marine Battalions are formed into 40 & 43 Commandos in action in Italy, Albania and Yugoslavia.

1944. January. 43 Commando lands at Anzio. While in the UK 48 Commando was formed.

1944. Saturday 22nd April. 418 Kings Squad passed for duty by General Armstrong Plymouth Division.

1944. Tuesday 6th June. The Landings in Normandy, or D-Day as it became known. Over 17,000 Royal Marines took part in the largest amphibious operation in history. Most of the minor landing craft were manned by Royal Marines, as also were the guns of the support craft, and all capital ships carried an RM detachment. Five RM Commandos (41, 45, 46, 47 and 48) landed during the assault phase, grouped with three Army Commandos into two Special Service Brigades. In addition the Corps provided a number of specialist units including an Armoured Support Group, beach clearance and control parties and engineers. The first 48 hours of the operation were the most critical, involving a seaborne assault against a heavily protected and strongly held coastline. Most of the RM Commando were ashore by 0900 hours on 6th June and had achieved their initial objectives by early on 7th June. The Corps thus played a leading role in the establishment of secure beach heads from which subsequent operations to defeat the German Army in the west were developed. Nine officers and 85 men were killed in action on 6th June. The number of wounded is not known. The following gallantry awards were conferred upon Royal Marines during the Normandy campaign, most of them for actions on 6th June: 5 DSOs, 3 OBEs, 13 DSCs, 10 MCs, 1 CGM, 26 DSMs and 13 MMs.

1944. Friday 1st September. After HMS Lothian reached Balboa in Panama an armed mutiny (the first in the Royal Navy since the 19th century) occurred on-board due to the atrocious conditions. A Royal Marine detachment was sent on board to quell the mutiny. 17 senior men were court-martialled and reduced in rank, whilst other mutineers were given six months' extra duties and punishment drill. However, as the mutineers could not be removed from the ship in Balboa for lack of another ship or available jails, sentences were suspended and the ship proceeded to the Pacific.

HMS Lothian joined the U.S. 7th Fleet at New Guinea on Friday 29th September 1944, but the British vessel went unused by the Americans and she eventually set sail for Sydney, after seeing no combat.

HMS Lothian was a former cargo ship launched in 1938, as MV City of Edinburgh, which was requisitioned during the Second World War as a troop transport and later converted by the Royal Navy into a headquarters ship in the Pacific. Shortly after the start of the Second World War the City of Edinburgh was requisitioned by the Ministry of War Transport for war work. In September 1943 the ship was passed to the Admiralty and converted to a Landing Ship Headquarters for operations in the Pacific for which she was totally unsuited.

In July 1944 the ship was recommissioned as HMS Lothian and was sent to be part of the U.S. 7th Fleet as part of Force X. Leaving the Clyde on Thursday 3rd August 1944, the Lothian sailed for New York and then down to the Panama Canal. The ship's complement had swelled to 750 (instead of the normal 450) under the command of Rear Admiral Arthur George Talbot. Conditions aboard were extremely poor as the ship, being unsuited for tropical climates, had poor ventilation and air-conditioning and a lack of sufficient water.

In February 1945 the Lothian became flagship to Rear Admiral Douglas Blake Fisher and operated as a control ship for merchant transports arriving to supply the British Pacific Fleet. After the Japanese surrender in August 1945, she was used to evacuate civilians and prisoners of the Japanese from Singapore, Hong Kong and Shanghai.

In 1946 HMS Lothian was returned to the Ellerman Line and reverted back to the MV City of Edinburgh. She resumed her previous route and in April 1961 was sold to Hong Kong Salvage and Towage Company, renamed Castle Mount and sailed to Hong Kong for scrapping in July 1961.

1944. October - November. First Hand account from Jack Eaves CH\X 111853 Royal Marine serving on HMS Glenearn.
During October and November 1944 HMS Glenearn, (Landing Ship Infantry, Large) was in North Queensland training Australian troops in amphibious landings, then the training changed from landing troops to practicing embarking personnel from the beach, the (craft had to be kept floating) for an operation on North Borneo in conjunction with Australian troops, and that the USN had given us permission to take part in this operation as Nth Borneo was British Territory, (we were ostensibly classed as a unit of the USN), our comments to this was are they expecting a ‘Dunkirk’ in North Borneo?? Beyond that nothing made sense. In December 1944 ‘Glenearn’ headed back to New Guinea, and were told that Gen. McArthur now needed every ship that he could muster for the Philippine campaign, which was now top priority.

Many years later I read the book ‘Project Kingfisher’ foreword by Sir Roden Cutler VC and then things made sense. Photo of book below.

My personal observations and I have also been told that a ‘project’ is an operation involving Paratroops, who in this case would have dropped on Sandakan and consolidated the area then the landing craft (us!) would come in and pick up the POW’S and the Paratroops, also there were four other Large British Infantry Landing Ships in the area, HMS Empire Mace, HMS Empire Arquebus, HMS Empire Battleaxe, and HMS Empire Spearhead.

A Tokyo signal of August 1944 for the final disposition of POW’s was known, there is no doubt in my mind that a rescue had been planned, whether successful or not we will never know, these men deserved their chance.
A year before the end of WW2, the Japanese War Ministry issued written orders to all prison camp commandants instructing them to prepare for the 'final disposition' of their POWs:
It Read:
Whether they are destroyed individually or in groups, or however it is done, with mass bombing, poisonous smoke, drowning, decapitation or whatever, dispose of them as the situation dictates.
In any case it is the aim not to allow the escape of a single one, to annihilate them all, and not to leave any traces.

1944. In late October. A letter from Roy Leaney Po/x110850. (25.11.1924. - 15.11.2016) who was on board  LCF 32 Landing craft (known as flakkers) to the Author.

Our ship was was proceeding up the English Channel and I could see the French and Belgian coasts, as part of a Close Support Squadron Eastern flank. Later we went to anchor in the port of Ostend.

Our Captains, Commanders and RM officers all went ashore for conference that took place aboard the Command Ship that lay in the harbour. On their return, all hands were mustered in the Marines Mess and briefed as to our next task. This was to provide close gun support t4 our own 41, 47 & 48 RM Commando's of the 4th S.S. Brigade, who were to assault the island of Walcheren across the shallows of the Scheldt estuary We were told quite bluntly this was to be no 'picnic! The island was heavily defended, with some 50 German Heavy A/A and coastal batteries plus the German 70th Division.

On the afternoon of the 31st October, orders were again passed for all hands to bathe and change into clean underclothing ready for action. We sailed early that evening. We came in sight of Walcheren Island at about 0730hrs, on the morning of the 1st November, I remember the weather was cold and bleak with a slight sea mist and the sky overcast.

As we moved in, we came under very heavy fire from the German 88's and heavy mortars, the squadron was hit severely with the a few casualties. However, we had been lucky, although hit several times we had sustained no casualties. At about 1000hrs we received a radio message that the Canadians with 4 Army Commando, had landed at Flushing from the mainland side, and we were ordered to proceed at all costs.

The craft left were reformed and with 'Battle' ensigns flying and still under intense and accurate fire, turned into line ahead, and ran for the breaches blown in the dyke by the RAF, and as we steamed at full speed we could hear the bottom of the craft grating across the gravel of the sea bed, hoping against hope that we would not ground, turning again and gaining a few extra knots from the running tide, we opened up with very gun we could on the German positions on the high ground and in the dunes, they in turn plastering us with everything they had.

As we went in our young Lieutenant RM stood up in the how with his binoculars, calling the shots when they fired, and telling, us when to 'Duck'. lie was irreverently known us as "Dagwood" for he looked so much like him.

With LC(F)37 ahead of us and 26 astern we continued firing until 37 took a shell forward and one astern, then with her guns still firing she was hit amidships, smack in the magazine, she went up in a ball of flame. We also had now received several more hits and startled I looked aft to see how 26 was, she was swamped with water and clouded in spray from the shells failing around her, but still struggling through. Our No 2 Port Porn-Porn was hit by a heavy armor-piercing shell, it passed straight thought the gun platform, through the Skippers cabin under the bridge, through the Radio Root & Spud Locker, the Drying Room and into the Galley on the starboard side before bursting and blowing up the deck by my Starboard Pompom, killing the P.O. Motor Mechanic, as the smoke cleared the Skipper popped his head up and asked if we were okay, yours truly was just about to cut the last tie of a Carley Float, ready to go over the side.

We were in a mess, the fire hoses, pipes and appliances on the starboard side were gone, the after starboard Oerlikon ready-use locker was on fire, with 'Jock' Proudfoot a, Scotty from Glasgow, and the Marine in charge of the gun, up to his elbows in the burning locker, grabbing ammo and tossing it over the side, without doubt his quick action saved us from what could have been a major explosion aft. After a short lull or so it seemed at the time, I was suddenly hurled across the deck from the starboard side coaming, it's true you never hear the one that's yours, I didn't, just a flash and the smoke, I had been lucky, crouched down as it hit, I was not injured just winded by blast. Another hit Port side forward destroyed the Marines Mess, we jammed hammocks in the hole and drove in wooden wedges to stem the flow as the sea rushed in.

We had taken the brunt of the German fire, but by 1300hrs the commandos were ashore. It was to cost them dearly, the 4th S.S. Brigade had some 500 casualties.

I knew that LCG(M)10 had also gone down, although some of her lads were picked up. While our ship was sorely hurt, holed and taking water with one engine gone, we could do nothing but run her up on the beach 'again', pumping out and with all hands struggling to make her seaworthy.

In the evening we kedged off, and signaled to is destroyer to take us in tow, as we had not been able to repair the damaged engine only to receive the signal back:
"Sorry - You are in a minefield"
Good thing it was it was now high tide.

For 72 hours, without hot food, without sleep, and with the pumps going continuously, we struggled back to Ostend, on our one engine, there, just before we entered the harbour, Commander SELLAR came aboard, going directly onto the bridge where he asked for a Marines beret, then putting it on, he turned to our Skipper and said "Now you can take her in - job well done".
Having tied up, hot food was brought on board, and well fed, we slung our hammocks and slept, Boy did we sleep!

Next morning; awoke early to find the water was up over our ankles, and the mess deck awash, our ship was sitting firmly on the harbor bottom.

The Army Fire Service came and pumped us dry and we went back to plugging holes and trying to make the mess decks livable as best we could.

Later that morning Commander SELLAR again came aboard and we were mustered on deck. He pointed to a lovely motor-ship laying alongside us, "Go home on her - Five days survivors leave - See your Skipper first - Dismissed "was all he said. With all the ship crew below deck, came a 'pipe from the Skipper "Help me get this ship back to England and I still see what I 'can do".
With rough repairs completed, we slowly worked our way across the channel, past the white cliffs of Dover, keeping close inshore to the beaches of Hastings, Brighton and Worthing, so close that we could almost touch the piers, ready at any time to run her up on the beach.
We finally arrived off Cowes in the Isle of Wight and going alongside an ammunition barge, we de-unmunitioned ship, then they pulled us up a slipway; Rockies everywhere! Riveters, Painters, Welders, Engineers, Carpenters, you name them - we had them.
The skipper reported to Headquarters on shore and on hi: return said, "Thank you for getting this ship back home - Both watches 21 days leave apiece".

The entire company of LC(F)32 was put in for a recommendation, as a result of which, the Skipper got a DSO, 'Jock' Proodfoot the DSM, with our ships Sgt. Major, Mark Snell, Sgt. Johnny Bryant, and the P.O. all receiving a Mention in Dispatch's.
Although we did not know it at the time, the Eastern Flank Close Support Squadron had been all but wiped out at Walcheren. Of the twenty-eight Support Craft engaged, 9 had been sunk, 11 put out of action, and the remaining 8 damaged, so sadly the Squadron was dis-banded.
To those of the Squadron who never made it back from Walcheren, I say:
At the going down of the sun, and in the morning.
We that did, will always remember you.

1944. Wednesday 1st November. The Assault on Walcheren. The leading troops in the successful seaborne attack on Walcheren in November 1944, were the 4th Special Service Brigade (Brigadier B.W. Leicester DSO) consisting of Numbers 41, 47, and 48 Commandos and Number 4 Army Commando. The three RM commandos attacked Westkapelle with little support, owing to the weather, other than that provided by the naval support craft, the guns of which were manned by RM crews. The success of the landing was in no small measure due to the self sacrifice and gallantry of the naval support craft, and after some days' heavy fighting ashore, the batteries covering the mouth of the Scheldt were captured. The clearing of the entrance to the river, in which the RM thus performed a gallant and leading part, was of the greatest importance to the operations of the Allied Armies in Flanders.

1944. Monday 18th   December. A first-hand account from Jack Eaves RM CH\X 111853. Bowman LCA 994, to the Author:

The Jaba river Operation, Bougainville. Part of X Force.

The Commander of 2nd Australian Corps requested from the Flag Officer Commanding 'X' Force the loan of 4 LCA’s for an operation up the Jaba River with the 29th Australian Infantry Brigade. The army’s LCM’s and LCVP’s being too deep a draught to cross the bar at the mouth of the river.

Two LCA’s from each HMS Empire Arquebus (536 Flotilla) and Empire Battleaxe, (537 Flotilla) were selected and under the command of Lieutenant H.E. Day RM, of HMS Empire Battleaxe, were prepared and proceeded at first light on the 19th December.

At 0800 hrs on the 20th, 'DAYFORCE' as it became known, moved in single line ahead, eastward across Augusta Bay for the Tekessi River. Following their guide, an Australian launch, stolid looking and unromantic in contrast to the low green shapes of the LCA’s. To Port lay Bougainville, hazy in the morning mist, it’s mountain range thick with dense scrub, it’s flats covered in steaming jungle. The hills were Japanese territory, and the flats dominated by them represented the tiny perimeter which had been consolidated for more than a year.

By1000 hrs the force had crossed the bar at the mouth of the Tekessi River and reported to the Australian Brigadier at his HQ. We had come prepared for any emergency, Lewis Guns, Rifles, Medical Supplies, Camp Gear, Motor Mechanic, Wireman, and a Marine Shipwright.

Beyond the Tekessi River, the Australians had infiltrated along the coast as far as the Jaba River and were reported to be scouting the Tuju River. Patrols had been confined within the coastal strip and the Brigadier was anxious to know whether the Jaba river was navigable inland as far as the patrol, which was operating on the left bank, the limit would be a sign 'JAPS AHEAD'. He was also interested in the Tuju, about four miles beyond the Jaba, but was questionable if the sand bar at its mouth could be crossed by LCA’s. Bougainville rivers flow fast, coming down from the hills, fed daily by thunderstorms and with a 4-knot race, pile up sand barriers at their mouth.

The Jaba is 40 yards wide in the flats and with the dense jungle on either side makes it difficult to locate from seaward. We found out when we hit the sand bar and poled and pushed into the estuary. It would have been ‘happy hunting grounds’ for the R.M.O.C.U, and a quick finish for the coxswain who was ‘shaky’ in seamanship. The river was alive with snags, branches of sunken logs sticking above the water, with other logs whizzing past every other minute. The deeper water was obviously to be found at the outer edge of the bends and the current flowed round with its complemenent of torn up tree trunks sweeping on into the dense jungle. By pole soundings and good luck, we struggled 5 miles inland, located the patrol on the bank and then turned back for the Tuju.

The mouth of the Tuju lay 4 miles down the coast, Australian patrols had reported that the mouth was clear of the enemy, and we spent an hour there before eventually finding a channel through the sand bar, we then returned and made our report.

At first light the following morning the real job began, a ferry service was established between the Tekessi, and the Jaba rivers. All day a constant stream of troops, stores and ammo, moved up the Jaba, the north bank had been cleared of the enemy, but it was known that a Japanese strong point was located in the swamps of the south bank beyond the forward elements. The Japanese appeared to be fairly well supplied with small arms and machine guns. Although they had lost most of their artillery when counter attacking the perimeter the previous March. A landing was made on the Southbank, behind the enemy position, and a small force moved inland to start a pincer move to outflank the Japanese, it would have to be by river.  

The following morning two LCA’s were loaded with the New Guinea movement. On the north bank the left flank was held up by dense jungle, it had taken a company two hour to move 200 yards and it was realised that the infantry had to be moved up by river. The 'JAPS AHEAD' sign (a 4ft target painted white with a red ball in the centre) was sighted about 100 yards up river from our start point. As far as we were concerned this was 'H' Hour, the Lewis guns were ready and, in the bow, sat a New Guinea boy watching the dense jungle like a hawk. It was said that the New Guinea native could smell a Jap before he could see them. The coxswain watched the river for anywhere in the dense jungle the Nips could be sitting with his 'Wood-pecker' trained on us. At times the craft jammed on the sand bar and stuck. Then every man jack went over the side and pushed like hell. Occasionally we saw a crocodile, parakeets, and butterflies with 6-inch wing spans. Someone remarked that they were big enough to be paratroops- that crack carried us a mile up the river. After landing our troops, we returned downstream with wounded and some prisoners. You cannot beat the Jaba on the run, there is more danger on the way down than on the run up, the fast current forced us to keep the engines at full astern to minimise the impact should we hit a snag, and we hit them hard and often. During this period there were no casualties among the LCA crews, but one craft had to be abandoned. On the 29th December, two craft from HMS Empire Mace were sent to augment the small flotilla, and the sunken craft replaced. The newly established drop off point was now fed by the river service, and a daily trip was necessary.

Each trip had its troubles, we knew where the enemy were said to be located and precautions were taken to cover the well deck of the craft as a counter against grenades (we hoped that they would bounce off into the drink), this subsequently found to be a worthwhile precaution because 4 days later reconnaissance patrols confirmed the Japs had been where we thought they were.
No grenades were ever thrown at us or shots fired, perhaps credit for this should go to the silent running of the craft. Attacks on us were confined to dive-bombing mosquitoes and infiltrating ants, the ants made their most violent attack one trip when the river rose to full flood in a thunder storm and swept our LCA into the bank, the crash bringing down an ant nest on to the head of the coxswain who spent the rest of the trip cursing, searching, and scratching. This was far more frightening than when a battery of Australian 25 pounders began a bombardment of the river bank only a few hundred yards from the craft.
As exploitation progressed, troops were ferried further and further up the Jaba river until the Japs were cleared out of the area. On the 6th January, our job was done, 'Dayforce' returned to their parent ships where on inspection one craft were found to have 15 fractures in her bottom.
This story, one of those small events involving the Corps and so often overlooked was compiled from the appendix to the official report of the Flag Officer Force 'X' as supplied by RMAQ members Jack Eaves and Tony Cude.

1944. Major Ricketts arrangment of 'A Life On The Ocean Waves', written by Henry Russell, became the version used by the Corps.

1945. January. Two further Royal Marine Brigades were formed, the 116th and 117th Brigade. Both were conventional Infantry, rather than in the Commando role. 116th Brigade saw some action in the Netherlands, but 117th Brigade was hardly used operationally.

1945. Monday 22nd January. The Battle of Kangaw and capture of Hill 170 was a battle between the British 3rd Commando Brigade under the command of Lieutenant Colonel H H Dales, and the Japanese 54th Division during the Second World War. The battle was fought in January 1945, as part of the Burma campaign.
The 3rd Commando Brigade were given the task of assaulting the Arakan Peninsula at Myebon. Here they were to take and hold the dominant features of the southern Chin Hills. If they could achieve this, they would cut off the supply and escape routes of the Japanese to Rangoon and secure the bridgehead. The battle for Hill 170 was the crisis of the Arakan operations, and its outcome broke the spirit of the Japanese 54th Division. Had the commandos' positions fallen, this would have endangered all the Allied units that had landed on the Myebon Peninsula.
After the battle, the commander of the XV Indian Corps Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison stated in a special order of the day to the 3rd Commando Brigade, "The Battle of Kangaw had been the decisive battle of the whole Arakan campaign and that it was won was very largely due to your magnificent defence of Hill 170."
3rd Commando Brigade coming ashore during the Burma Campaign.
The Background:
In late December 1944, XV Indian Corps commanded by Lieutenant General Christison went on the offensive, and on friday  29th December the 3rd Commando Brigade then commanded by Brigadier Campbell Hardy carried out an unopposed landing on the island of Akyab. Following this reconnaissance, operations were undertaken around the Myebon Peninsula and on the surrounding islands. During one of these patrols, a group of commandos from No. 5 Commando had a brief contact with a Japanese force during which they killed four of them without suffering loss themselves.
On Friday 12th January 1945, the Commando Brigade carried out a landing on the peninsula. Coming ashore in the second wave behind No. 42 (Royal Marine) Commando, No. 5 Commando carried the advance inland until they came under machine gun fire from a hill that had been named 'Rose' by the planning staff. The following morning, after air support was called in and tanks from the 19th Lancers were brought up, No. 5 Commando launched an attack on the position. In the end, the attack was successful and as a result of the defenders deciding to fight to the death, no prisoners were taken.
For the next couple of days, No. 5 Commando carried out patrols throughout the peninsula as the enemy were cleared from the area, before they were withdrawn to the beachhead for a couple of days' rest. After this, the brigade captured the village of Kantha as a preliminary move on Kangaw, across a number of waterways on the mainland, where Christison had decided that he wanted to cut the Japanese line of withdrawal. The terrain was difficult with no roads, and consisting of mangrove swamps and rice paddies that prevented tanks or artillery coming ashore initially. The whole area was dominated by a small wooded ridge known as Hill 170.
The Battle:
At 13:00 hours on Monday 22nd January 1945, the leading elements of 3rd Commando Brigade landed 2 mile south of Kangow. The brigade landed without any naval or air bombardment in an attempt to surprise the Japanese.
The units of the brigade were given different objectives. No. 1 Commando in the lead would secure Hill 170, a 700 yards (640m) long, 300 yards (270 m) wide and 1,000 ft (300 m) high hill codenamed 'Brighton' supported by No. 5 Commando. No 42 (Royal Marine) Commando would be responsible for the security of the beachhead between two tidal creeks which were codenamed 'Thames' and 'Mersey'. No. 44 (Royal Marine) Commando's objectives were two valleys codenamed 'Milford' and 'Pinner' to the east of Hill 170. 'Milford' was secured on Monday 22nd January and 'Pinner' the following day. All the objectives were secured with only minimal Japanese resistance.
Over the night of 23rd -24th January, the Japanese attacked 'Pinner' and an artillery barrage unprecedented for the theatre of war landed on Hill 170 and would continue for the next four days.
On 26 January, 51st Indian Infantry Brigade supported by a troop of M4 Sherman tanks from the 19th Lancers arrived from the beachhead and took over the positions of No. 44 (Royal Marine) Commando on 'Milford' and 'Pinner'. On the night of Sunday 28th - Monday 29th January, 51st Brigade attacked Kangaw and two heights codenamed "Perth" and "Melrose" which dominated the road east from Kangow, but they only partially achieved their objectives as the Japanese resistance along their withdrawal route was hardening. However, they did secure Kangaw and occupied positions to dominate the main road.
The Japanese counter-attack:
The plan had now called for the withdrawal of 3rd Commando Brigade on 30 January, but the plans were halted by a new Japanese counter-attack on the brigade's positions by the 154th Infantry Regiment. The next morning at 05:45, the 2nd Battalion, 154th Infantry Regiment launched a surprise attack on Hill 170 under cover of a fierce artillery bombardment and heavy machine gun fire. The focus of their attack was the northern end of Hill 170 defended by No.4 Troop, No. 1 Commando. The troop's position was ringed by gunfire in a preliminary to a major attack. Throwing grenades in front of them, the Japanese attacked at 07:30 on a 100yard (91m) front platoon by platoon.
Hill 170 was now defended by No. 1 and No. 42 Commandos supported by a tank troop from the 19th Lancers. The tanks which were deployed at the northern end of the hill were attacked in a suicidal assault by Japanese engineers armed with explosive charges on the end of bamboo poles. The engineers destroyed two of the three Sherman tanks after a hand to hand battle by climbing on top of them and exploding their charges.
The Japanese infantry continued to attack Hill 170 throughout the rest of the day, the brunt of these attacks falling on No. 4 Troop of No. 1 Commando, which came under sustained pressure. At 09:30, a counter-attack was launched by W Troop, No. 42 Commando and No. 3 Troop, No. 1 Commando which had to be abandoned after advancing only 20 yard (18m) against heavy sustained machine gun fire. The next counter-attack was by X Troop, No. 42 Commando supported by the remaining Sherman tank. This attack also failed in the face of the heavy Japanese fire. The Commandos now responded by bringing all available artillery and mortar fire down on the Japanese positions. At 14:00, No. 6 Troop, No. 1 Commando put in a counter-attack but this attack also failed, with the troop losing nearly half of its men. To the east of Hill 170 on 'Pinner', No. 5 Commando was by then relieved by the 8/19th Hyderabad Regiment from the 51st Brigade and rejoined the 3rd Commando Brigade on Hill 170, their machine guns adding to the weight of fire brought to bear on the Japanese. At 16:00, the 2/2nd Punjab Regiment from the 51st Brigade managed to work their way around the left flank of Hill 170 and also engaged the Japanese from there. At the same time No. 5 Commando were moved forward to take over from the front line from No.4 Troop, except for one section that had been cut off and overrun. Just after 17:00, some Japanese were seen to be withdrawing from the hill and the 2/2nd Punjabi Regiment started a flanking night attack but this failed to drive the Japanese off their positions on the hill. The Japanese responded with a night attack of their own against No. 5 Commandos positions, which also failed.
An estimated 700 Japanese artillery shells landed on the hill during the last day of the battle. In a day of continuous fighting, much of it hand-to-hand, the men of No. 1 and No. 42 Commandos had repulsed and counter-attacked the waves of Japanese infantry. Early the following morning, No. 5 Commando were eventually able to move forward and found the hill abandoned apart from over 340 Japanese dead. The British losses for the battle were 45 dead and 90 wounded.
The Aftermath:
The Commandos' victory in the 36-hour battle for Hill 170 cut off the escape of the 54th Japanese Division. Further amphibious landings by the25th Indian Infantry Division and the overland advance of the 82nd (West Africa) Division made the Japanese position in the Arakan untenable and they ordered a general withdrawal to avoid the complete destruction of the Twenty-Eighth Japanese Army.
In recognition of the battle, the Commandos were awarded the battle honour Kangaw. The men of 3rd Commando Brigade were awarded a number of decorations for gallantry, which included a posthumous Victoria Cross for Lieutenant George Knowland No. 4 Troop, No.1 Commando. His citation reads:
In Burma on 31 January 1945, near Kangaw, Lieutenant Knowland was commanding the forward platoon of a Troop positioned on the extreme North of a hill which was subjected to very heavy and repeated enemy attacks -throughout the whole day. Before the first attack started, Lieutenant Knowland's platoon was heavily mortared and machine gunned, yet he moved about among his men keeping them alert and encouraging them, though under fire himself at the time. When the enemy, some 300 strong in all, made their first assault they concentrated all their efforts on his platoon of 24 men, but, in spite of the ferocity of the attack, he moved about from trench to trench distributing ammunition, and firing his rifle and throwing grenades at the enemy, often from completely exposed positions. Later, when the crew of one of his forward Bren Guns had all been wounded, he sent back to Troop Headquarters for another crew and ran forward to man the gun himself until they arrived. The enemy was then less than 10 yards (9.1 m) from him in dead ground down the hill, so, in order to get a better field of fire, he stood on top of the trench, firing the light machine gun from his hip, and successfully keeping them at a distance until a Medical Orderly had dressed and evacuated the wounded men behind him. The new Bren team also became casualties on the way up, and Lieutenant Knowland continued to fire the gun until another team took over. Later, when a fresh attack came in, he took over a 2-inch mortar and in spite of heavy fire and the closeness of the enemy, he stood up in the open to face them, firing the mortar from his hip and killing six of them with his first bomb. When all bombs were expended he went back through heavy grenade, mortar and machine gun fire to get more, which he fired in the same way from the open in front of his platoon positions. When those bombs were finished, he went back to his own trench, and still standing up fired his rifle at them. Being hard pressed arid with enemy closing in on him from only 10 yards away, he had no time to re-charge his magazine. Snatching up the Tommy gun of a casualty, he sprayed the enemy and was mortally wounded stemming this assault, though not before he had killed and wounded many of the enemy. Such was the inspiration of his magnificent heroism, that, though fourteen out of twenty four of his platoon became casualties at an early stage, and six of his positions were overrun by the enemy, his men held on through twelve hours of continuous and fierce fighting until reinforcements arrived. If this Northern end of the hill had fallen, the rest of the hill would have been endangered, the beach-head dominated by the enemy, and other units farther inland cut off from their source of supplies. As it was, the final successful counter-attack was later launched from the vital ground which Lieutenant Knowland had taken such a gallant part in holding.

1945. March. Y6 Kings Squad passed for duty.

1945. Tuesday 3rd April. Corporal Thomas Peck Hunter (1923 - 1945) was awarded the Victoria Cross (VC) during the battle of Comacchio.
The London Gazette of Wednesday 13th June 1945, gives the following details: In Italy Corporal Hunter of "C" Troop of a Royal Marine Commando was in charge of a Bren group of the leading sub-section. Having advanced to within 400 yards of the final objective he realised that his troop had to cross open ground where enemy fire would cause heavy casualties. Corporal Hunter seized the Bren gun and charged across 200 yards of open ground, attracting most of the enemy fire. Showing complete disregard for this fire he alone cleared the enemy position, capturing six Germans. The remainder fled over the canal. The troop now became the target for fire from the opposite bank. In full view, Corporal Hunter fired and drew most of the enemy fire while the greater part of the troop gained cover. Shouting encouragement to the remainder he continued firing with great accuracy until finally he was hit and killed. There can be no doubt that Corporal Hunter offered himself as a target in order to save his troop. By the skilful and accurate use of his Bren gun he demoralised the enemy, and later silenced many of the Spandaus firing on his troop, so that many of the troop made their final objective before he was killed. Throughout the operation his magnificent courage, leadership and cheerfulness had been an inspiration to his comrades.

1945. Three Royal Marines were awarded the Battle of Britain Clasp to the 1939 - 1945 Star. Captain R.C. Hay RM, 808 Squadron, Captain A.E. Marsh RM, 808 Squadron and Captain A.J. Wright RM, 804 Squadron.

1945. Sunday 2nd September. Saw the end of the Second World War. The following is a short list of Medals that were awarded to Royal Marines serving in Commando units. Others had been awarded at different times during the war.

BRYCE CK, Cpl, No.47 RM Commando, - MM (Immediate):
During a large scale raid on an enemy position east of Sallenelles on the evening of 18th June 1944, Cpl Bryce was in command of No.1 MMG detachment which advancing to take up a fire position, walked into an unallocated minefield. An explosion wounded Cpl Bryce and two Marines. Despite serious injuries to his foot, including a compound fracture of his leg, and in great pain, Cpl Bryce took charge of this detachment and the situation, got his gun into action against three located enemy machine gun positions, which had in the meantime opened fire on the detachment. It was due to Cpl Bryce's determination to accomplish his task disregarding his own injuries, that a serious dislocation of the fire plan did not occur and that fire support was forthcoming when it was required.

DONNELL, PM, Ty. Maj (A/Ty. Lt Col), No.47 RM Commando, - DSO (Periodic). Croix de Guerre with Vermillion Star:
When 47 (RM) Commando landed near Le Hamel in Normandy on the Tuseday morning of 6th June 1944 the Commanding Officer became separated from his unit. Major Donnell the second in command collected the very disorganised unit. Hearing the sound of heavy sustained firing Major Donnell went forward and quickly sizing up the situation, assembled as many of B Troop as he could find taking cover in the houses, and with complete disregard for his own safety personally led the attack on the flak ships lying along side the wall of the outer basin. Major Donnell, by his determination, his unflinching courage and his personal inspiration was largely responsible for the success of this attack, which was so vital to the whole operation.

During the attack the whole Commando on the enemy position at Sallenelles, east of River Orne on the evening of Saturday 17th June 1944, a MMG section, advancing to take up a firing position, walked into an unallocated minefield. Casualties were inflicted on both gun detachments. As soon as the first mine exploded an enemy machine gun opened fire at a range of 200 yards inflicting further casualties. Major Donnell, with complete disregard of the danger of further mine explosions and under accurate close range machine gun fire, went back, picked up the gun, carried it forward and personally acting as No.1, got it into action. The fire support provided by the MMG section contributed largely to the success of the raid.

In the assault on Walcheren Island he took command of a troop when its officers had become casualties, and later, during the night after an enemy counter attack, continually moved around the forward posts encouraging the men and bringing forward the ammunition and rations. In the words of his late commanding officer he was a tower of strength as second in command, his coolness under fire, imperturbability and his sound common sense have been of inestimable value. Later as Commanding Officer, it has not fallen his lot to take part in any major actions, but he has commanded and administered his unit and, by his skilful planning and direction of patrols and raids, inflicted casualties on the enemy and gained information at minimum costs.

ELLIS, WE, L/Sgt, No.47 RM Commando, - MM (Immediate):
On the evening of Thursday 8th June 1944 on the outskirts of Port-en-Bessin, Sgt Ellis was sent out in a carrier to collect two wounded men who were known to be lying by the side of the Pont fatu road. Sgt Ellis came under fire from close range from two directions. When he reached the wounded men he leapt out of the carrier and returned with both of them to their position. Throughout these actions Sgt Ellis's conduct and devotion to duty were an example to all.

EMSLEY, R, Marine, No.47 RM Commando, - MM (Immediate):
During the attack on Port-en-Bessin on Wedneday 7th June 1944 Marine Emsley was seriously wounded by a German mortar bomb. Despite his injuries, he continued to give supporting fire with his Bren gun and throughout showed an excellent offensive spirit. By this fine act of devotion to duty Marine Emsley very materially assisted the advance and final success of his comrades.

ENGLAND, JP, Acting Ty. CSM, Nos. 43, 46 & 47 RM Commando, - DCM:
On Thursday 2nd November, TSM England was TSM of one of the troops of 47 (RM) Commando detailed to attack one of the strongly defended battery positions south-east of Zoutelande which commanded the Scheldt estuary.
The defences included concreted casemates and pillboxes and unusually thick belts of wire covered by machine guns. The advance was over 1,500 yards of deep soft sand.
By the time the attacking troops had reached assaulting distance they had become very depleted and disorganised and it seemed as if there would be insufficient weight in the attack to storm the enemy defences.
At this critical time TSM England came under heavy fire at close range from an enemy machine gun. Seizing a bren gun lying on top of a dead marine, and firing from the hip as went, this brave NCO plodded up the soft sandy slope and charged this heavily bunkered position alone. He shot and killed two of the occupants and, running out of bren ammunition, he turned the German machine gun with good effect on three more Germans who had fled. Still alone, he worked forward to a second position 30 yards further on where he killed three more Germans, two others surrendering. Here he was later joined by men from another troop.
In a situation where the odds were strongly against him, and knowing that he was unsupported, the courage and determination of this NCO was above praise.
Later, in the growing darkness when it was impossible to give our forward troops any close support, the enemy counter-attacked and our men were driven off the enemy position on which they had gained a foothold.
The next morning another attack was put in on this enemy battery and TSM England's troop was given the task of mopping up behind the assaulting troops.
The enemy was putting up the most desperate resistance and soon attacking and mopping-up troops became intermingled. The enemy opened concentrated and sustained cross fire from the position which TSM England had rushed the previous evening and from a concrete fire control position known as the ‘umbrella' on the seaward side of the dunes. On his own initiative and with total disregard for his safety he threw a smoke grenade to screen himself from the view of the ‘umbrella' and rushed the machine-gun post in front of him. Killing or capturing the occupants, he continued to work through the network of trenches and tunnels.
Throughout the course of the battle for Walcheren , especially in the fluctuating and bitter fighting, his immense courage and total disregard for his safety had a decisive influence.

ESTHERsther, RWW, Acting Ty. Sgt, No.47 & 42 RM Commando, - MM (Periodic):
During the assault on Walcheren led by 47 (RM) Commando on Wedneday 1st November 1944, the LCT in which Sgt Esther was travelling was hit twice by shells and unable to beach, all LVT's had to swim off and owing to strong tidal conditions became disorganised and sub-units were landed at widely separated points. Sgt Esther immediately rallied his men and went in search of other scattered bodies of the Commando. By his energy, a large part of the Unit was reorganised , officers were contacted and a most difficult situation cleared up. Later on Thursday 2nd November, when the Commando were attacking enemy positions beyond Zoutelande, Sgt Esther's troop came under very heavy and concentrated mortar fire while crossing a large enemy anti-tank ditch in the sand dunes. Two of the three officers were severely wounded and it seemed doubtful if a footing could be gained on a high dune overlooking the ditch. Although severely wounded, he remained on the position encouraging his men to hold on until further troops arrived and the situation was reorganised. Only then did Sgt Esther allow himself to be evacuated .As an example to the great spirit of this NCO when in hospital although he knew that the Naval Authorities were evacuating all Royal Marine personnel to the United Kingdom, Sgt Esther insisted that the location of his Unit should be found and on leaving hospital he immediately rejoined the Commando by getting lifts from passing vehicles. Since the landings on Tuseday 6th June 1944, Sgt Esther's name has become famous in the Commando for his continued keenness to get at the enemy, for his coolness under fire and for his consistent cheerfulness.

FLOWER, RT, Ty. Capt, No.47 RM Commando, - MM:
On Thursday 2nd November, on Walchern, South of Zouteland, Captain Flower was in command of the leading troop of 47 (RM) Commando which had been ordered to capture one of the batteries commanding the Scheldte, and one which contained strongly held and well-sited concrete machine-gun emplacements. The objective was nearly 1500 yards from the start line and the attacking troops had to advance over soft sand dunes, covered with thick belts of wire and studded with both marked and unmarked minefields.
Captain Flower's troop came under heavy machine-gun and mortar fire and also fire from an 88 mm gun. Many casualties were caused forcing the men to seek what little cover they could find. Captain Flower, however, with the utmost gallantry, walking among his men in full view of the enemy, so encouraged and inspired them by his splendid example that they got up and followed him, plodding through the deep soft sand, with casualties still falling among them, until they were within 30 yards of the enemy position. Here Captain Flower was wounded in the chest and arm by a stick grenade. Nevertheless, under close range fire from enemy weapons of all kinds, he rushed the nearest weapon pit and killed the 3 occupants with his tommy gun. In the bitter and close fighting which ensued and despite the pain of his wounds, this officer showed great personal bravery and the highest standards of leadership. By this time the following troop, which had lost both its officers, had become merged with the leading troop. The enemy counter-attacked and Captain Flower and his men were driven back into a gully below the battery position.It was here that this officer was again wounded by a bullet.Now grievously wounded and weak from loss of blood, he continued cheerfully and resolutely to encourage those around him. When darkness fell his troop was ordered to withdraw.Throughout Captain Flower showed great personal bravery and inspiring leadership. There were times when the position appeared hopeless, but on each occasion it was restored by his fearless example and determination. His courage is still the subject of conversation among the men. When things were going badly it was a wonderful example to the whole Commando and in the highest traditions of his Corps.

FORFARr, JO, Captain, RAMC, No.47 RM Commando, - MC (Immediate):
At Walcheren on the afternoon of Thursday 2nd November 1944, during the advance along the dunes southeast of Zoutelande, the leading troop of 47 (RM) Commando came under extremely heavy and sustained enemy mortar fire, which killed 15 and wounded 21, including three officers. Amidst the bursting mortar bombs and whilst casualties were still being inflicted on those around him, Captain Forfar went forward to attend the wounded. The troop commander could not be found and Captain Forfar went on another 50 yards in incessant mortar fire, where he found him previously lying grievously wounded. Whilst he was dressing his wounds, five Germans appeared over the a sand dune 250 yards away and opened fire with an MG34, killing one, and wounding another of the stretcher party who had meanwhile crawled forward and joined him. Captain Forfar with complete disregard for his personal safety coolly went on giving the wounded first aid and he, together with the wounded, were later withdrawn under cover of smoke. Throughout the whole course of the first three days of the battle for Walcheren , when 82 ranks were wounded, many of whom were recovered by this officer personally with the greatest heroism; the courage and devotion to duty of this officer were above praise.

GADSDEN, DR, Marine, No.47 RM Commando, - MM:
On Wednesday 7th June 1944, during the attack on Port-en-Bessin, Commando Headquarters and one weakened troop on Point 72 feature were over-run by an enemy counter-attack, which was supported by mortar and machine gun fire. Marine Gadsden showing a complete disregard for his own safety, moved about bringing fire to bear from different positions for a long time deceiving the enemy as to our actual strength on the position. His gallant conduct and cool bearing were a great encouragement and inspiration to his comrades and materially assisted in frustrating the enemy's attempt to overcome the position.

GARDNER, DHG, Acting Ty. Sgt, No.47 RM Commando, - MM:
At about 1730 hours on Wednesday 7th June 1944 during the attack on Port-en-Bessin, Sgt Gardner's section came under heavy machine gun fire, which caused four casualties. Immediately afterwards, a German mortar inflicted further casualties including Sgt Gardner. Despite his wounds, Sgt Gardner pressed forward and occupied the position ordered. Throughout Sgt Gardner was very cheerful and later showed an excellent spirit whilst waiting to be evacuated from the Regimental Aid Post.

GOLDSTEIN, I, Ty. Lt, S.A.U.D.F., No.47 RM Commando, - MC:
During the attack on Port en Bessin on Wednesday 7th June, 'A' tp had to assault through belts of wire and mines up the eastern feature overlooking the port.Lt Goldstein moved forward and blew a gap in the wire with a bangalore. The force of this explosion blew him at least 30yds backwards down the hill. He quickly pulled himself together and went into the assault with "A" tp. He inspired the men by his example and courage of a high order and later, when wounded in the head and arm, refused medical attention until the other wounded had been treated.

GRIFFIN, JA, Marine, No.47 RM Commando, - MM:
During the attack on Port-en-Bessin on Wednesday June 7th 1944, Marine Griffin's section came under fire from an enemy MG. The remainder of the section went to ground but Marine Griffin immediately went forward alone and captured the occupants of the post. Throughout the assault, Marine Griffin was always in the thick of the fray, always cheerful.

HAW, R, The Revd, Ty. Chaplain, No.47 & 45 RM Commando, - DSC. For gallantry:
Zsteadfastness and inspiring devotion to duty whilst serving with the 45th Royal Marine Commando during the liberation of Holland.

HOOPER, A, Ty. Sgt (A/Ty. Clr Sjt), No.47 RM Commando, - Croix de Guerre with Vermillion Star:
At about 2130 hours on Wednesday 7th June, during 47 (RM) Commando’s attack on Port-en-Bessin, Sgt Hooper’s section came under heavy MG fire which caused four casualties. Immediately afterwards, a German mortar inflicted further casualties and Sjt Hooper was himself wounded. With hastily arranged fire support from his bren, and despite his wound, Sgt Hooper led his few remaining men in an assault on the enemy MG. In the failing light they over-ran the MG and the enemy trenches in its vicinity killing or capturing all the enemy still alive.
Unreconnoitred belts of mines and wire would have precluded any assault under cover of darkness and, if the enemy objective had not been captured that night, an attack next morning in daylight would have been a costly business.
Clr Sjt Hooper by his determination, his unflinching courage and his personal example was an inspiration to his men at a critical time when things were going badly.
Clr Sgt Hooper has maintained this very high standard of performance in the face of the enemy and has proved to be the most successful NCO patrol commander.
On the night of Thursday 15th and Friday 16th June he led a most difficult and successful night patrol into the enemy position near Sallenelles, East of the river. ORNE and brought back information of the enemy defences upon which a raid by the whole Commando two nights later was planned.

HORSFIELD, H, Acting Ty. Sgt, No.47 RM Commando, - MM:
Sgt Horsfield was a volunteer for a raid on the enemy forward defended lines, east of Sallenelles, during the early morning of Sunday 23rd July 1944. The enemy had been in position for at least six weeks and his defences were well prepared and covered with wire and mines. Sgt Horsfield was the Senior NCO of a small party, led by Lt Collet, who had been ordered to sweep to the left on reaching the enemy forward defended line. When about 50 yards from the enemy forward defended line, Lt Collet trod on a mine and became a casualty. Surprise was lost and the enemy opened heavy automatic fire aided by flares. Sgt Horsfield immediately took command of the unwounded numbers of his party and, who were considerably shaken, led them forward and by his fearless example restored their confidence. In the darkness the finding and searching of enemy weapon slits was difficult but not content to return empty handed, Sgt Horsfield persevered, the whole time under heavy automatic and mortar fire. His party captured and returned with an officer prisoner. He later returned with Lt O'Brien and assisted in carrying his own seriously wounded, clear of the minefield to safety.

HUGHES, TL, Ty. Lt, No.47 RM Commando, - MBE:
Lt Hughes has been signal officer of this Commando since before D-day. Throughout the campaign he has shown unfailing courage, good humour, energy and common sense.
During March and April of the year 1945 he has three times volunteered and twice accompanied the covering parties sent to establish watching patrols on the island of Schouwen. In this type of operation, good communications are vital and Lieut Hughes spared no effort to ensure them. This is characteristic of this officer's great work for the Commando. Outside his signal duties he has given willing and unvaluable service and has commanded and trained all HQ personnel in a very efficient manner.
In battle, and in training this officer has done far more than his allotted duties, and he has set a fine example of leadership, cheerfulness and determination.

JAMES, WTB, Lt, No. 4 Cdo. & 47 RM Commando, - MC:
For courage and leadership displayed during enemy attack at Hauger on the evening of Thursday 8th June 1944. The enemy had broken through the position covering the Commando left flank and were advancing up a valley straight towards Commando HQ which was being held by only a few men. Lieut James realised the danger of the situation and immediately called a few men and started a counter-attack. Although the enemy strength was estimated at one platoon he advanced with his small force and held the enemy's thrust. He personally accounted for many of the enemy by first firing a bren gun until the ammunition for that gun was expended. He then continued to fire with a rifle until all the ammunition for that weapon was gone and finally he picked up a Garand rifle continued to fire and succeeded in holding the enemy until a force arrived to assist his small party to drive the enemy back. By his prompt and brave action he undoubtedly prevented the enemy overrunning the position and by containing them formed the base for the counter-attack which restored the position.

JESNEY, Jal, L/Cpl, RAMC, No.47 RM Commando, – MM (Immediate):
On Wednesday 7th June, during the assault on Port-En-Bessin, 'A' Tp, whilst moving up the Eastern junction overlooking the port, came under heavy and accurate fire at a range of 300yds from two Flak ships lying in the harbour. Four men were killed outright and twelve others injured, but L/Cpl Jesney stood by and tended the wounded still under fire. He showed selfless devotion to duty of a high order.

KENDENDRICK, PG, L/Cpl, RAMC, No.47 RM Commando, - MM:
On Wednesday 7th June 1944 during the assault on Port-en-Bessin X Troop came under accurate close range machine gun fire. Without hesitation or orders, and with complete disregard of danger, L/Cpl Kendrick went to, and attended the wounded although casualties were still being inflicted .The devotion to duty and the prompt courageous conduct of L/Cpl Kendrick was a grand and inspiring example to all his comrades.

LANYON, FW, Marine, No.47 RM Commando, - MM (Immediate):
Closing the beach near Westkapelle during the assault on Walcheren Wednesday 1st November 1944, the LCT carrying Mne Lanyon's troop, 47 (RM) Commando, was hit by a shell. Three amphibians in the LCTY caught fire and there were large and loud explosions .A number of Marine Lanyon's Troop were killed, wounded or burnt and among these was a Marine who had literally been blown into the sea and had his leg broken. There was a great 'sauve que peut'. Marine Lanyon, who is not a strong swimmer, without hesitation jumped into the sea and assisted this Marine, who was quite helpless and in great pain to reach the beach, some 200 yards distance. By this time Marine Lanyon was in a state of complete exhaustion and had swallowed so much salt water that he had to be given medical attention in the beach dressing station. Here his clothes were taken away, but as soon as he recovered his faculties this Marine, wrapped in only a blanket, rejoined his troop. He was subsequently fitted out in the Regimental Field Post with casualty clothing. The next day Marine Lanyon's troop was ordered to attack the battery south east of Zoutelande. They came under heavy fire at close range from several enemy riflemen, killing his section NCO and wounding three others in the section. The men scattered and took cover. At this critical junction Marine Lanyon, calling upon the others to follow him, without hesitation, rushed the enemy post, killed three of them and wounded the fourth. But for his fearless example and leadership on this occasion there is little doubt that the attack would have been held up and possibly never put in that evening.

LITHERLAND, H, Acting Ty. Cpl, No.47 RM Commando, - MM:
Throughout the campaign in North West Europe, Cpl Litherland 's cheerfulness and devotion to duty, no matter what have been the circumstances, have been beyond praise. In action, at Port-en-Bessin as a Marine, he took charge of a section when his section commander was wounded and by his personal example was largely responsible for the successful completion of the task allotted to his section. Throughout this period of the bridgehead, he volunteered for and took part in several patrols of a hazardous nature. Later at Walcheren , he again cheerfully took over the responsibilities of commanding his section on his NCO becoming a casualty. At Kapelsche Veer on the River Maas, on the night of Tuseday 16th and Wedneday 17th January 1945, he was in the leading group of a strong fighting patrol, which was sent to secure a firm base from which the Commando could make an attack. Before the firm base was reached two enemy patrols were met and wiped out due almost entirely to his initiative. Later when the main Commando attack was held, and heavy casualties had been incurred, he volunteered to take his Bren Gun Group to help the leading troop. On arrival there his cool direction of the Bren gun, and his personal bravery in attacking (in company with only one other Marine) an enemy slit trench from which an enemy machine gun was dominating our own positions, were largely instrumental in beating off the counter-attack. Situations as cited above are but a few examples of this NCO's magnificent personal example on all occasions.

LLOYD, RE, Ty. Lt, No.47 RM Commando, -Medal of the Bronze Cross:
This offr has rendered outstanding services to 47 (RM) Commando since its formation and particularly so during operations and general duties in Holland from Wednesday 1st November 1944 until Tuseday 8th May 1945. He took a leading part in the assault on Walcheren Island on Wednesday 1st November 1944. After his LVT had been sunk by enemy shell fire, he swam to another landing craft which in its turn was also sunk by enemy guns. Quite undeterred he swam ashore and led his section with great determination. Later that day, his Troop Commander having become a casualty, he took over command of the troop, and by his personal example inspired his men to gain their objectives, in some of the bloodiest fighting of the campaign. Later, as Troop Commander, he fought with distinction in a raid on an enemy bridgehead at Kapelsche Veer. Towards the end of the campaign, while stationed on the island of North Beveland, he took part in many small scale raids and recconnaiscance parties, against the island of Schouwen. Immediately after the capitulation of Germany he negotiated with the Germans for the surrender of their troops on the island of Schouwen, and was instrumental in bringing relief to the distressed Dutch inhabitants of the island.

MacDONALD, W, Marine, No.47 RM Commando, - MM:
Throughout the assault on Wednesday 7th June 1944 on Port-en-Bessin Marine MacDonald was absolutely fearless. As the Troop Commander's runner, he time and again crossed open ground under close range enemy automatic fire, carrying messages and orders of vital importance. By his gallant and courageous conduct he played a major part during the closing stages of the successful assault on the port. His devotion to duty was quite exceptional and a most inspiring example to his comrades.

McKENNA, GL, Marine, No.47 RM Commando, -Croix de Guerre with Vermillion Star. During 47 (RM) Commando's assault on Port-En-Bessin on Wedneday 7th June, Marine McKenna's section came under heavy MG and mortar fire. Both NCOs in the section were killed. At this critical moment, when the remainder of the section were showing signs of hesitancy, Marine McKenna, unsupported, made his way forward along the East side of the basin which was being swept by almost continuous enemy MG fire. He threw a smoke grenade into the enemy MG post and under cover of the smoke rushed it and captured all five German occupants.
The remainder of the section, encouraged by their comrade's example, joined him and finally captured the vital ground above the basin.

O'Brien, AP, Lt, No.47 RM Commando, - MC:
Lt O'Brien was leading a patrol in a "silent" raid on the enemy's FDLs east of Sallenelles early in the morning of 23rd July.
When about 50 yds from the enemy position, one man of the patrol trod on an anti-personnel mine. Surprise was lost. The enemy opened heavy automatic fire aided by flares. For a moment it looked as if the patrol would fail in their task but Lt O'Brien by his total disregard of danger, by his personal example and by his determination, got the patrol together again and led them into the enemy position.
When the patrol had returned to our own lines with an officer prisoner, Lt O'Brien, hearing that some of the patrol were missing, returned to the enemy minefield, moving through our defensive fire and stayed there, in the fast-growing light, until all the wounded had been removed.

PACKER, MC, Acting Ty. Sgt, No.47 RM Commando, - MM:
Walcheren, on Thursday 2nd November, during 47 (RM) Commando's attack on W.11 Battery S.E. of Zouteland, Cpl PACKER's section commander was killed during the hand-to-hand fighting that followed the assault.
Continuous heavy fighting ensued for 2 hours, during which Cpl PACKER displayed outstanding courage and leadership, often rallying those around him at critical times. He was always well to the fore, sometimes unsupported, in the counter-rushes that met the German attacks.
In the absence of any close fire support our men were driven off the position by sheer weight of numbers. Cpl Packer rallied the survivors of his section. His cheerful yet resolute manner inspired them with confidence, and put new life into them so that they were clear to hang on to the vital ground during the hours of darkness.
The next morning, in a renewed attack on the enemy battery position, Cpl Packer's troop was responsible for right flank protection.
The enemy opened concentrated and sustained cross fire at close range from the crest of the dunes and from a concrete fire control position known as the "umbrella" on the seaward side of the dunes.
Quickly sizing up the danger from this flanking fire, Cpl Packer in spite of MG and rifle fire, without hesitation and without waiting to see if he would be supported, charged the "umbrella" with his tommy gun. He had to climb about 30 yards up a slope of soft deep sand.
When he was only a few yards short of the "umbrella" he was wounded by a stick grenade and fell just under the concrete lip of the emplacement. With great presence of mind and still full of fight he threw a No 77 smoke grenade into the "umbrella" and this proved a very effective silencer.
Throughout the best part of 2 days continuous and fluctuating fighting, much of it at close quarters, this NCO showed the greatest courage, inspiring those around him to further efforts by his cheerfulness, determination and complete disregard for his own safety.

PHILLIPS, CF, Acting Lt/Col, RM, - DSO:
For gallant and distinguished services while operating with the Army in Normandy.

PYMM , AL , Acting Ty. Cpl, No.47 RM Commando, - MM (Periodic).
During the landings on D-Day on the Normandy Beaches, Cpl Pymm's boat struck some underwater object, causing him and several others to be thrown into the sea; he saved one man who was wounded, from drowning and not content with this, he went back into the water and saved two more of his comrades. Throughout the campaign in Normandy and in the chase across France Cpl Pymm set an example of courage and fortitude, which was a source of inspiration to many, a younger man. Later in November 1944, having landed at Westkapelle on Walcheren Island, the Commando found its forward troops pinned down by accurate and heavy machine gun and mortar fire. Cpl Pymm in his capacity as a stretcher bearer worked coolly and efficiently at his job of evacuating the wounded, many of whom owe their lives to his calmness and complete disregard of personal safety. These are but two instances of this NCO'S exemplary behaviour throughout this campaign, which are rendered the more exceptional when his 39 years of age are taken into consideration.

Spencer, P, Captain, No.47 RM Commando, - DSO (Periodic):
For gallantry, leadership and undaunted devotion to duty during the assault on the Island of Walcheren.
On Walcheren , on Thursday 2nd November, 47 (RM) Commando was attacking a strongly-defended, elaborately constructed battery S.E. of Zouteland. Heavy casualties had been inflicted on the leading troops, including five officers. Several attempts had been made to reach the strongly held plateau above the battery, but all without success. Wireless communication having failed, Captain Spencer, the Adjutant, was sent forward to find out what the situation was and to withdraw the remainder of the two attacking troops under cover of darkness to a ridge about 350 yards from the enemy position. He found the troops without officers and very disorganised. It was nearly midnight before the wounded had been collected so the remainder established in a position of all-round defence. During the night the Germans attacked this position with about 50 men, far more than Captain Spencer had at his disposal, but they were driven off. Later, the enemy made repeated attempts to infiltrate into the position. All these failed. Had they succeeded, this ground so necessary as a firm base for further attempts to capture the enemy battery would have been lost. Captain Spencer, by his remarkable leadership and inspiring example was to a very large extent personally responsible for holding this vital ground. The next morning another attack was put in on this battery by two fresh troops. The commanders of both these troops became casualties and the momentum of the attack was fast petering out when Captain Spencer, seeing that the situation was critical, went forwards to pull the assaulting troops together and to co-ordinate their attack. Leaving cover and taking up position on the open dunes, with complete disregard for his personal safety, he collected the few troops there were at hand and led them in a bayonet charge up the soft sand slopes and into the enemy position. The first gun casemate was captured and working through the communication trenches and underground passages, within 45 minutes the whole battery was in our hands. By his superb courage at a time when things were going badly, this officer so inspired the men to put new life and spirit into their offense that they succeeded where four times their number had previously failed.

WALTON, DH, Acting Ty. Major (Ty. Lt.), Royal Marines, - MC:
On Wednesday 7th June, during the approach to Port-En- Bessin, X Troop, acting as advance guard, came under accurate MG fire from the outskirts of LaA Rosiere.
Quickly sizing up the situation Captain Walton led his men straight into the assault and by his personal leadership and example so inspired his men that a very difficult problem was quickly solved.
In the circumstances, it was vital that the Commando should make top speed in its advance to the port and any delay would have seriously prejudiced the chances of surprise and speedy success.
This was only one example of his lustfulness and determination to get on.

WHITE, CH, Acting Ty. TSM, No.47 RM Commando, - Order of the Bronze Lion. Medal of the Bronze Cross:
This NCO has served continuously with 47 (RM) Commando in Holland from Wednesday 1st November 1944 until Victory in Europe Day. Saw him in action against the enemy for the first time on the island of Walcheren. Shortly after commencement of the action his Troop Sergeant Major was killed, in addition to his Section Officer. Troop Sergenat Major, then Sergeant White, took command of the section and fulfilled all the duties of an officer, during some of the blodiest fighting that has been seen in this campaign. His extraordinary lust for battle, and his magnificent leadership played a great part in the succesful assault by his troop on two batteries.
After the capture of Walcheren he volunteered for every patrol carried out by the unit, in addition to taking a leading part in the routine but hazardous patrols carried out by his troop on the river Maas in that critical period between Sunday 24th December 1944 and Wednesday 17th January 1945. At Kapelsche Veer on the night of the 13/14th January 1945, he took part with his troop in a most succesful fighting patrol to secure a firm base for the main Commando attack. Later when this firm base was established, he volunteered to join a troop going in to the assault and whose Troop Sergeant Major had become a cassualty. His presence added greatly to the effectiveness of the attack. Later, at Domburg in April and May 1945 he was responsible for the instruction of Senior NCOs of a battalion of Stoottroepen who were under command of the unit to which he was attached. By his sheer enthusiasm and example, these NCOs became most efficient in a minimum of time.

1945. Royal Marine Bands in shore Establishments in the UK to revert to the wearing of White Helmets with White Belts and Cross belts.

1945. August. 42 Commando Royal Marines was formed at Sway (Nr Lymington). It was redesignated 42 Royal Marine Commando (Light) in August 1945 and 42 Command Royal Marines in early 1946.

1945. October. 40 RM was disbanded, before reforming as 40 Commando RM. When 44 RM was re-designated.

1945. January. Two further RM Brigades were formed, the 116th Brigade and 117th Brigade.

1945. A Landing Craft Assault (LCA) unit was stationed in Australia late in the war as a training unit. A number of Royal Marines also served as pilots during the Second World War.

1945. 42 & 44 Commandos were in the Battle of Kangaw, Burma. 40 & 43 Commandos fight in the Battle of Lake Comacchio in Italy. Royal Marine Commandos involved in the river crossings in North West Europe.

1945. Corps Strength at that time was 78,500.

A total of four Special Service units were raised during the war, and Royal Marines were represented in all of them. A total of nine RM Commandos (Battalions) were raised during the war:
1 Commando Brigade took part in the assaults on Normandy, and campaigns in the hineland after crossing the Rhine.
2 Commando Brigade was involved in the Salerno landings, Anzio, Comacchio, and operations in the Argenta Gap.
3 Commando Brigade served in Sicily and Burma.
4 Commando Brigade served in Normandy and in the Battle of the Scheldt on the island of Walcheren during the clearing of Antwerp.
At its height during 1944 more than 70,000 people served in the Royal Marines. However, following the Allied Victory the Royal Marines were quickly reduced to a post war strength of 13,000.

A number of Royal Marines served as pilots during the Second World War. It was a Royal Marines officer who led the attack by a formation of Blackburn Skuas that sank the German cruiser Königsberg. Eighteen Royal Marines commanded Fleet Air Arm squadrons during the course of the war, and with the formation of the British Pacific Fleet were well represented in the final drive on Japan in the Pacific Theatre. Captains and Majors generally commanded squadrons, whilst in one case Lieutenant Colonel R.C. Hay on HMS Indefatigable was Air Group Co-ordinator from HMS Victorious of the entire British Pacific Fleet.

1945. Wednesday 15th August. Lieutenant Norman Finch V.C. released from service and retrurned to the King's (later Queens) Bodyguard.

1946. March. 45 Commando RM served in Hong Kong.

1946. Wednesday 17th April. 432 Kings Squad passed for duty at Eastney Barracks.

1946. Thursday 25th April. The Senior Wing of the Royal Naval School of Music moved from Scarborough to Burford in Oxfordshire.

1946. Saturday 8th June. The Victory Parade in London.

1946. Royal Marines from HM Ships occupied Penang.

1946. 42 & 44 Commandos occupy Hong Kong.

1946. Thursday 1st August. The Junior Wing of the Royal Naval School of music moved from the Isle of Man to Burford, Oxfordshire.

1946. Tuesday 31st December. Warning Instructions - Reorgaisation of the Corps. Portsmouth, Chatham and Plymouth Divisions will become Groups and will be given specific functions.

1946. Drill - New RM instructions to be issued. To include Marching as well as Bugle and Drum sticks.

1946. Captain Richard Thomas Partridge was the first Royal Marine officer to fly a jet aircraft, a Gloster Meteor at the Empire Flying School.

1946. The practice of Royal Marine Drum Majors throwing the staff in the air will only be carried out at the discretion of the Major General Royal Marines, on the parade ground of a Royal Marine Establishment.

1946. The Army Commandos were disbanded, leaving the Royal Marines to continue the role of the Commando. During this time the Corps underwent a major change of training British Commandos.

1946. The Special Boat Section was renamed the Special Boat Squadron.

1947. Registered Numbers. The prefix ‘RM’ Divisional system ceased.

1947. May - November 1948. 45 Commando RM was based on Malta.

1947. Monday 7th July. Functional Reorganisation - Royal Marine Divisions become Royal Marine Groups. Bands to be known as Group Bands.

1947. 478 Kings Squad passed for duty at Deal.

1947. 479 Kings Squad passed for duty at Deal

1947. August. 961 Kings Squad passed for duty at Deal.

1947. 484 Kings Squad passed for duty at Deal.

1947. October. Inauguration date of the Cassel Prize. Rt. Hon Sir Felix Cassel presented money to the Worshipful Company of Musicains for medals / prizes to encourage education and training in Music in the Armed services.

1947. 490 Kings Squad passed for duty at Deal.

1947. Monday 17th November. 45 Commando moved to St Patrick's Barracks and Fort Pembroke.

1947. Under the new Pay Code Boy buglers will no longer be required to undertake instruction in the playing of the fife. At the discretion of Commanders, instruction in the fife may be given to Buglers who have completed their first commission at sea.

1947. A reorganisation of the Corps took place. Royal Marine Divisions become functional Groups.

1947. RM Band Service - Changes to Bandmaster Ranks. Bandmaster 1 to become Bandmaster and Bandmaster 2 to become Band Sergeant.

1947. Three Royal Marine Commando Units, 40, 42, and 45 Commando RM, moved from Singapore and Hong Kong to Malta, to form part of Britain's Strategic Reserve in the Near and Middle East. The units of 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines. At Malta the Brigade practiced its amphibious skills.

1948. Registered numbers. By the time the use of Divisional prefixes and Divisional registers was suspended in 1948, these sequences had reached four digits (CH/X3285; PO/X4393; PLY/X4897). In the Royal Marine Band Service the use of ‘X’ continued until August 1955 (RMB/X1698), and then the old sequence of numbers was resumed, but from RMB 3400 to prevent any duplication.

1948. January. Registered Numbers. National Servicemen and Royal Marines Reserve. The ‘RM’ prefix, followed by a number of six digits, indicates a National Service man entered between January 1948 (RM 127791) and June 1952 (RM 133707).

1948. January - May. 40 Commando RM went to Palestine during the Arab Israeli War. It was soon followed by the two other commandos in the Brigade.

1948. January. Registered Numbers. The prefix ‘RM’, followed by a number of four and later five digits, superseded the Chatham, Plymouth and Portsmouth suffixes. It indicated a rank entered on a Continuous or Short Service engagement between January 1948 and January 1948. The very first number allocated was RM 6934.

1948. March. 45 Commando was deployed to Benghazi Libya and to Haifa in the Spring.

1948. Saturday 24th - 30th April. 45 Commando seved In Libya.

1948. Friday 30th April - 12th May. 45 Commando served in Palestine.

1948. 12th May - 8th June. 45 Commando served in Libya.

1948. Friday 18th June. The Malayan Emergency was a conflict between communist guerrillas and British Commonwealth forces. The guerrillas, most of whom were Malayan Chinese, were seeking to overthrow the British colonial administration in Malaya. The term ‘Emergency’ is used to describe the conflict because the British declared a State of Emergency in Malaya after guerrillas assassinated three European plantation managers in the northern state of Perak.

At the start of the Emergency, the British had 13 infantry battalions in Malaya, including seven partly formed Gurkha battalions, three British battalions, two battalions of the Royal Malay Regiment and a British Royal Artillery Regiment being used as infantry. This force was too small to meet the threat of the Communist terrorists effectively, and more infantry battalions were needed in Malaya. The British brought in soldiers from units such as the Royal Marines and King's African Rifles. While 3 Commando Brigade provided counter-insurgency support for the Malayan government. Another effort was a re-formation of the Special Air Service as a specialised reconnaissance, raiding and counter-insurgency unit. The conflict came to an end during 1960.

1948. Thursday 27th May - June 1948. 42 Commando served in Palestine. At Jerusalem, then Haifa before it was evacuated on 27th June. While based on Malta the Commandos carried out exercises in Tripoli and internal security duties in the Canal Zone.

1948. Tuesday 1st June. Memorial day for the men of the Royal Marine Bands of the Royal Naval School of Music instituted. The fanfare to Comrades Sleeping subtitled 'The Spirit of Joy and Thanks giving for Victory, and meditation for those who gave their lives in its cause' composed by Leon Young became the Dedication Fanfare. It was composed for the ceremony at which the Silver Memorial Fanfare Trumpets (the Official Royal Naval Band Service War Memorial for world War II) were dedicated at Burford, then the home of the Royal Naval School of Music. This fanfare was to be sounded each year as laid down in the Charter, but not to be played for any other purpose.

1948. Friday 8th October. HM King George VI agreed that the appointment of Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Marines should become Captain General Royal Marines.

1948. Wednesday 15th December. First Buglers under training reported to Burford for training at the RNSM. A team had been formed and, from this date, training would be done at the School and not at the groups.

1948. December. 45 Commando left for Egypt.

1948. December. The National Service Act fixed a period of 18 months full time service, followed by four years as a reservist. (in 1950 the full time period was extended to two years) From 1946 to 1960 conscripts called up as National Servicemen within this period would make up 30% of the strength of the Royal Marines. By the time it ended, over 300 National service Officers and 9,000 Royal Marines had served in the Corps.

1948. Royal Marine Commandos covered the withdrawal from Palestine and were deployed in the Suez Canal Zone. A Royal Marine Forces Volunteer Reserve unit was formed.

1948. As a result of the introduction of new SNCO rank titles badge of rank introduced for Bandmasters - a lyre encircled by laurel wreath and surrounded by a crown, and for Band Sergeants - three chevrons.

1948. Wearing of ornarments and shoulder flashes in their correct positions.

1949. Friday 28th January. The Order of Council of 1871 introducing Band Boys into the Royal Navy and the Order in Council of 1903 introducing the Rank of Band Boy into the Royal Marines were both rescinded. The Rank of band boy to become Boy Musician.

1949. Tuesday 5th April. Throughout the Corps the 'Warrant List' and 'Warrant Officers' to be replaced by 'Branch List' and 'Branch Officers' to be replaced by 'Branch List'. Bandmaster (WO), RM band becomes a Commissioned Bandmaster, RM Band, becomes a Senior Commissioned Bandmaster.

1949. Wednesday 6th July. Sir Malcolm Sargent's appointment as Hon Advisor in Music announced in House of Commons.

1949. 544 Kings Squad passed for duty at Deal.

1949. 21st July. 42 and 45 Commando's Sailed for Hong Kong.

1949. Brass Instruments replaced by Silver Plated Ones.

1949. 45 Commando were deployed in Egypt and Aqaba.

1949. Tuesday 21st July.3 Commando Brigade sailed for Hong Kong.

1949. The Closure of Chatham Group.

1949. Thursday 8th December. The Royal Marines received the Freedom of Chatham.

1950. Wednesday 1st February. Relocation of Royal Naval School of Music from Burford to Deal was completed on this date.

1950. Saturday 27th May. Chatham Group Band heavily involved in the disbandment of Chatham Group, Royal Marines.

1950. Sunday 28th May. Chatham Colours laid up in Rochester Cathedral after being paraded through the streets.

1950. Friday 23rd June. First Beat the Retreat by the Massed Bands of the Royal Marines on Horse Guards Parade, London. The Ceremony was based upon the displays by the Royal Naval School of Music at the 1948 Dedication Ceremony and their Royal Tournament appearance in the same year. This was the first occasion that all thirty two Silver Memorial Bugles were sounded together.

1950. June. 45 Commando RM arrived in Malaya from Hong Kong.

1950. During the Korean War 41 Commando was reconstituted as 41 (Independent) Commando following a request from the United Nations Command for more amphibious raiding forces. The 'Independent' designation meant that their commander had sole responsibility for their unit and did not have to consult with higher headquarters on operational and logistical matters.

1950. Sunday 16th July. Mne. H.H. Rose of 42 Commando RM died during a firing accident.

1950. Wednesday 16th August. 219 Royal Marine volunteers were assembled in Bickleigh then the Commando School. They were commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Douglas B. Drysdale DSO, MBE an experienced World War II Commando veteran who was the Chief Instructor at the Royal Marines Officer school. Later the Commandos travelled to Japan in civilian clothes, with most of the civilian clothing issued by the Admiralty. The unit received more volunteers on route from 3 Commando Brigade involved in the Malayan Emergency.

1950. Thursday 31st August. The Chatham Group officially ceased to exist. The Chatham Band was lost as a result of the closure of the RM Barracks Chatham and its special badge, the White Rose of York awarded in 1902, was lost with it.

1950. Thursday 31st August. The Chatham Group (1st Grand Division) was disbanded.

1950. Friday 1st September. The amalgarmation of Groups Band with the Royal Naval School of Music. No futher direct entry to group bands, all recruiting through School; members of group bands to retain old conditions only until engagement expires; automatic promotion for Group Musicians to become merit based. The Royal Naval School of Music becomes the Royal Marines School of Music; Group Bands become Staff Bands. Musical Director of the RMSM will be 'Director of Music, Royal Marines; other DoMs will be 'Director of Music. 'Portsmouth' and 'DoM, Plymouth'. These bands to retain special cap badges and Portsmouth to retain 'Royal Yacht' flash. All RM Bands on RN ships and at RN establishments became part of the RMBS. Records of Portsmouth and Plymouth band ranks transferred to the RMSM from where new numbers in the RNSM 'RMB' series would be issued. This also applied to Chatham ranks transferred to the new RMSM Band and also to ranks of the C-in-C Nore band. Instructions relating to uniform (Lyre collar badge and wearing of broad red stripe trousers) to be issued.

1950. Thursday 14th September. CHX4772 Marine Ernest J. Nevard was killed in action during an ambush in a jeep along the Tapah-Chenderiang Road in Perak, Malaya.

1950. Thursday 14th September. RM8028 Marine D.C. Keyes was killed in action being ambushed in a jeep along the Tapah-Chenderiang Road in Perak, Malaya.

1950. Friday 15th September. Volunteer Commandos from Bickliegh arrived in Japan and were issued with American winter uniforms and weapons, but retained their green berets, battle dress and boots.

1950. Saturday 23rd September. Sgt. William R. N. Rowe PLY/X3615, was killed while serving in 42 Commando in Malaya.

1950. Monday 9th October. Band Rank of Staff Sergeant changed to Staff Bandmaster 'to avoid misunderstanding of his status in relation to Bandmasters and Band Sergeants."

1950. October. The first mission of the Volunteer Commandos from Bickliegh saw them embarked on two American high speed transports the USS Horace A. Bass (APD-124) and USS Wantuck (APD-125) supported by the destroyer USS De Haven (DD-727), where they executed a series of raids on the North Korean coast near Wonsan to disrupt North Korean transportation facilities.

1950. Thursday 2nd November. RNSM Collar Badge (the lyre) to be replaced by Globe & Laurel except for Boy Musicians who would continue to wear the lyre on the collar and would also retain the thin red trouser welt, not the broad red stripe. The King approved these changes on this date.

1950. Friday 10th November. 41 Independent Commando joined the United Nations advance in North Korea where they served with the United States Marine Corps, the second time the two organisations had served together, the first being the Boxer Rebellion in China. During the Battle of Chosin Reservoir Lieutenant Colonel Drysdale was given command of a 900 man unit of his own Commando, American, and South Korean forces called Task Force Drysdale. Their hard fighting together with the American Marines and Army led to 41 Independent Commando being awarded the American Presidential Unit Citation that the 1st Marine Division earned. However 41 Independent RM Commando was not listed in the original citation. It took much letter writing by US veterans to not only convince their government to award the 'Presidential Unit Citation' to 41 Independent Commando for their performance at Chosin, but to get the British government to approve and authorise it for 41 Commando. It was finally accepted during 1957 by the Captain General of the Royal Marines from the US Ambassador to the UK.

It reads, 41 Independent RM Commando for their gallantry in action on the Chosin Plateau during the fighting withdrawal from Hagaru-ri to Koto-ri between Monday 27th November 1950 and Saturday 11th December 1950.

41 Commando is the only organisation in the armed forces of the United Kingdom that is authorised to fly a 'Foreign' streamer from its colour and it does so because of the 1st Marine Division. The only other streamer displayed on Royal Marines colours is the Gibraltar Streamer.

1950. Sunday 12th November. RM9203 Marine Terence W. Barnett age 19 – accidental, while serving with 45 Commando. He was buried at Batu Gajah Christian Cemetery, Perak Malaya.

1950. Thursday 28th December. PLYX111607 Marine Dennis Parr was killed in action in the Gopeng-Kampar hills in Malaya.

1950. Thursday 28th December. CHX5369 Marine L.J. Turner was killed in action in Gopeng-Kampar hills, Malaya.

1950. 3 Commando Brigade were moved to Malaya.

1950. 41 Independent Commando formed for operations in Korea.

1950. - 1951. Captain R T Highett RM flew the Sea Fury on operations from HMS Theseus during the Korean War.

1950. The Chatham Barracks was closed.

1951. Wednesday 10th January. CHX5389 Corporal John Henry was killed in action during an ambush in Cameron Highlands area of Malaya.

1951. Wednesday 10th January. RM7305 Marine Leslie O. Miller was killed in action during an ambush in the Cameron Highlands area of Malaya.

1951. Saturday 27th January. To mark the occasion of the return of the Royal Marines School of Music to Deal, the Commandant General approved the title 'Commandant General's Squad' to be given to the senior squad of Boy Musicians under training. In addition. the Commandant General approved of the best all round Boy Musician in the Commandant Generals Squad being awarded a Certificate of merit to be called the Commandant General's Certificate.

1951. January David Wilson 852 Squad PLYX4229 Sergeant George Westwood was killed in action during an ambush in Cameron Highlands area of Malaya.

1951. Full Dress for RMBS Other Ranks re-introduced. (Dress1 A: Band Order for the RM Band Service. White helmet or cap, blue cloth tunic, tweed trousers, white belt, white gloves. For ceremonial use as ordered) Dress regulations to be amended.

1951. April. 41 Commando was reformed in Japan and were assigned to what eventually became known as the 1st Commonwealth Division. They raided the North Korean coast with the Republic of Korea Marine Corps.

1951. Wednesday 6th June. Lieutenant P.K. Budgen – died.

1951. Wednesday 11th July. CHX4107 Sergeant T.J.H. Genge died of natural causes at a British Military Hospital in Kamukting, Malaya.

1951. Monday 16th July. Marine E. Lamb, RM7798 of 40 Commando RM, - died of wounds while serving in Malaya.

1951. Tuesday 25th September. RM8250 Marine Peter D. Fordham age 20 died of wounds while serving with 45 Commando. He was buried at Batu Gajah Christian Cemetery, Perak, Malaya.

1951. Tuesday 11th December. Corpral N.S. Howe PLY/X4758 while serving with 40 Commando was killed in Malaya.

1951. December. 41 Commando returned to England. Those who had served less than a year in the Commando were drafted into 42 Commando operating in Malaya.

1951. Tuesday 4th December. The Gillingham bus disaster occurred outside Chatham Dockyard, Kent on the evening of Tuesday 4th December 1951. A double-decker bus ploughed into a company of fifty-two young members of the Royal Marines Volunteer Cadet Corps, aged between ten and thirteen. 24 cadets were killed and 18 injured; at the time it was the highest loss of life in any road accident in British history.

The company was marching from Melville Royal Marine Barracks, Gillingham, to the Royal Naval Barracks, Chatham, to attend a boxing tournament. It was divided into three platoons; the rear platoon consisted of new recruits who had not yet received uniforms. They were generally under the command of cadet non-commissioned officers (NCOs); the only adult present was the contingent adjutant, Lieutenant Clarence Murrayfield Carter, a regular Royal Marines officer. The column was about fifteen yards long and was marching three abreast on the left-hand side of the road. It was showing no lights, there being no official requirement to do so, and the boys in uniform were wearing Royal Marines standard-issue dark blue battledress and berets, although they had white belts and white lanyards on their shoulders.

The cadets left Melville Barracks at about 5.40pm. At about 5.57 or 5.58pm the column was marching down Dock Road, just past the gates of the Chatham Royal Naval Dockyard. The street lighting was very poor, and it was allegedly a very dark/foggy night (although Carter denied this).

As the column passed the municipal swimming pool, a particularly dark part of the street (since a street lamp had failed), it was hit from behind by a bus belonging to the Chatham& District Traction Company. The bus was allegedly travelling at 15–20 miles per hour, although Carter and another witness estimated its speed as 40–45 miles per hour. The bus driver, John William George Samson, 57, had worked for the company for forty years, twenty-five of them as a driver. He was very familiar with the route. He had his sidelights on, but not his headlights; this was perfectly legal and considered to be normal practice at the time. Other bus drivers said that they were using headlights that night and in that location as it was particularly dark. Other drivers defended Samson's decision not to use his headlights.

Lieutenant Carter, who was moving up and down the flanks of the column, told the inquest that he saw the bus coming and told the boys to move into the kerb as far as they could, assuming the bus would move around them. Samson told the inquest that he did not see the cadets at all and was only aware he had driven into something when the bus started to wobble as though it "had run over a lot of loose stones or something", although it was also reported that he felt bumps and heard the high-pitched screams of the cadets. At that point he braked immediately. His conductress, Dorothy Dunster, called out "What's happened?", and Samson got out to see what had happened. Carter, who was knocked over and dazed but not injured, said the bus continued about fifty yards before braking and another witness said he thought about twenty-five yards.

Aftermath: Seventeen boys died immediately and another seven died later in hospital, all but one on the same night. Those who were uninjured were all in the front ranks. The military funeral of twenty of the boys who died was held at Rochester Cathedral on 12th December 1951 and conducted by the Bishop of Rochester. Thousands of local people stood outside the cathedral and lined the route of the funeral procession to Gillingham Cemetery. Royal Marines guarded the coffins and acted as pall bearers and the ceremony was attended by, among others, the Second Sea Lord, the Commandant-General Royal Marines, and the Parliamentary and Financial Secretary of the Admiralty. Three of the boys who were Roman Catholics had a separate funeral at the Church of Our Lady, Gillingham, conducted by the Bishop of Southwark.

An inquest was held on 14th December 1951 at the Royal Naval Hospital, Gillingham, where many of the injured were being treated, before the North-East Kent Coroner. The jury returned a verdict of accidental death. The coroner said that he believed that Lieutenant Carter and the other witness, George Thomas Dixon, were probably mistaken about the speed of the bus and accepted Samson's estimate of his speed. He did not believe that either Carter or Samson had been negligent in legal terms.

Despite the coroner's comments, Samson was charged with dangerous driving. He was found guilty at the Central Criminal Court, but with a recommendation of leniency from the jury. The judge banned him from driving for three years and fined him £20. The parents of the boys who died received a total of £10,000 compensation from the bus company, which accepted liability under the tort of negligence.

The accident resulted in improved street lighting in the Medway Towns and the decision of all three services that a red light would henceforward be shown at the rear of all columns marching along roads at night

The mayors of Gillingham, Rochester and Chatham set up a memorial fund, inviting public donations through the local and national press "to be devoted, among other things, to defraying the funeral expenses, caring for the boys who may be disabled, and then to such worthy cause or causes in memory of the boys who lost their lives, as the mayors may determine". Donations of nearly £9,000 were received. Over £2,300 was spent, but the mayors could not decide how to apply the balance of the funds. A court case later decided that the fund was not charitable and was not saved by the Charitable Trusts (Validation) Act 1954; that the cy-près doctrine could not be applied; that the fund's objects were too uncertain for it to be a valid trust; that the fund was not bona vacantia; and as a result that the funds should be returned to the donors under a resulting trust. Every year on the Sunday closest to the event, the Chatham Marine Cadet Unit still holds a memorial parade at the cemetery in which the cadets were laid to rest.

The boys who died were:
Anthony E. Aindow, 13, died in All Saints' Hospital, Chatham.
Colin Thomas Batty, killed outright.
James David Blomeley, killed outright.
John Henry Burdett, 10, died on 10 December 1951 in St Bartholomew's Hospital, Rochester.
Brian Alfred Butler, killed outright.
Arthur John Calvert, killed outright.
David Alexander Charles, died in St Bartholomew's Hospital, Rochester.
Raymond Peter Cross, killed outright.
James Francis Cunningham, killed outright.
Allan John Evans, killed outright.
Peter Harry Ernest Eyre, died in St Bartholomew's Hospital, Rochester.
John Edwin Lee, 10, died in St Bartholomew's Hospital, Rochester.
Rodney Charles McBride, killed outright.
Garth William Mossop, killed outright.
Laurence Peter Murphy, died in All Saints' Hospital, Chatham.
Richard Charles Ongley, killed outright.
Albert John Rose, killed outright.
James Keith Scott, killed outright.
James Edward Shepherd, killed outright.
William Stone, killed outright.
John Clement Thorndycroft, 11, died in All Saints' Hospital, Chatham.
David Tickner, killed outright.
James Robert Trigg, killed outright.
Keith William Francis Walker, killed outright.

1951. A Royal Marines Routine Order directed that in future the adjective 'Royal Marines' would be used instead of Royal Marine'. This meant that whereas some who had been Royal Marine officers and used to live in a Royal Marine Barracks then became Royal Marines officers and lived in a Royal Marines Barracks

1951. There were ten Royal Navy and Royal Marine recruiting officers in the United Kingdom. Two in London and one in Birmingham, Bristol, Derby, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle-on-Tyne and Southampton.

1952. Friday 2nd February. 41 Commando was disbanded, having 31 Marines killed and 17 captured with one Royal Marine choosing to stay in North Korea, who later returned to the UK in 1960.

1952. Tuesday 6th February. King George VI died on at Sandringham and was buried at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 15th February, following a State Funeral in the Chapel. Lieutenant Norman Finch V.C. was a member of his Guard of Honour.

1952. Monday 24th March. Royal Marine D. Smith RM9883 died while serving in 45 Commando in Malaya.

1952. May. 3 Commando Brigade left Malaya for Malta, after serving in Malaya for two years.

1952. June. 42 Commando arrived in the UK from Malaya, and occupied St Andrew's Barracks Pembroke.

1952. Friday 4th July. 818 Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1952. Thursday 28th August. The South Africa tune 'Sarie Marais' adopted as the quick march of the Royal Marines Commandos.

1952. Saturday 29th November. The Duke of Edinburgh presented 40 Commando RM, 42 Commando RM, and 45 Commando RM, the units of 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines, with their own Colours in recognition of their service during the war. There were 1,168 men and 67 officers on parade.

1952. Intake of 100 National Service Musicains to the Band Service.

1952. The correct pace for marching in quick time in the Royal Marines is 116 paces to the minute. Rifle movements are to conform to this.

1952. Presentation of first Colours to the Royal Marines Commandos.

1952. 41 Independent Commando was disbanded at Bickleigh.

1952. Registered Numbers. The Admiralty decided to institute a system to indicate whether or not a Reservist was a National Serviceman:

1). The prefix ‘RMV’ followed by a five-digit number, indicates that a man became a Reservist either prior to carrying out National Service or after his National Service.

2). The prefix ‘RMV9/”, followed by a five digit number, indicates that a man was a Reservist during his part-time National Service.

1953. Tuesday 3rd February. 608 Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1953. February - October 1954. 40 Commando served in Egypt - Canal Zone. Guarded installations and on desert exercises.

1953. Friday 24th April. "The Royal Marines adopted the Globe and Laurel based on the English air 'Early One Morning' as their slow march. The march was first used at a Guard Mounting at St. James's Palace by the London Bn RM formed especially for London ceremonial duties in 1935." There is some doubt between authorities on such matters regarding when, even if, this slow march was adopted. The late John Trendell stated that it had not been officially adopted whilst Captain Derek Oakley wrote that it was. "later to be adopted as the Official Slow March".

1953. May. 3 Commando Brigade was moved to the Suez Canal Zone.

1953. Tuesday 2nd June. The Coronation of HM The Queen. HRH Prince Philip appointed Captain General Royal Marines.

1953. Tuesday 14th July. 616 Squad joined the I.T.C.

1953. The Royal Marines brass belt buckle.

1954. 5th February. 616 Squad passed for duty from the I.T.C.

1954. Friday 30th April. 616 Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone. Tom Taylor was awarded the Kings Badge .

1954. August. After the Anglo Egyptian Suez agreement was signed 3 Brigade was ordered back to Malta.

1954. October. 40 and 45 Commandos were based on Malta.

1954. October. 42 Commando returned from Egypt via Malta to Bickleigh to staff the Commando school in England.

1954. Monday. 16th November. 634 Squad Commenced Training at the Deal Depot.

1954. The Fleet Band scheme introduced.

1954. The Amphibious school RM is moved to Poole.

1954. Autumn. 42 Commando RM was sent back to England to reduce the ratio of overseas to Home Service in the Royal Marines as a whole. The other two commandos (40 and 45) trained in North Africa and in the Mediterranean based on Malta.

1954. 42 Commando RM was moved to the Amphibious school Poole.

1955. Tuesday 25th February. 634 C.S. Squad Completed training at the Deal Depot.

1955. Friday 1st July. Registered Numbers. The additional prefix, was abolished, and all Reservists, whether serving on or discharged before that date, were allocated a new number with only the ‘RMV’ prefix. To prevent duplication, this new series had six digits beginning at RMV 200000.

1955. Early September. 3 Commando Brigade received orders to deploy to Cyprus.

1955. Friday 2nd September. 634 Kings Squad passed for duty at Eastney Barracks. Michael Mead was awarded the Kings Badge.

1955. Saturday 10th September. By 0900 hours the first elements of 3 Commando Brigade, some 1,300 Marines and 150 vehicles had disembarked in Cyprus. On arrival 40 Commando was based in Limassol in the area of Kyrenia.

1955. September - 16th August. 45 Commando was deployed to Kyrenia Cyprus.

1955. Monday 24th October. Following their seven month world tour HM The Queen and Prince Philip awarded their combined cyphers (EiiR / PP) to the Portsmouth Group Band that accompanied them. This was an addition to the special badge awarded to the Royal Marines Artillery during 1912.

1955. Boy Buglers formed into a separate House, unnamed at this time, for sports purpose. This was intended to intensify competition for House championships.

1955 - 1959. 40 and 45 Commando's alternated operations in Cyprus undertaking anti-terrorist operations against EOKA guerrillas (National Organisation of Cypriot Struggle), during tensions between the Greek and Turkish inhabitants of the island. EOKA were a small, but powerful organisation of Greek Cypriots, who had great local support from the Greek community. On Tuesday 6th September 1955, the United Nations ordered 45 Commando at a moment's notice to move to Cyprus amid escalating tensions and EOKA atrocities. The unit was based in Malta at the time and travelled to the Kyrenia mountain area of the island and by Saturday 10th September, approximately 1,300 Marines and 150 vehicles used by the unit had arrived ready to patrol the area.

1956. Friday 24th February. 614 Kings Squad passed for duty at Eastney Barracks.

1956. Friday 13th April. Change of title from Boys to Juniors.

1956. Friday 13th April. 654 C.S. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1956. Thursday 5th July. 654 C.S. Completed training at the Deal Depot.

1956. Friday 20th July. 897 Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1956. July - August. The Brigade Headquarters along with 40 and 45 Commandos were withdrawn from Cyprus for the Suez Operation.

1956. July. While 42 Commando was recalled from the UK.

1956. Thursday 26th July. During the summer months Colonel Abdul Nasser, who had succeeded General Neguib as head of the Military Junta Government of Egypt. Dissolved the 'Suez Canal Company' overnight and nationalised the control and proceeds of the waterway. That had been a joint British-French enterprise which had owned and operated the Suez Canal since its construction in 1869. Hoping to charge tolls that would pay for construction of a massive new Aswan High Dam on the Nile River. In response, Israel invaded in late October.
The British Chief of the Defence Staff was ordered to prepare a military expedition against Egypt. The amphibious assault would be launched from Malta. What became known as the 'Suez Crisis' when 45 Commando performed the world's first military helicopter borne assault insertion during British and French military action in Egypt. 40 and 42 Commando undertook a more traditional amphibious landing on the beach at Port Said. The amphibious capability of the Royal Marines was greatly increased and became a key element in the country's capacity to intervene in areas of conflict overseas. The British and French troops landed on Monday 5th November, occupying the canal zone.
Most of the world, was divided over the controversial issue of the British and French invasion of the Suez Canal, shortly after its nationalisation. There was however no disputing the success of the combined sea and airborne assaults by the Royal Marines and Parachute Regiments in the first such outstanding operation of its kind.
However, under Soviet, U.S., and U.N. pressure, Britain and France withdrew in December, and the Israeli forces departed in March 1957. That month, Egypt took control of the canal and reopened it to commercial shipping.
The bodies of 9 officers and other ranks who were killed in the action at Port Said on Tuesday 6th November were returned to England by air on Friday 14th December for re-interment. The coffins were transported to the RN Hospital at Haslar (Gosport) accompanied by an armed escort, under arrangements made by the OC RNB Eastney.
At 1500 hours on Monday 17th December the following were buried at the RN Cemetery, Clayhall, Gosport, with full military honours: -
Lieutenant E. A. Lifton RM.
Lieutenant P. W. McCarthy RN.
Marine Lorin Dudhill - RM/15070 of 40 Commando RN.
Sergeant D. H. A. Dennis - PLY/X4536.
Marine B. J. Price - RM/11202.
Marine B. Short - RN/11158 of 42 Commando RN.
Three others had funerals arranged privately, by their next-of-kin, with the Corps being represented on each occasion:
Marine David Howard - RM/14285 (42 Commando).
Marne Fudge - RMV/202128 (40 Commando).
Marine C E Goodfellow - RM/131833 (45 Commando).
For some inexplicable reason the headstones of those buried at Haslar bear the RN Anchor instead of the customary Corps badge.
Lt. Col. Norman Tailyour the CO of 45 Commando and his signaller Marine Michael Fowler RM14245, were the victims of their own side, when a Fleet Air Arm Wyvern aircraft accidently strafed them with cannon fire.
Marine Fowler later died from his wounds, bringing the total Royal Marine deaths to 10.
Two of the army personnel killed in action were attached to 42 Commando:
Sgt B Kizlo (RAC) and Cpl G Crawford (Somerset Light Infantry).
While 49 Royal Marines were wounded casualties.
The Brigade strength of 2800 was spread amongst 20 ships of the AW Squadron, and two aircraft carriers HMS Ocean and Tuseus bore 45 Command.
The following Awards were announced:
Brigadier R W Madoc OBE ADC, Commander of 3 Commando Brigade.
Lt Cot D C Tweed MBE, Commander of 40 Commando.
OBE - Maj B I S Gourlay Nfl NC.
Bar to MC. - Naj 0 L St M Aldridge MBE MC.
MC. - Naj A P Willasey-Wilsey MBE; Captain N A H Marston; and Lt S L Syrad.
0CM. - Cpl D E Mant.
MM. - QMS GD Buttery; Cpl M E Mead;
W Crossland and Marine C K Davidson.
Another 19 Officers and men were mentioned in despatches.

1956. Friday 19th October. 654 Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone. Chris Garlick was awarded the Kings Badge.

1956. Tuesday 6th - 14th November. 3 Commando Brigade spearheaded landings at Port Said in Egypt. President Nasser of Egypt seized the British and French owned Suez Canal. The Chief of the Defence Staff was ordered to prepare a military expedition against Egypt. The amphibious assault was launched from Malta. After the military operation, Brigade HQ Royal Marine Commando with 40 Cdo RM and 45 Cdo RM were withdrawn to Malta from Suez. They were based on Malta but departed on regular exercises in Cyprus till 1958.

1956. Monday 10th – 12th December. 45 Commando Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel N.H. Tailyour took part in 'Operation Foxhunter' while in Cuprus.

1956. First Royal Marine detachments for frigates was formed.

1956. Corps Strength at that time was 10,000.

1956. RM Band - Drum Majors - Drill with the Staff. "Throwing the staff in the air is not in keeping with the position and dignity of a drum Major. His primary duty is to control and lead the band and not to give a personal display. The practice of throwing the staff into the air by Drum Majors in public or when the public are present is to be made in due course to 'Drill (Royal Marines) 1953 Part V, Band Drill - Ceremonial"

1957. Monday 11th March. 669 C.S. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1957. 13th June. 669 C.S. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1957. May - September. From Cyprus 45 Commando returned to Malta in October, while X and Z troops formed the heliforce in Cyprus during June 1958.

1957. National Service was to end gradually. It was decided that those born on or after 1st October 1939 would not be required, but conscription continued for those born earlier whose call up had been delayed for any reason.

1957. Elements of 42 Commando served in Northern Ireland.

1957. Small Arms School Royal Marines at Browndown closed.

1957. Friday 19th October. 666 Kings Squad passed for duty at Eastney Barracks.

1957. Friday 29th October. 667 Kings Squad passed for duty at Eastney Barracks. William Neilson was awarded the Kings Badge.

1957. Monday 25th November. 680 C.S. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1957. December. 669 Kings Squad passed for duty at Eastney Barracks. Roy Calder was awarded the Kings Badge.

1957. Soldiers began using the L (12A) 1 self loading rifle, a British version of the American FN FAL.

1958. January. 671 Kings Squad passed for duty.

1958. Thursday 27th February. 680 C.S. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1958. Monday 21st April. 689 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1958. Monday 9th June. Massed Bands Beat Retreat on Horse Guards Parade.

1958. Friday 4th July. A memorial chapel to those killed while on deployment was erected at St Paul's Cathedral Valletta, Malta.

1658. Thursday 31st July. 689 Squad completed training at Deal.

1958. August. 931 Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1958. Monday 15th September. 702 C.S. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1958. Friday 10th October. 682 Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone. David Walker was awarded the Kings Badge.

1958. Thursday 16th October. 5/58 Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1958. October. 1Je Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1958. Monday 10th November. 708 C.S. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1958. Monday 17th November. 709 C.S. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1958. December. 689 Kings Squad passed for duty at Eastney Barracks.

1958. Royal Marine Gunnery School at Eastney closed.

1958. Wearing of Dress Cords Royal restricted to Buglers Branch, not Musicians.

1958. Lieutenant Hadyn Mainwaring was the first RM officer to volunteer for fast jet training in response to RMRO 275/56. He was awarded his wings flying Vampires at RAF Linton-on-Ouse in January 1959 but was medically downgraded shortly afterwards during his Seahawk Operational Flying Training course at RNAS Lossiemouth.

1959. Thursday 8th January. 702 C.S. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1959. January - March. 40 Commando based In Cyprus, returned to Malta where the whole brigade was assembling, including 42 Commando who had been sent out from England.

1959. Friday 6th March. 708 C.S. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1959. Thursday 12th March. 709 C.S. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1959. Friday 28th August. 709 Kings Squad passed for duty at Eastney Barracks.

1959. Tuesday 15th September. 702 C.S. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1959. Lieutenant Terence Joseph Patrick Murphy became the first Royal Marines pilot to fly jets in an operational squadron. He flew Seahawk Fighter Ground Attack jet fighters with 806 Squadron.

1960. Wednesday 6th January. 1/60 New Entry Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1960. Tuesday 16th February. 739 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Willie Turnbull was awarded the Kings Badge.

1960. Wednesday 17th February. 1/60 New Entry Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1960. Monday 21st February. No 6 Junior Squad formed up at the Deal Depot.

1960. Monday 4th April.45 Commando main body arrived in Aden after sailing from Malta.

1960. 31st March. 41 Commando Royal Marines (Cdo RM) was reformed. It was assigned to the UK Strategic Reserve.

1960. Monday 2nd May. 742 C.S. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1960. Thursday 2nd June. Massed Bands Beat Retreat on Horse Guards Parade.

1960. Monday 4th July. 746 C.S. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1960. Thursday 11th August. 742 C. S. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1960. Friday 9th September. 7Je Wing commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1960. Monday 26th September. 939 N.S. Passed for duty. This was also the last National Service Squad to be formed.

1960. Friday 7th October. Warning order regarding wider wearing of green beret by officers and other ranks. Restricted to wearing by Commando Formations and Units to be revised.

1960. Thursday 20th October. 746 Squad completed training at Deal.

1960. Thursday 20th October.7Je Squad completed training at Deal.

1960. Friday 25th November. AFO decreed universal wearing of green beret. Previously only worn by ranks serving in Commando Units or the Commando School. "Green beret now to be issued to ORs of the RMBS and Buglers on attaining Adult 1st Class status or on first draft to an HM Ship, RN Establishment, or Commando Unit or formation - whichever is sooner. After issue green beret will be part of compulsory kit. RM and RM Band Officers are to provide themselves with the green beret when required.

1960. November. National Service was finally coming to an end, the Marines were again reduced, but this time to an all Commando trained force of 9,000 personnel.

1960. November. 8Je Kings Squad commenced training at Deal.

1960.  Saturday 31st December. The last National Servicemen entered service as the call up finally ended.

1960. HMS Bulwark commissioned as first British Commando Carrier Ship.

1960. Layout of Royal / Corps insignia on Drum Majors Dress Belts checked by Royal College of Heralds and amended to suit current protocol.

1960. Rope tensioned drums replaced by rod tension.

1960. 45 Commando was moved to Aden.

1960. 42 Commando moved to Singapore.

1960. Melville Barracks Chatham closed.

1961. Monday 9th Janruary. 754 C.S. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1961. Friday 3rd February. Revised structure of the RMBS Special Duties List. Admiralty approval of changes to promotion and structure. Ranks to remain in the cumbersome form of 'Major (SD (B)) - 'Major, Special Duties, Band.

1961. Tuesday 21st February. 6Je. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1961. Friday 31st March. Closure of Nore Command & disposal of C-in-C's RM Band.

1961. April. 3 Commando Brigade, (Headquarters and 42 Commando Initially) were moved from Malta, where it had been based since the mid 1950s, and returned to Singapore, along with No 6 SB Section. To be based in the Far East for the next 10 years. The Government had decided to keep one Commando Carrier in the Far East, while a second one was to be kept West of the Suez Cannel. At that time there was only two in service HMS Bulwark and HMS Albion, both of 18,300 ton and having been deployed in the mid 1960's.

1961. Sunday 8th April. No 6 Junior squad completed training at Deal.

1961. April. 747 - 748 Kings Squad completed training at Deal.

1961. Saturday 6th May. 754 C. S. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1961. Monday 5th June. 12Je Squad commenced training at Deal.

1961. 17th June. 756 C.S. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1961. Sunday 25th June. Abdul Karim Qasim announced that Kuwait would be incorporated into Iraq and a military threat was seen by Britain, as imminent. Britain had accepted responsibility for Kuwait's military protection and urgently sent a strong naval task force known as 'Operation Vantage' which included Royal Marines from 42 Commando on board HMS Bulwark, Britain's first commando Carrier. A Company of 42 Commando were landed by helicopter at the Kuwait Airport, just as a British Squadron of Hawker Hunters jet fighter aircraft arrived.

The British fleet included the aircraft carrier HMS Victorious (subsequently relieved by HMS Centaur), destroyers HMS Camperdown, HMS Finisterre, HMS Saintes and HMS Cassandra, frigates HMS Loch Fyne, HMS Loch Ruthven, HMS Loch Insh, HMS Llandaff, HMS Yarmouth, and HMS Lincoln and LST HMS Messina and the 108th Minesweeper Squadron.

1961. Saturday 1st July. Britain had already deployed half of a brigade group (that included 45 Commando) into Kuwait to take up a defensive position ready for action. It's always been regarded as a very fast deployment. However, it's now known that the British had earlier received intelligence of what was about to happen. They had pre-empted their forces sending them to the area but keeping a low profile. In the end Iraq did not attack and a couple of years later the British forces were eventually replaced by the Arab League forces. Under great pressure from other countries in the area, Iraq eventually recognised Kuwait's independence during 1963. The Arab League contingent withdrew from Kuwait following the overthrow of Iraq's Qassem regime during February 1963.

1961. Friday 21st July. Stick drill for Royal Marine Buglers. 'Attention' drill changed. No pause between coming to attention and bringing sticks across the body. Buglers to carry out these movements at the same time.

1961. July. 5Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1961. 31st July. 764 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1961. Monday 4th September. 766 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1961. Tuesday 5th September. 43 Commando was reformed in Plymouth and disbanded again at Eastney Barracks in 1968.

1961. Tuesday 26th September. No 6 Junior Kings Squad completed training and passed for duty from Lympstone.

1961. September. 754 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1961. October. 755 Kings squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1961. October. 8Je Kings Squad completed training at Deal.

1961. Monday 6th November. 771 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1961. Monday 27th November. 772 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1961. November. 756 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1961. Tuesday 12th December. 757 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1961. Saturday 16th December. 764 Squad completed training at Deal.

1961. Lieutenants Roger Learoyd, T.J.P. Murphy and Nick Wise were the first Royal Marines to qualify as troop lift helicopter pilots.

1961. Method of wearing bugle cord described. When carrying a drum, bugle to be carried on a shortened cord passing under the right epautte - bugle to be carried in the right hand at all times.

1961. The last National Service Musicians left the RMBS.

1961. Head Quarters 3 Commando Brigade was established in Singapore.

1961. 43 Commando was re-formed in Plymouth.

1962. Monday 8th Janruary. 13Je. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1962. Saturday 20th January. 766 Squad completed training at Deal.

1962. Monday 5th February. 775 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1962. Friday 23rd February. Lieutenant-General M.C. Cartwright-Taylor, CB, had the honour of being received by Her Majesty the Queen upon his appointment as Commandant General Royal Marines.

1962. Monday 5th February. 775 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1962. February. 760 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. D.G. South was awarded the Kings Badge.

1962. Saturday 24th March. 771 Squad. Completed training at Deal.

1962. 14th April. 772 Squad completed training at Deal.

1962. Monday 30th April. 779 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1962. April. Lieutenant-Colonel John Glenn, Jnr, USMC, sent this photograph to Lieut.-Colonel P.G. Davis, DSC, RM, to be used on the cover of the April edition of the ‘Globe and Laurel’ Corps magazine. Photo from the author Terry Aspinall (779 Squad), there was also an article about Terry joining the Corps.

1962. May. 40 Commando left Malta for Singapore.

1962. Saturday 5th May. 775 Squad completed training at Deal.

1962. Monday 18th June. 781 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1962. Friday 22nd June. Completed training a Deal.

1962. Thursday 20th July. 770 kings squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1962. Saturday 11th August. 779 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1962. Saturday 11th August. 12Je completed training at Deal.

1962. August. 771 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1962. September. 772 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1962. Tuesday 2nd October. 773 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1962. Saturday 13th October. 781 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1962. Monday 1st October. 786 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1962. October. 775 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1962. December. 12Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1962. December. 13Je passed for duty at Lympstone.

1962. Saturday 8th December. The Brunei Revolt broke out with very little warning to the security forces, being aided and abetted by Indonesia. Although its actual involvement probably did not go beyond the provision of training and materiel to the rebels. Nonetheless, it marked the beginning of a new policy toward the territories to the north of Kalimantan, the Indonesian section of Borneo. Even though the main part of the rebel force was defeated in a few weeks, remnants of the insurgency remained at large for several months before they were finally killed in the jungles around Brunei. During the manhunt which followed the revolt, Indonesia began to intensity its political and military attacks against Malaysian Borneo. The attacks were perpetrated by guerilla bands recruited from Borneo, Malaya and Singapore and leavened with leaders from the Indonesian Army (TNI) and Marine Corps (KKO). Major General Walter Walker, who was in command of the security forces tasked with the mopping-up of the rebels, believed that Indonesia was poised to play a much larger military role in Borneo. Indeed, even before Yassin Affendi, the military leader of the revolt was killed on Saturday 18th May 1963, Indonesia had already begun to step up its efforts to foment further uprisings in Borneo. On Friday 12th April 1963, a party of men attacked the police station near Tebedu in the first division of Sarawak. The security forces initially did not know who was responsible for the raid, although it was known that at least some of the raiders were members of the Qandestine Communist Organization (CCO), an arm of the predominantly Chinese Sarawak Communist Party. The specter of a repeat of the Malayan Emergency was likely in Walker's mind as he planned his response. As he had been a successful brigade commander in one of the Emergency ' s last and most effective operations, he was well suited to the task at hand. The pillars of his Borneo strategy, drawn from his earlier experience in Malaya, were to win the 'hearts and minds' of the natives, maintain close liaison with civil and police powers and emphasize intelligence gathering. Shortly after the raid on Tebedu, evidence came to light indicating that the operation had been conducted by Indonesian soldiers. This obviously changed the nature of the threat to Borneo considerably. Walker believed the Indonesians' strategy to be the active support of dissidents within Sarawak. A report by the recently augmented Special Branch showed the CCO to be bigger Conflict Quarterly and stronger than originally thought earlier in the year. The CCO insurgents, who were stationed in Kalimantan and called Indonesian Border Terrorists (IBTs) by the security forces, were believed to number about 1,500 at this time. They were supported by an unknown number of Indonesian regulars, mostly concentrated opposite the First and Second Divisions of Sarawak. They even feared at one point that the Sultan of Brunei's bodyguard, the Brunei Regiment, might itself become the vanguard of a new insurgency. Walker's warnings to General Headquarters, Far Eastern Land Forces (FARELF) were now given heed and a few reinforcements were deployed from Singapore and Hong Kong to Borneo. A crackdown on the CCO was undertaken, and a surprise operation mounted to confiscate all 8,500 licensed guns in Borneo retrieved a full 8,000. No doubt this helped to forestall any planned insurrection, but a significant internal threat remained along with a growing external threat in the form of deep incursions into Borneo from Kalimantan. The task of thwarting the incursions was enormous: there were only five battalions initially available to cover a frontier stretching for more than 1,000 miles, and a land mass as large as England and Scotland. Indonesian raids into Borneo continued to increase over the summer of 1963 while the Prime Minister of Malaya, Tunku Abdhul Rahman, attempted to reach apolitical agreement with Sukarno and the Philippines' President Macapagal in Manila. At the same time, in August 1963, a large, uniformed force raided deep into the Third Division of Sarawak, near Song, and over a period of days were defeated by ambushes of the 2/6 Gurkha Rifles. Prisoners taken by the Gurkhas revealed that Indonesian regular army officers and non-commissioned officers provided the leadership for the force of IBTs. IBTs stepped-up their activity as the date for Malaysia's federation in September approached. On 16th September, Sarawak and Sabah became independent prior to joining the federation but Brunei opted to remain a British protectorate. On 28th September, the Indonesian response to federation was felt in the Third Division of Sarawak at the longhouse in Long Jawi where six men of the 1/2 Gurkha Rifles, three policemen and 21 Border Scouts were stationed. The latter were part of a force of natives recruited, trained, armed and uniformed to act as the 'eyes and ears' of the security forces in the longhouses. This small party fell victim to a raiding party of approximately 200 Indonesians supported by 300 unarmed porters. The Indonesians had been in the longhouse for two days before attacking, a fact which later led to a restructuring of the Border Scouts. The Gurkhas held out by themselves, the rest were taken prisoner or killed. Five of the security forces' men were killed and seven of the Border Scouts, who had been taken prisoner by the Indonesians, were murdered. In a series of ambushes, the rest of 1/2 Gurkha Rifles were able to kill 33 of the raiders and scatter' many more in the jungle, where they presumably died of starvation. This raid had two important results, one of which was that the Indonesian murder of the Border Scouts alienated the natives in the border area and evaporated what little support the Indonesians had enjoyed up to that point. The result was that the Border Scouts were taken out of uniform and reorganised to stress an intelligence-gathering role. They carried on with their normal, peacetime occupations, which for many included cross-border barter trade. As such they became an extremely valuable intelligence source for 'Claret' and complemented well the reconnaissance tasks now being conducted by the 22nd Special Air Service Regiment (22 SAS) in the border areas.

1962. Wednesday 12th December. 40 and 42 Commando are deployed to Brunie. Lima Company of 42 Commando led an amphibious assault rescue mission lead and Commanded by Captain Jeremy Moore. The Marines approached Limbang by the river as dawn was breaking. However, their engines were quite noisy, and they lost the element of surprise. The deck of the boats offered little protection, and two Marines were killed before landing on the river bank.
The Commandos charged the police station, where they killed ten rebels and captured the Bren gun. Salleh Bin Sambas was injured but managed to escape. The hostages were discovered in the hospital, where the residents were singing loudly, to avoid being mistaken for a rebel.

The Marines then spent the rest of the day clearing Limbang house by house, during which three more Marines and two more rebels were killed. In total five Marines were killed and a further five were wounded.

The Limbang raid saw three of the 150 Marines decorated. For their role in the battle, Corporals Lester and Rawlinson were awarded Military Medals, while Captain Moore was awarded a bar for his Military Cross. After this action L Company 42 Commando are still referred to today as 'Limbang Company' in memory of this Commando raid.

There was a time when the Indonesian government were assisting the rebels and allowed them to use the border as a hiding place. Because of this there then followed a period of four years that saw 40 and 42 Commando's alternate tours in Sarawak and North Borneo, policing the countries. A time when both Commandos saw action, until it finally ended around August 1966.
40 Commando served in the following:
December 1962 in the 5th Division of Sarawak.
December 1962 - January 1963 in the 1st Division of Sarawak.
March - July 1963 in the 1st Division of Sarawak.
October 1963 - February 1964 in the 1st Division of Sarawak.
July - December 1964 in Sabah (North Borneo).
July - November 1965 in the 1st Division of Sarawak.
May - September 1966 in the 1st Division of Sarawak.
42 Commando served in the following:
December - April 1963 in the 5th Division of Sarawak.
July - October 1963 in the 1st Division of Sarawak.
February - June 1964 in the 1st Division of Sarawak.
December 1964 - May 1965 in Sabah (North Borneo).
December-1965 - May 1966 in the 1st Division of Sarawak.

1963. Friday 11th January. 778 and 12 Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1963. Monday 21st January. 791 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1963. 26th January. 786 Squad completed training at Deal.

1963. Friday 25th January. 779 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1963. February. The Royal Marines Recruitment booklet/Leaflet was revised by the Central Office of Information, first published during the 1950's. Photo from Terry Aspinall.

1963. Friday 1st March. Band C-in-C Home Fleet to be located at HMS Pembroke Chatham.

1963. Friday 12th April 1963. A party of Indonesia men attacked the police station near Tebedu in the first division of Sarawak.

1963. Tuesday 23rd April. Acting Lance Corporal Douglas John Radford RM 19037, while on active service with 40 Commando deployed in Sarawak was awarded the Military Medal.

1963. Saturday 18th May. 791 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1963. September. 791 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1963. Thursday 20th December.The London Gazette published the following article about Acting Lance Corporal Douglas Radford RM.

1963. May. The last National Servicemen left the Armed Forces.

1963. Friday 29th November. Issue of white drill leg aprons for RMBS Drummers and Buglers. The buff leg apron to be withdrawn.

1963. Tuesday 10th December. The Aden Emergency as it was known was an Insurgency against the British Crown forces in the British controlled territories of South Arabia, which now form part of the Yemen. Partly inspired by Egypt's President Nasser's pan Arab nationalism, it began with the throwing of a grenade at a gathering of British officials at Aden Airport on Tuesday 10th December 1963. A state of emergency was then declared in the British Crown colony of Aden and its hinterland, the Aden Protectorate. 45 Commando Royal Marines were based there. The emergency escalated in 1967 and hastened the end of British rule in the territory which had begun back in 1839. On Thursday 30th November 1967, British forces withdrew, and the independent People's Republic of South Yemen was proclaimed. 45 Commando returned to the UK, while 42 Commando covered the final withdrawal from the country.

1963. Monday 21st December. Borneo. An Indonesian incursion group crossed the border and raided a shop in Serudong. Among those capture was Indonesian Marines, who were disappointed that the locals did not help them. Having been miss-informed that they were discontent with Malaysia.

1963. Metal wrist badge for Drum and Bugle Majors being manufactured in Portsmouth.

1963.  First Drum Majors Course.

1963. New Rank Insignia for Staff Bandmast - a lyre surrounded by a laurel wreath. To be worn on blue uniform and khaki drill. On other orders of dress, the current (QMS) insignia to be worn.

1963. Khaki tie issued to Band ranks and Buglers in preparation for the introduction of Lovat uniform.

1963 - 1966. 3 Commando Brigade (less 45 Commando) were involved in anti terrorist Confrontation operations in Borneo and Malaysia.

1963. During the period 1963 to 1966, Britain fought an undeclared war against Indonesia in the jungles of Borneo. The war was over Indonesia's political and military effort to destabilize the newly-formed Federation of Malaysia with the purpose of annexing Sarawak, Sabah and Brunei. As expressed by the Indonesian president, Achmed Sukarno, this policy was called Konfrontasi, or 'Confrontation.' British and Commonwealth forces fought a highly successful campaign against Indonesian incursions into Borneo (East Malaysia), Malaya (West Malaysia) and Singapore. Although unknown to the public at the time, the British and Commonwealth forces went onto the offensive in Borneo from August 1964 until three months before the formal cessation of hostilities on Thursday 11th August 1966. The offensive took the form of top secret, cross-border operations and raids code-named 'Claret' and proved to be an integral factor in the successful conclusion of the military campaign. It would be specious to credit Sukarno's fall from power in March 1966 solely to the military failure of Confrontation. It is equally specious to ascribe this fall only to domestic reasons.1 Knowledge of 'Claret' helps to bridge the gap between these two schools of thought. 'Claret' was a politico-military tool employed in response as much to political situations as it was to military ones. This article will examine in some detail the circumstances which made 'Claret' a necessity, the political nature and extent of the operations, and its sensitivity to political changes.

1963. The Tanzanian army revolted. Within twenty four hours Royal Marines had left Bickleigh Camp, Plymouth, Devon, and were travelling by air to Nairobi, Kenya, continuing by road into Tanzania. At the same time, Commandos aboard HMS Bulwark sailed to East Africa and anchored off-shore Dar es Sallam, Tanzania. The revolt was put down and the next six months were spent touring Tanzanian military out-posts disarming military personel. The Royal Marines were relieved by Canadian armed forces.

1964. January. Part of the Tanzanian Army mutinied. Within 24 hours. Royal Marines of 41 Commando had left Bickleigh Camp, Plymouth, Devon, and were travelling by air to Nairobi, Kenya, where they continued by road into Tanzania. At the same time, 45 Commando aboard HMS Bulwark had sailed to East Africa and anchored off shore from Dar es Salaam, the revolt was put down and the next six months were spent in touring Tanzanian military out posts disarming military personnel. The Royal Marines were eventually relieved by the Canadian forces.

1964. Friday 10th January. From this date the Regimental slow march of the Royal Marines will be The Preobrajensky March. Earl Mountbatten offered the march to the Royal Marines instead of the present Regimental Slow March the Globe & Laurel which is based upon the same air as the Regimental Quick March of the Womens Royal Army Corps. This march will be retained by the Royal Marines as an inspection piece. Also phased as: Prompted by Admiral of the Fleet Earl Mountbatten, the Royal Marines adopted the Preobrajensky March as their Regimental Slow March in place of the Globe and Laurel based on Early One Morning. The new march was the ceremonial slow march of the Preobrajensky Guards commanded by the Grand Duke Sergius of Russia, Mountbatten's uncle prince Philip's great uncle. The first public performance was on Horse Guards Parade on this day.

1964. Tuesday 21st January. 804 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1664. Monday 3rd February. 805 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1964. February. 16Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Cameron March was awarded the Kings Badge.

1964. Wednesday 1st April. Lovat dress was introduced.

1964. Monday 6th April. 808 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1964. Saturday 16th May. 804 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1964. Friday 29th May. 805 Squad completed training at Deal.

1964. Thursday 23rd July. As part of the Corps Tercentenary Celebrations a Royal Review was held in the gardens of Buckingham Palace. Musical support was provided by the Band of Portsmouth Group augmented with Buglers and Musicians from the Bands of C-in-C Portsmouth and HMS St. Vincent under the direction of Captain P. J. Neville.

1964. Monday 27th July. 808 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1964. August. Royal Marines landed from Westland Wessex helicopters during an operation in Borneo.
The Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation had begun in early 1963, following Indonesia's opposition to the creation of Malaysia. Initial Indonesian attacks into East Malaysia relied heavily on local volunteers trained by the Indonesian Army. With the passage of time infiltration forces became more organised with the inclusion of a larger component of Indonesian forces. To deter and disrupt Indonesia's growing campaign of infiltrations, the British responded in 1964 by launching their own covert operations into Indonesian Kalimantan under the code name Operation Claret. Coinciding with Sukarno announcing a 'year of dangerous living' and the 1964 race riots in Singapore, Indonesia launched an expanded campaign of operations into West Malaysia on 17 August 1964, albeit without military success. A build-up of Indonesian forces on the Kalimantan border in December 1964 then saw the UK commit significant forces from the UK-based Army Strategic Command.

During the 1964, British Commonwealth command arrangements changed. 99 Gurkha Infantry Brigade HQ returned from Singapore and replaced 3 Commando Brigade HQ in Kuching. 3rd Malaysian Infantry Brigade HQ arrived to take over East Brigade in Tawau, and 51 Gurkha Infantry Brigade HQ arrived from UK to command the Central Brigade area with the 4th Division of Sarawak added to it. Its headquarters was in Brunei, and there were no roads to any of its battalions. In DOBOPS, all HQ elements were concentrated in one HQ complex on Labuan. At least one of the British batteries stationed in Malaysia was always deployed in Borneo with its 105 mm guns.
In summary, in about the middle of the year the situation was:
West Brigade (HQ 99 Gurkha Infantry Brigade), frontage 623 miles (1,003 km), 5 battalions.
Central Brigade (HQ 51 Gurkha Infantry Brigade), frontage 267 miles (430 km), 2 battalions.
East Brigade (HQ 3 Malaysian Brigade), frontage 81 miles (130 km), 3 battalions.

Another Malaysian battalion joined East Brigade mid-year, and was later followed by a third Malaysian battalion, a battery and an armoured reconnaissance squadron. This brought the total force to 12 infantry battalions, two 105 mm batteries and two armoured reconnaissance squadrons. The UK component of 8 battalions in Borneo was being sustained by rotating 8 Gurkha and about 7 UK battalions stationed in the Far East. In addition, there were the equivalent of two Police Field Force battalions and some 1500 Border Scouts.

In 1964, UK tactics changed. What had been a platoon commanders' war became a company commanders' one. Most of the dispersed platoon bases were replaced by heavily protected permanent company bases, mostly a short distance from a village, ideally with an airstrip. Each base normally had a section of two 3-inch mortars and a few had a 105 mm gun, although guns had to be moved to deal with incursions. However, they continued to dominate their areas with active patrolling, sometimes deploying by helicopter and roping down if there was no landing site. When an incursion was detected, troops, sometimes relying on the Border Scouts' local knowledge of tracks and terrain, were deployed by helicopter to track, block and ambush it. The Border Scouts tracking skills were highly valued when pursuing the enemy.

Support helicopters, RAF Belvedere and Whirlwind, and RN Wessex and Whirlwind, had increased to 40, but it was not enough. Late in the year, another 12 Whirlwinds arrived. The RN had adopted forward basing, notably at Nanga Gat in the 2nd Division on the Rajang River, which the RAF had previously declared unsafe for helicopters but subsequently used as a forward base for Whirlwinds. At Bario in the 5th Division, RN helicopters received their fuel in air-dropped 44 gallon drums from RAF Beverley's. The expansion of the Army Air Corps (AAC) was creating air platoons or troops of 2 or 3 Sioux in many units, including some infantry battalions, which proved very useful. In addition, the AAC was operating Auster and Beaver fixed wing aircraft and some of the new Scouts, which could carry a similar number of troops as a Whirlwind. However, in the remoter areas of Sarawak, the Twin Pioneers of the RAF and RMAF were vital, and the RAF's Single Pioneers were also useful. East Brigade had the benefit of RMAF Alouette 3s, and RNZAF Bristol Freighters were also used between major airfields.

The Indonesian Air Force also operated air transport, particularly into the more mountainous areas of the border that were beyond rivers navigable by larger boats and landing craft. Although they had far fewer aircraft than the Commonwealth forces, those they had were far more capable. They included the workhorse helicopter Mil Mi-4 NATO reporting name HOUND, the largest helicopter in the world, Mil Mi-6 NATO reporting name HOOK, C-130 Hercules and Antonov An-12 NATO reporting name CUB.

The naval presence was composed of minesweepers and other light craft patrolling coastal waters and some large inland waterways, and a "guardship" (frigate or destroyer) at Tawau. Army vessels, typically "ramp powered lighters", supported bases on navigable waterways. Hovercraft were also used.

RPKAD Battalion 2 was withdrawn in February 1964 and deactivated. During the year, the Indonesian army extended its operation into East Kalimantan, and three companies from RPKAD Battalion 1, commanded by Major Benny Moerdani, were sent there. Company A dropped into Lumbis opposite the Interior Residency of Sabah, while B and C were supposed to go into Long Bawan further West opposite the 5th Division of Sarawak. B's C-130 aircraft was unable to identify the Drop Zone, and they never deployed. Both companies were tasked with training locals from Sabah, mainly as porters, and cross-border operations disguised as TNKU with uniforms, badges and fake ID cards. Company A launched the first raid in June 1964 against a post near the village of Kabu; however, they were stopped by a swollen river and withdrew to the border. Along the way, they stopped at an unoccupied longhouse, where they bumped into Gurkhas and fled to the border. This company was withdrawn in early 1965.

Within a week or so of landing, a 15-man element of Company C, including its commander, went northeast roughly midway to Lumbis, then crossed into Sabah with orders to establish a permanent base. However, their supplies were inadequate, and, after a week, they headed back to Kalimantan in two groups. Along the way in what they thought was Indonesia, the first group of 10 under Corporal Ismael heard chopping, and, assuming it to be TNKU, went towards it hoping for food. Instead around last light in heavy rain they bumped a shirtless Caucasian, who was thought to be an SAS operative. After a fire fight they remained in position all night and in the morning found the body of Tpr Condon, whom they buried, taking his pack and radio. For the rest of their tour until February 1965, they trained TNKU and undertook very shallow cross-border raids with mixed teams, losing 4 RPKAD and 10 TNKU.

During the year, Indonesian forces increased in strength, and incursions were increasingly by regular troops, sometimes led by officers trained by the UK. A United States (US) Army training team remained in Indonesia throughout the period but does not seem to have had any tactical impact in Kalimantan, although US-equipped Indonesian units appeared there. Troops facing Kuching were reinforced, and, in the east, amphibious activities increased, and TAG's communications jammed. Moreover, within Sarawak, the CCO was expanding and the Borneo Communist Party started producing grenades and shotguns. Total Indonesian forces were:

Facing West Brigade - 8 regular and 11 volunteer guerrilla companies (companies were up to 200 strong)

Facing Central Brigade - 6 regular and 3 volunteer companies.

Facing East Brigade - 4 or 5 KKO and 3 volunteer companies.

The initiative remained with Indonesian forces as to where and when they attacked. DOPOPS had repeatedly sought authority for hot pursuit and pre-emptive action across the border. This was denied, and some parts of the armed forces considered that a major overt attack on Indonesia would bring the war to a close. However, in July the new Labour government approved offensive action across the border, under constraints, conditions of strict secrecy and the codename Claret. However, there was no intention of launching a general offensive or attacks intended to inflict significant Indonesian casualties. The aim was to keep the Indonesians under pressure and off-balance rather than attempt to pre-empt specific Indonesian attacks, and to this end, operations were conducted along the entire length of the border, not just the "hot spot" close to Kuching.

In January, reports indicated a large Indonesian force in the 5th Division. A camp of some 60 men was found. Attacked by 11 men of the Royal Leicestershire Regiment, they fled, leaving 7 dead and half a ton of supplies. In the 1st Division, a force of about 100 crossed the border, apparently heading for Kuching airfield, but they were put to flight by a small force of marines and police. They were well equipped and had East European-made rocket launchers.

In March, in the 2nd Division, 1/10 Gurkhas discovered a force from the 328 Raider Battalion, which was made up of regular Indonesian troops. After being ejected, they returned a few weeks later and established a position in caves in a cliff face. This led to the only use of offensive airpower in the campaign, albeit with approval from London. Wessex helicopters of 845 Naval Air Commando Squadron fired SS.11 anti-tank missiles into the caves.

Between March and June, a new pattern emerged in the 2nd Division during a series of actions between Gurkhas and professional soldiers from the Indonesian Black Cobra Battalion. The latter's losses were several times the Gurkhas', and, in one incident, 4 Black Cobras clashed with 2 Gurkhas. The Cobras were killed, and the Gurkhas remained unscathed. In another incident, 6 Black Cobras were captured by Ibans and beheaded.

In July, there were 34 Indonesian acts of aggression, including 13 border incursions in Borneo. There were indicators that Indonesian forces were re-organising. However, in the last three months of the year, the number of cross border incursions in Borneo dropped significantly.

In 1964, Indonesian operations, mostly based in Sumatra, were launched against West Malaysia (the Malayan peninsula). Most did not involve the Indonesian army. There were six successful infiltrations by the Indonesian Police's Ranger Regiment, although 33 were killed and 76 captured.

Coordinated to coincide with Sukarno announcing a 'Year of Dangerous Living' during Indonesian Independence Day celebrations, Indonesian forces began a campaign of airborne and seaborne infiltrations of the Malaysian Peninsula on Monday 17th August 1964. A seaborne force of about 100, composed of air force Pasukan Gerat Tjepat (PGT - Quick Reaction Force) paratroopers, KKO and about a dozen Malaysian communists, crossed the Malacca Straits by boat. They landed southwest of Johore. Instead of being greeted as liberators, they were contained by various Commonwealth forces and most of the infiltrators were killed or captured within a few days.

On Wednesday 2nd September 1964, three C-130 set off from Jakarta for Peninsula Malaysia, flying low to avoid detection by radar. The following night, two of the C-130 managed to reach their objective with their onboard PGT paratroopers, who jumped off and landed around Labis in Johore (about 100 miles (160 km) north of Singapore). The remaining C-130 crashed into the Malacca Straits while trying to evade interception by an RAF Javelin FAW 9 launched from RAF Tengah. Due to a lightning storm, the drop of 96 paratroopers was widely dispersed. This resulted in them landing close to 1/10 Gurkhas, who were joined by 1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment (1 RNZIR) stationed near Malacca with 28 (Commonwealth) Brigade. Operations were commanded by 4 Malaysian Brigade, but it took a month to round up or kill the 96 invaders and a New Zealand officer was killed during the action.

Indonesia's expansion of the conflict to the Malaysian Peninsula sparked the Sunda Straits Crisis, involving the anticipated transit of the Sunda Strait by the British aircraft carrier Victorious and two destroyer escorts. Commonwealth forces were readied for airstrikes against Indonesian infiltration staging areas in Sumatra if further Indonesian infiltrations of the Malaysian Peninsula were attempted. A tense three week standoff occurred before the crisis was peacefully resolved.

On Thursday 29th October, 52 soldiers landed near the mouth of the Kesang River on the Johore-Malacca border and not far from 28 (Commonwealth) Brigade base at Camp Terendak, Malacca. The Commanding officer of 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (3 RAR) was given the task of dealing with the invaders with his D Company, B Company 1 RNZIR and C Squadron 4th Royal Tank Regiment with fire support from 102 Battery Royal Australian Artillery. 20 surrendered, while some others were killed or captured by the Royal Malay Regiment.

In the same period, about 30 landed near Pontian and were hunted down by 1 RNZIR, the Malaysian Army and Royal Federated Malay States Police Field Force personnel in Batu 20 Muar, Johore. There were also terrorist attacks in Singapore.

These attacks on West Malaysia led the UK to plan offensive air and sea operations against Indonesia. It appears that Far East HQ produced a tentative list of seven potential targets for retaliation based on four criteria. The criteria were that: the target must be related to the Indonesian attack; must be militarily useful; would produce minimum casualties; and, be least likely to produce escalation.

In late 1963 and into 1964, the Indonesian Air Force took to "buzzing" towns in Sarawak. This led to Malaysia declaring an Air Defence Identification Zone on 24 February. The RAF started periodic fighter patrols along the border using aircraft such as Javelin and RN Sea Vixens from the fleet carrier in theatre The UK already had 12 Light Air Defence Regiment Royal Artillery (12 Lt AD Regt) stationed in West Malaysia.

In June, 111 Light Anti-Aircraft Battery Royal Australian Artillery with Bofors 40/60 guns deployed from Australia to RAAF Butterworth near Penang, close to the Thai border. In September, 22 Lt AD Regt with two batteries arrived from the UK to defend RAF Changi and Seletar in Singapore, and 11 Lt AD Battery of 34 Lt AD Regt arrived to defend Kuching airfield with batteries rotated through Kuching for the next two years. All the UK batteries were equipped with Bofors 40/70 guns and FCE 7 Yellow Fever.

The year ended with the UK Government approving deployment of UK-based units from Army Strategic Command and a major reorganisation of Indonesian forces in Kalimantan. However, Sukarno was coming under increasing influence of the Indonesian Communist party (PKI), causing unhappiness in the Indonesian Armed Forces.

By the concluding months of 1964 the conflict once again appeared to have reached stalemate, with Commonwealth forces having placed in check for the moment Indonesia's campaign of infiltrations into Borneo, and more recently, the Malaysian Peninsula.

1964. August. Most published sources that mention operation 'Claret' are ambiguous about when cross-border operations were first authorised. This is understandable since the most explicit sources are regimental histories which deal almost exclusively with die activity of a particular battalion's tour in Borneo. In Fighting General, Tom Pocock indicates that 'Claret' was not authorised until August 1964, after the first Indonesian incursion into West Malaysia. Pocock tied authorisation for 'Claret' to a visit to Borneo by Fred Mulley, the Deputy Secretary of State for Defence and Army Minister in the summer of 1964. Walker supposedly convinced Mulley of the need for cross-border raids to keep the Indonesians off-balance. Mulley reportedly agreed with Walker, promising to pass on this information to Denis Healey, who had recently become Secretary of State for Defence. Presumably, Healey then raised the matter before the full Cabinet, which gave its assent based on the growing threat indicated by the seaborne landing and the Indonesian build up opposite the First Division.

Rules were drew up in order to ensure secrecy and effectiveness. Known as the 'Golden Rules,' they were:
Every operation will be authorised by DOBOPS.
Only trained and tested troops will be used.
Depth of penetration must be limited, and the attacks must only be made to thwart offensive action by the enemy.
No air support will be given to any operation across the border, except in the most extreme of emergencies.
Every operation must be planned with the aid of a sand table and thoroughly rehearsed for at least two weeks.
Each operation will be planned and executed with maximum security.
Every man taking part must be sworn to secrecy, full cover plans must be made and the operations to be given code-names and never discussed in detail on telephone or radio.
Identity discs must be left behind before departure and no no traces such as cartridge cases, paper, ration packs, etc, must be left in Kalimantan.
On no account must any soldier taking part be captured by the enemy, alive or dead.
The Golden Rules were faithfully followed. Available sources indicate that operations followed months of reconnoitering, planning and rehearsing every possible detail, including fields of fire for machine-guns, silent plotting for artillery and mortar fire, approach routes, etc. The degree to which all crossborder operations were subject to high-level review and approval was remarkable.

"Reconnaissance patrols were to be decided by the Brigade Commander, who would notify (the division Commander), but other cross-border operations were to be determined by the Director of Borneo Operations based on recommendations from (the division commander) and his brigade commanders, on SAS advice, and on intelligence available."

Since no soldiers, alive or dead, were to be left behind, casualties during 'Claret' operations could pose a real problem. Fortunately for the security forces there were very few. Bodies of any dead or wounded had to be carried back to the border before being evacuated by helicopter. Only one instance of a helicopter 'casevac' (casualty evacuation) from Kalimantan is recorded.

There are at least two cases of soldiers being lost across the border, but in neither case is there any indication that the Indonesians ever found the bodies. Walker attributes the success of operations and the minimal number of casualties to his insistance on training.

1964. 14th September. 815 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1964. October. 805 Kings squad passed for duty at Lympstone. Paul Demery was awarded the Kings Badge.

1964. Wednesday 28th October. The 300th anniversary of the birth of the Royal Marine Corps.

1964. Tuesday 8th December. The Military Cross awarded to Lieutenant Robert Alan Mountcastle Seeger, Royal Marines. Lieutenant Seeger was leading a patrol in Sabah North Borneo, in the Border on the West Coast of Sebatic Island, Tawau, Sabah. The patrol was operating from rubber boats, and shortly after landing on a beach near the Border Lieutenant Seeger and the leading men of the patrol came under heavy fire, at close range, from an enemy automatic weapon.
Lieutenant Seeger was wounded in the right arm and knocked to the ground. Instantly he regained his feet and rushed the enemy position firing his sub-machine gun and shouting orders to his patrol.

The automatic fire ceased, and Lieutenant Seeger cleared the immediate area with grenades. He then led the assault group of his patrol through the enemy position under covering fire from the support group. This manoeuvre accounted for three enemy killed and these were later identified as Indonesian Marines. Having cleared the area, he withdrew his patrol to the boats, re-embarked and moved out of the area.

Throughout the action Lieutenant Seeger demonstrated leadership of the highest quality, and his presence of mind, calmness, decision and inspiration whilst under fire resulted in a very competent tactical action. The ability of the patrol to react quickly when surprised reflected the thorough preparation and training which he had carried out with his men beforehand.
During October, Lieutenant Seeger led a long reconnaissance patrol through extremely difficult country. This resulted in very valuable information and was the result of leadership and skill of a very high order.

1964. Wednesday 16th December. 808 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Rod 'Pedlar' Palmer was awarded the Kings Badge.

1964. 41 & 45 Commandos in East Africa.

1964. Lovat Dress introduced.

1964 - 1967. 45 Commando was on operations in the Radfan in Aden.

1964. Lieutenant Norman Finch V.C. was made Divisonal Sergeant-Major of H.M. Bodyguard of the Yeoman of the Guard.

1964. Friday 29th January. 815 Squad completed training at Deal.

1965. Saturday 30th January. The Royal Marines played a Major role during the state funeral of Sir Winston Churchill, as his Guard of Honour. (From 41 Commando) While other Royal Marines help line the streets of London from St Paul's Cathedral to the Tower of London.

1965. Monday 1st March. 824 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1965. Monday 22nd March. 825 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1965. Thursday 29th March. 826 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1965. Captain T.J.P. Murphy was selected as the first Royal Marines officer to train as a Qualified Helicopter Instructor.

1965. Monday 3rd May. 25Je. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1965. May. 814 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Allan Jones was awarded the Kings Badge.

1965. June. 815 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. D (J?) Sayers was awarded the Kings Badge.

1965. Friday 18th June 1965. Lieutenant Charles Peter Cameron RM was the first Royal Marine to qualify as a Unit Light Aircraft Pilot.

1965. Wednesday 14th to Saturday 31st July.The Royal Tournament was help at the Earls Court Exhibition Building. 41 Commando Royal Marines demonstrated a 'Blockade and Raid' that included a cliff assault. The following photo is from Terry Aspinall.

1965. Friday 9th July. 824 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1965. Friday 23rd July. 825 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1965. Monday 2nd August. 831 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1965. Sunday 12th September. The Military Cross awarded to Major John Culpeper Weston, Royal Marines. A reconnaissance patrol from C Company of 40 Commando discovered a latoon of Indonesians in position on the Sarawak Border.

Operation ‘Stonehouse’ was mounted on the Tuesday 14th September with the aim of destroying this force. After a long and very difficult approach through dense forest and severe hills, Captain (now Major) Weston who had planned the operation in detail successfully positioned his Company near the enemy.

He then led a small patrol to ascertain the enemy's exact dispositions. He placed his subunits for a fire assault. This was less than 70 yards from the enemy.

At this moment two civilians spotted one of our fire groups and gave the alarm.
A very fierce fire fight developed immediately, during which a number of the enemy were hit. The enemy maintained heavy small arms and mortar fire for some time but were then forced to retreat by C Company's accurate fire. Throughout this action Captain Weston who was close to his most forward troops, controlled the fire and the movements of his sub-units with great coolness and disregard for his own safety.

Over a period of four months he also led his Company on a number of operations both on the border and in the rear areas. All these have been well planned and led.

On three occasions they have disrupted Communist elements and the third resulted in the capture of a group of Communists one of whom had been badly wanted by the special Branch for several months.

The efficiency and determination displayed by C Company on all its operations has very largely resulted from the training and leadership of Captain Weston who although still severely handicapped by an arm badly wounded at Suez has never spared himself and has set a magnificent example to his men.

1965. Monday 13th September. 826 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1965. October. 21Je and 22Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1965. Monday 1st November. 837 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1965. Friday 26th November. 839 squad commenced training at Deal.

1965. November. A Recommendation for an Honour or Award (OBE) was made on behalf of Lieutenant Colonel John Aubrey Taplin. Then Commanding Officer 40 Commando Royal Marines during the unit's deployment in the Serian district of Sarawak.

1965. Friday 3rd December. 831 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1965. December. 23Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1965. December. 824 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1965. Sergeant Peter Lawrence became the first Non Commissioned Royal Marine to qualify as a Unit Light Aircraft Pilot.

1965. Earl Mountbatten of Burma was appointed a Colonel Commandant RM.

1966. Friday 11th February. 25Je. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1966. Tuesday 1st March. 29Je. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1966. Thursday 10th March. 837 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1966. Sunday 15th March. Lieutenant Norman Finch V.C. passed away while living in Portsmouth Hampshire and was cremated at Porchester. His ashes were transferred to Southampton. His only known memorial is at the Eastney Barracks, Royal Marines Museum, Southsea.

1966. March. Borneo. Two Company’s of Royal Marines attacked an Indonesian stronghold near Biawak. The Commandos had made a long approach march lasting several days, avoiding jungle trails that were liable to be mined. Upon reaching the enemy camp, Claymore mines on long bamboo poles were quietly hoisted on to the roofs of the enemy bashas (huts) and triggered by remote control. When these exploded each claymore releases 700 steel balls, which tore through the palm roofs and created havoc among the occupants below. The survivors dived out of the buildings and returned the fire of the waiting commandos. Captain Ian Clarke RM was morally wounded during this exchange and another Marine was injured.

1966. Wednesday 30 March. 839 Squad completed training at Deal.

1966. Friday 22nd April. 831 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1966. April. Royal Marine Graham Price RM 22359, while on active service with 42 Commando and serving in Borneo was ‘Mentioned in Dispatches’ during operation Claret. His ‘Mention in Dispatches’ was later published on Tuesday 13th December 1966 in the London Gazette. Graham received the award during the summer of 1966 while on the parade ground of Stonehouse barracks Plymouth in front of the Company. It was presented to him by Major R.E. Simmons U.S.M.C. (on secondment).

Lt Ian Clark with Graham as tracker, along with a Malay linguist and 2 Ibans tribesmen were sent on recce patrols over the Indonesian border to locate Indonesian fire bases. After a large enemy base was located a plan was hatched to attack it. Graham led L Company and Lt Clark led M Company on an overnight march to lay up in the jungle for a dawn attack. The attack was a success but sadly Lt Clark was killed along with one other Marine. However, there were 22 Indonesian soldiers killed during the attack, and it stopped the Indonesians from mounting further raids over the border. Believing that they were safe upon there retreat back onto Indonesian territory. At the time it was a secret operation. The British government did not admit what Operation Claret involved until 1974. While most of the information was not available for thirty years.

1966. June. 836 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1966. The RMFVR retitled Royal Marines Reserve.

1966. July. 837 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1966. Thursday 18th August. The end of Indonesian Confrontation in Borneo after a truce was finally agreed.
The total casualties of the Commonwealth Military Forces in this undeclared war, which lasted over four years, were 114 killed and 181 injured. A fifth of the Indonesian losses, half of who were prisoners. The British forces also had to contend with virulent diseases such as scrub-typhus with its weakening fevers, kidney failure and possible death of the victim in a coma.

1966. Monday 31st October. 857 Squad Squad commensed training at the Deal Depot.

1966. Saturday 17th December. 31Je Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1966. Monday 28th November. 859 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1966. December. 844 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1967. Tuesday 10th January. 32Je Squad commenced training at Deal.

1967. January. 846 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1967. 26th February. 29Je. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1967. Sunday 10th March. 857 Squad Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1967. Thursday 23rd March. Marine David Esseen died while serving in 45 Commando, Aden and the Radfan.

1967. Monday 15th May. 870 Squad Squad commensed training at the Deal Depot.

1967. Monday 29th May. 871 Squad commensed training at the Deal Depot.

1967. Monday 1st May. 869 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1967. Monday 29th May. 871 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1967. May. 29Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1967. May. 852 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. John Bryant was awarded the Kings Badge.

1967. May - June. The 75th Anniversary Edition of the 'Globe & Laurel', Editor Captain D.A.G. Collin RM. The magazine was now published bi-monthly and cost half a crown. The content was more structured, reporting on Unit and training activities in a similar layout to that of today's publication growing to some seventy two pages. Pay and Records Office articles were frequent, coming at the time from Melville camp, Eastney, behind the main Eastney Barracks.

1967. Friday 30th June. 856 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Colin Griffiths was awarded the Kings Badge.

1967. Monday 7th August. 875 Squad commensed training at the Deal Depot.

1967. August. The introduction of CG's Certificate of Merit for Buglers.

1967. Tuesday 5th September. 35Je. Squad commensed training at the Deal Depot.

1967. Friday 8th September. 869 Squad completed training at Deal.

1967. Tuesday 12th September. Royal Marines, 2nd Lt Danny Moir age 22 was killed in action in Aden whilst serving with 45 Commando. Because the British withdrawal from Aden was less than 3 months away the decision was taken to bury Danny at sea rather than on land where his grave may well have been desecrated after the withdrawal.

1967. Friday 22nd September. 870 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1967. Thursday 5th October. 871 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1967. Thursday 19th October. 32Je Squad completed training at Deal.

1967. Monday 13th November. 881 Squad commensed training at the Deal Depot.

1967. November. 42 Commando covered the final withdrawal from Aden.

1967. Thursday 14th December. 875 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1967. December. 29Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1967. Band Ranks to be eligible for selection as Drum Majors.

1967. Move of Plymouth Group Band to Infantry Training Centre RM.

1967. Band of C - in - C Mediterranean Fleet was disestablished.

1967. 45 Commando returned to UK.

1967. 40 Commando on IS duties in Hong Kong.

1968. Feruary. 871. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1968. 21st March. 881 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1968. Friday 3rd May. 875 Kings squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1968. Monday 6th May. 39Je. Squad commensed training at the Deal Depot.

1968. Tuesday 6th June. 35Je. Squad completed group 'A' training at the Deal Depot.

1968. Monday 2nd September. 892 and 893 Squads commenced training at Deal.

1968. Monday 12th August 1968. The formation of 3 Commando Brigade Air Squadron RM. The Squadron was formed from the amalgamation of the three Unit Air Troops of 40 and 42 Commando and 95 Commando Light Regiment RA plus the Brigade HQ Flight. The first Squadron Commander was Captain T.P.T. Donkin RM.

1968. As a result of conditions and age, the memorial Silver Bugles will no longer be sounded.

1968. New NCO structure in Band Service - Introduction of Band Colour Sergeant rank.

1968.  The Commandant Generals Piper. 1 During his recent visit to 42 Commando RM the Commandant General approved that the title of the Commandant Generals Piper was to be held by the leading piper in 42 Commando's Pipe Band. 2 This appointment confers on the holder the entitlement, when in Pipe Band uniform, to wear a Skian Dhu presented by General Sir Norman Tailyour KCB DSO. 3 The first person selected to hold this appointment is RM 21534 Lance Corporal I Anderson.

1968. 43 Commando was disbanded.

1969. Wednesday 1st January. Band of HM RM C-in-C Western Fleet formed. With a strength of forty three this was one of the two largest bands and was regarded as the Staff Band of the Royal Navy.

1969. Tuesday 21st January. Malcolm Sargent Cancer Fund for children. First concert in aid of this charity held in Portsmouth Guildhall, preceding the Royal Albert Hall concert.

1969. Friday 7th February. 39Je. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1969. Sunday 23rd February. The Silver Memorial Bugles withdrawn from service and issued, as Corps Silver, to the Officers Mess's at Plymouth and CTC as well as the RMBS and the RMM.

1969. February. Captain Michael John Reece was appointed Commanding Officer of 848 Naval Air Squadron. The first Royal Marine officer to command a Naval Helicopter Squadron.

1969. Monday 15th September. 48Je. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1969. September. 41Je. and 42Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1669. Wednesday 22nd October. 928 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1969. 1st November. 49Je. commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1969. Friday 5th December. 48Je. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1969. 'Operation Banner' as the troubles in Northern Ireland escalated. 41 Commando were the first RM unit to operate in Northern Ireland.

1970. Monday 19th January. 50Je. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1970. Friday 30th January. 904 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1970. January. Band of C-in-C Far East Fleet disbanded.

1970. Friday 13th February. 49Je. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1970. Friday 10th April. 50Je. completed training at the Deal Depot.

1970. Tuesday 9th June. Massed Bands Beat Retreat on Horse Guards Parade.

1970. Friday 12th June. 910 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1970. Friday 26th June.921 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1970. June. 911 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1970. July. 914 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1970. Friday 10th July. 921 Squad completed training at Deal.

1970. Friday 31st July. 915 Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1970. Friday 31st July. The day the last rum ration was issued to the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. It became known as Black Tot Day' as sailors were unhappy about the loss of the rum ration. There were reports that the day involved sailors throwing tots into the sea and the staging of a mock funeral in a training camp. In place of the rum ration, sailors were allowed to buy three half-pint cans of beer a day and improved recreational facilities. While the rum ration was abolished, the order to 'Splice the Mainbrace', awarding sailors an extra tot of rum for good service, remained as a command which could only be given by the Monarch and is still used to recognise good service.

1970. Saturday 1st August. Daily rum issue abolished in the Royal Navy.

1970. Wednesday 2nd September. Last RM Band detailed for regular service on board a Royal Navy warship embarked in HMS Eagle.

1970. Thursday 22nd October. 928 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot

1970. Monday 26th October. 929 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1970. Wednesday 28th October. 57Je. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1970. Monday 9th November. 928 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1970. Friday 4th December. 920 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1970. Saturday 5th December. 929 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1970. 45 Commando assigned to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) for the Northern Flank.

1971. 13th January. 59Je. Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1971. January. 924 and 935 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1971. 12th February. 57Je. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1971. Thursday 25th February. 934 Squad commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1971. Saturday 6th March. 934 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1971. Thursday 29th April. Headdress to be worn by Fanfare Trumpeters. Instructions from Dept of the CGRM: "Her Majesty has now express a wish that when paraded with a Band in helmets the trumpeters should conform to the dress of the band. Trials carried out at the School of Music have shown that this presents no real difficulty. Having regards to the fact therefore that the trumpets at present used for ceremonial purposes are not the original memorial trumpets the Commandant General has ruled that white helmets are to be worn when the trumpeters parade with a band in his dress."

1971. April. 927 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1971. April. 928 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1971. 18th May. 4 Squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1971. Friday 11th June. 59Je. Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1971. Band of HM RM C-in-C Western Fleet became HM RM C-in-C Fleet.

1971. June. Mr Dom Mintoff was elected Prime Minister of Malta. On 17th June he informed the British Government that he no longer accepted the ten year 1964 Defence and Financial agreement. An advance party of 91 Marines and 120 wives and children had arrived by the end of June. They were to be followed by the main body of 900 men on HMS Bulwark in mid July. An agreement was reached whereby Malta was to receive from the UK £5.25 million a year in rent, and £4.25 million from NATO. However, in December 1971, Mintoff increased his demand for an extra £9.5 million, together with restrictions on the use of the base by other NATO powers and set a dead line of 31 December 1971 for the withdrawal of British Troops. On 29 December 1971, Britain responded to Mintoff's ultimatum by announcing the withdrawal of 3,500 troops and 7,000 dependants from Malta. The deadline was extended until 15 January 1972 to allow for an orderly withdrawal.

1971. June. 929 Squad completed training at the Deal Depot.

1971. July. 932 Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1971. July. At the request of the Government of Malta the British Government suspended the planned change over between 41 Commando Group and the 1st/Devonshire and Dorset Regiment, pending discussions between the two governments.

1971. Tuesday 28th September. 66Je. Troop commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1971. Tuesday 26th October. 67Je. Troop commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1971. 3 Commando Brigade Air Squadron RM returned to the UK from the Far East and moved into Coypool where the two UK based Commando Air Troops of 41 and 45 Commandos were absorbed into the Squadron.

1971. 41 Commando moved to Malta.

1971. 45 Commando moved to Arbroath in Scotland.

1972. Monday 3rd January. Plymouth Band changed title to Band of HM Royal Marines, Commando force.

1972. Tuesday 22nd February. 20/21 Troop commenced training at the Deal Depot. (First mention of a Troop, from a Squad?)

1972. February. 62Je. Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1972. Saturday 11th March. 66Je. Troop completed training at the Deal Depot.

1972. Friday 21st April. 67Je. Troop commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1972. Friday 28th April. 20/21 Troop completed training at the Deal Depot.

1972. May - June. 41 Commando Visited the USA in HMS Bulwark for exercise Rum Punch with the United States Marine Corps. They returned to Malta on 6th July until their temporary disbandment.

1972. Sunday 11th June. Army and Marines adopted as Regimental March of the Commando Logistics Regiment.

1972. Saturday 1st July. The Rank of Warrant Officer reintroduced into RN and RM.

1972. Wdenesday 26th July. Royal Marine David 'Leonard' Allen aged 22 while serving with 40 Commando in Northern Ireland was killed at the Unity Flats, Unity Place, Belfast.

1972. Wednesday 29th August. 75 Squad commenced training at Deal.

1972. Sunday 3rd Sept - 20 October. 41 Commando was based on Malta.

1972. Sunday 3rd September. Royal Marine Robert S Cutting from Manchester aged 18, while serving with 29 Commando in the New Lodge area of North Belfast, Northern Ireland was accidentally killed.

1972. Monday 16th October. Royal Marine Anthony Philip David age 27, was fatally wounded in an attack in West Belfast. He died the following day. Marine David was from Bridgend, Glamorgan, Wales, and was serving in 40 Commando.

1972. Monday 16th October. Royal Marine Anthony Philip David who was fatally wounded during an attack in West Belfast. Sadly, he died on the Tuseday 17th October aged 27. Marine David served in 40 Commando, and was from Bridgend, Glamorgan, Wales.

1972. Wednesday 6th December. Bands permitted to wear green berets on limited occasions eg when performing in Northern Ireland, during military training and when caps are impractical eg in ships. CGR's Advisory Dress Committee file (RM 5/20/277 Pk2).

1972. HM The Queen approved the design for drum emblazonments to be used by the Royal Marines and the Volunteer Bands of the Royal navy. This followed the Corps representative's discussion with, and approval from, Clarenceux King of arms, Chester Herald (Advisor on Naval Heraldry) and Garter, King of Arms. New design introduced in 1973.

1972. The Commando Logistic Regiment was formed.

1972. The Warrant rank was reintroduced.

1972. Tuesday 16th January. 80Je. Troop commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1972. Thursday 1st February. Registered numbers to Computerised Records. RN and RM pay, and records were centralized at HMS Centurion and computerized service numbers were introduced. All prefixes in use were replaced, and ‘CH/X’ became ‘P00’, PO/X’ became ‘R00’, ‘PLY/X’ became ‘00’, ‘RM’ became ‘P0’, and ‘RMB’ became Q0.

Later the prefix ‘P’ was adopted and, using a complicated formula and a suffix letter, new numbers were calculated for all other ranks. At about the same time numbers for officers were introduced (for pay purpose sonly) and their numbers were prefixed ‘N’.

1973. Saturday 3rd February. 75 Squad completed training at Deal.

1973. Tuesday 6th February. The first Royal Marines Massed Bands concert in the Royal Albert Hall. This was in aid of the 150th Anniversary Appeal for the Royal Academy of Music. The series later became known as the Mountbatten Festival of Music. Bands of C-in-C Naval Home Command, HMS Ganges and the Royal Marines School of Music took part.

1973. February. 72Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1973. Tuesday 12th June. Massed Bands Beat Retreat on Horse Guards Parade.

1973. PRORM was integrated with HMS Centurion.

1973. Friday 6th July. 80Je. completed training at the Deal Depot.

1973. Tuesday 10th July. 86Je. Troop commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1973. Thursday 26th July. While serving with 40 Commando in Northern Ireland Royal Marine John Shaw aged 20 was killed at Unity Place, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

1973. November. 82Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1973. 7th December. 47/48/49Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1973. Friday 14th December. 86Je. Troop completed training at the Deal Depot.

1974. Tuesday 5th February. Massed Bands Concert at the Royal Albert Hall in aid of the Royal Marines Museum fund.

1974. February. 50/51Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1974. Friday 22nd March. Marine James Macklin aged 28 was fatally wounded on patrol in North belfast. While serving in 42 Commando. He died on Thursday 28th March 1974.

1974. Tuesday 14th May. 98Je. Troop commenced training at thr Deal Depot.

1974. May. 56Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1974. May. 87Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1974. May. 203Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone. John Davidson was awarded the Kings Badge.

1974. Saturday 20th July. Following the invasion of Cyprus by Turkey, 41 Commando RM embarked in HMS 'Albion' to evacuate British civilians from Kyrenia. They returned to Malta by mid September.

1974. Friday 30th August. 98Je. Troop completed training at the Deal Depot.

1974. Tuesday 14th May. 98Je Squad  commenced training at Deal.

1974. Friday 30th August. 98Je. completed training at Deal.

1974. Saturday 28th September. 201Je. Troop commenced training at thr Deal Depot.

1974. Thursday 10th October. 202Je. commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1974. Wednesday 22nd November. 201Je. Troop completed training at the Deal Depot.

1974. Tuesday 21st November. 66Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Roger Brown was awarded the Kings Badge.

1974. November 92Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1974. Friday 6th December. 202Je. Troop completed training at the Deal Depot.

1974. Corps Strength at that time was 7,770.

1974 - 1984. The Royal Marines undertook three United Nations tours of duty in Cyprus. The first was in November 1974 when 41 Commando took over the Limassol District from the 2nd Battalion of the Guards Brigade and became the first Commando to wear the light blue berets of the UN when they began the Corps' first six-month tour with the UN forces in Cyprus.

1974 - 1975. The British Defence Review called for the reduction of the Royal Marines from 7,770 men to 6,865. This diminution was to be achieved by the disbandment of 41 Commando RM of 4 Command Gp. Troops of 41 Commando were to return to England in April 1977, leaving behind a reinforced company of about 200 men who were to remain in Malta until March 1979.

1975. 41 Commando Royal Marines were based in Malta, when 'Salerno Flight' was formed with Captain Rodney Helme RM as the OC (he replaced the original OC who was an Army Gunner), and Sergeant Blain as one of the pilots. Their Gazelle, 381 and 383, were allocated from the 3 BAS aircraft at Coypool, and Lieutenant Steve Bidmead RM, Lieutenant Derek Blevins RM and Sergeant Paul Braithwaite RM were tasked with delivering the Gazelle to Malta.

1975. Tuesday. 4th February. Massed Bands Concert at the Royal Albert Hall in aid of the Sir Malcolm Sergeant Cancer Fund for children, and Corps Charities.

1975. Friday 14th March. 203 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. John Davidson was awarded the Kings Badge.

1975. Friday 14th March. 98/99 Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1975. April. 200 Kings Squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1975. Friday 23rd May. 73Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Taff Res's was awarded the Kings Badge.

1975. May. 203 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. John Davidson was awarded the Kings Badge.

1975. Friday 25th July. 76Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Alex Grant was awarded the Kings Badge.

1975. September. 78Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1975. August. 77Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Keith Woodworth was awarded the Kings Badge.

1975. October. 208 Troop passed for duty from Lympstone. Trevor Lewton was awarded the Kings Badge.

1975. October - May 1975. 40 / 41 Commandos served with the UN Forces in Cyprus.

1975. November. 209Je. and 80 Kings Squad (amalgamated) passed for duty from Lympstone.

1975. Corps Marches 'A life on the Ocean Waves', 'Sarie Marais' and 'Preobrajensky' in place of 'Globe and Laurel' confirmed.

1976. January. 210 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1976. Tuesday 13th January. 219Je. commenced training ath the Deal Depot.

1976. January. 82Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1976. February. 211 Kings squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1976. Saturday 6th March. 219Je. completed training ath the Deal Depot.

1976. March. 84 Kings squad passed for duty at Lympstone.

1976. March. 212 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1976. Tuesday 6th April. 86Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1976. Tuesday 8th June. Massed Mands Beat Retreat on Horse Guards Parade.

1976. Friday 11th June. 88Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1976. June. 214 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Mick Richardson was awarded the Kings Badge.

1976. June. 215 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1976. June. 216 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1976. July. 90Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1976. August. 218 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1976. Wednesday26th October. 226Je. Troop commenced training at the Depot Deal.

1976. Monday 9th November. 227Je. Troop commenced training ath the Deal Depot.

1976. Friday 12th November. 92Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1976. Friday 10th Dcemeber. 94Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1976. 8th December. The Royal Marines received the Freedom of Stanley on the Falkland Islands.

1976. Royal Marine detachments were aboard frigates during the Cod War off Iceland.

1976. Britain began trialling prototypes for the 1980s programme, which aims to create weapons to replace the L (12A) 1 and the Bren gun. SA80 rifles have since been standard issue.

1977. Friday 28th January. 221 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1977. Friday 4th February. 226Je. Troop completed training at the Deal Depot.

1977. Sunday 6th February. Queen Elizabeth celebrated her Silver Jubilee by inspecting 41 Commando on Plymouth Hoe. (Although Salerno Company had left for Malta at the time).

1977. Friday 18th February. 227Je. Troop completed training at the Deal Depot.

1977. April. 97 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Ian Brown was awarded the Kings Badge.

1977. Wednesday 16th March.  Admiral of the Fleet, the Earl Mountbatten of Burma, took the salute as 41 Commando RM trooped the Regimental Colour at St Andrew's Barracks. The ceremony marked the beginning of the withdrawal of British Forces from Malta.

1977. Monday 18th April. The main body 41 Commando returned to England leaving Salerno Company Group, which relocated to RAF Luqa.

1977. April. 97 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Ian Brown was awarded the Kings Badge.

1977. May. 223 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1977. Monday 17th June. 224 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Dan Richmond. Was awarded the Kings Badge.

1977. June. 41 Commando RM which had returned to England for disbandment was reprieved. The Government decided to use it in the infantry role in Northern Ireland. This reduced the need to withdraw troops from BAOR to cover the province.

1977. Saturday 12th August. Royal Marine Neil Bewley aged 19 while serving in 45 Commando was shot whilst on foot patrol in Norglen Road, Turf Lodge, West Belfast.

1977. August. 227 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1977. Monday 12th September. RM Band of Flag Officer Naval Air Command moved from Lee-on-Solent to Yeovilton.

1977. Friday 30th September. 103 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Gordon D'all was awarded the Kings Badge.

1977. Saturday 1st October. 229 Squad was the last to pass out at the Depot Deal. The next day the Depot became Royal Marines Deal, and home to 41 Commando Royal Marines, and the Royal Marines School of Music.

1977. Tuesday 11th October. 232 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1977. Monday 14th November. Opperation Burberry (Fire Fighters Strike) commenced.

1977. December. 106 and 107Je. Kings Squads passed for duty from Lympstone.

1977. December. 107Je. Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Ian Thompson was awarded the Kings Badge.

1977. 41 Commando (less Salerno Company) left for Malta.

1977. RMRO issued to reinforce the RM Instructions regarding the march Sarie Marais. "In addition, the quick march Sarie Marais may be used to commemorate the derivation of the name Commando, given in 1940 to the newly raised raiding units and the service of a number of South African Officers seconded to the Corps during the Second World War'.

1978. Thursday 9th March. To commemorate 25 years as Captain General, HRH Prince Philip instituted the annual award of the Prince's Badge for the best Musician or Bugler on completion of training, under similar conditions to the King's Badge. This replaced the Commandant General's Certificate of Merit.

1978. Tuesday 30th May. The Massed Bands Beat Retreat on Horse Guards Parade.

1978. June. 232Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Simon Bustany was awarded the Kings Badge.

1978. Thursday 6th July. Integration of the Buglers Branch, as a separate Section, within the RMBS; Buglers to retain own rank structure and promotion rosters. Transfer to the General Duties branch in accordance with RMI 1747 will continue to be allowed for men at present serving in the Bugler Section. For men enlisting after 1st July 1979, such transfers will only be allowed within 3 months of attaining the age of seventeen and a half or before completion of initial training, whichever is the later. Buglers who prove to be musically unsuitable can transfer at any age. WO and SNCOs will continue to be entitled to become candidates for selection for promotion to officer on the Royal Marines SD list.

1978. Thursday 17th August. Cpl Robert Keith Miller age 22 from Cardiff Wales. While serving with 42 Commando was killed by a car bomb explosion on patrol in the Forkhill area of Northern Ireland.

1978. September. 229Je. Troop commenced training at the Deal Depot.

1978. Saturday 4th November. 41 Commando Assumed London Duties (4th - 30th November). Musical support was provided by the Staff Band of the Royal Marine School of Music under the direction of Major J. Mason and led by WO2 Drum Major D. Buchanan. The Tower of London was included for the first time.

1978. First 10 man RN Frigate detachment formed.

1979. Friday 30th March. Salerno Company marched from its Lines at RAF Luqa to board the Landing Ship Logistics (LSL) Sir Lancelot which was berthed alongside HMS St Angelo. The last of the Royal Marines left Malta, ending 180 years of the British military presence on the island.

1979. May. 124aJe. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1979. 42 Commando was deployed to Hong Kong for Internal Security duties.

1979. Friday 3rd August. 126aJe. Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1979. Monday 27th August. Earl Mountbatten was assassinated by the IRA.

1979. Monday 1st October. Wearing of Royal Marines Band Service shoulder titles instituted. Review of RMBS ceremonial dress due in May 1980.

1979. Friday 19th October. 130Je. Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1979. Friday 19th October. 224 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1980. February. Massed Band Concert at the Royal Albert Hall extended to two performances for the first time.

1980. February. 248 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1980. Monday 3rd March. 133Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1980. Friday 7th March. 250 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1980. April. 255 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1980. April. 136Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1980. May 258 Kings squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1980. Friday 13th June. 259 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1980. July. 141Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. (Sparky) Sparks was awarded the Kings Badge.

1980. Friday 1st August. 143Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1980. Friday 19th September. 144Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Harry  Bartlett was awarded the Kings Badge.

1980. Friday 10th October. 147Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1980. The Special Boat Squadron relinquished the North Sea oil rig protection to Comacchio Company.

1980. Comacchio Company formed (and later re-named Fleet Protection Group RM in 2000).

1980. Elements of 42 Commando deployed to Vanuatu in the New Hebrides.

1980. The 3rd Raiding Squadron was deployed to Hong Kong for duties against illegal immigrants.

1980’s Special Boat Squadron was renamed the Special Boat Service.

1981. Feruary. 150Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1981. May. 271 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1981. July. 155Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1981. August. 157Je.Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Saab Chowdry was awarded the Kings Badge.

1981. 41 Commando is disbanded at Deal.

1981. Thursday 16th October. 275 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1981. Saturday 17th October. The Commandant General, Lieutenant General Sir Steuart Pringle was blown up outside his house by a terrorist car bomb.

1981. Wednesday 10th December. 276 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1981. The Massed Bands Concert at the Royal Albert Hall renamed 'The Mountbatten Concerts' following his murder.

1981. HRH Crown Prince Harald the King of Norway was appointed Honorary Colonel Royal Marines.

1982. Friday 29th January. 163Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1982. February. The 'Royal Marines Commando' published by the Central office of information (reprinted in March 1983).

1982. Friday 19th March. The Argentinians land scrap metal salvagers along with an escort of troops, planting the Argentinian flag on the Falkland Islands. Argentina takes over Falklands.

1982. Sunday 28th March. The Argentine fleet sets sail under the guise of naval manoeuvres.

1982. Monday 29th March. British Submarines sent to Falklands, while HMS Fort Austin sails from Gibraltar to replenish HMS Endurance.

1982. March. 278Je. Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1982. Wednesday 31st March. British decoders intercept radio message to the Argentinean submarine Sante Fe, which orders her to examine the beaches around Stanley for possible landing sites.

1982. Late March. Thousands of Argentine conscripts lacking basic training are drafted in a hurry and sent to the islands. Argentina accumulates more than 10,000 troops on the Falklands.

1982. After the Argentinian invasion of the Falkland Islands, the Special Boat Service deployed to South Georgia. Their only losses during the Falklands War occurred when the SBS and SAS were operating behind the lines and two members of the SBS were shot by an SAS patrol, who had mistaken them for Argentinians.

1982. Friday 1st April.1982. Naval Party 8901 (NP 8901) was the name given to the Royal Marines Detachment of about troop strength, that had been based on the Falkland Islands since 1966. Their strength was approximately 43 members in each detachment and serving on a one-year rotation. They were all volunteers from within the Royal Marines. The changeover date of each detachment was 1st April, which meant that at the time of the Argentine invasion, there were actually two NP 8901 detachments on the island. A fact that the Argentine intelligence failed to know. This gave the Governor Rex Hunt a total of 67 Royal Marines to defend the Falklands. The outgoing 81 detachment led by Major Gary Noot, and the incoming 82 led by Major Mike Norman. Major Norman, being the senior of the two Majors, was placed in overall command and Major Noott was made military adviser to the Governor.

A small number of Royal Marines had been sent to the island of South Georgia. The force was supposed to act as a trip-wire. As such, they were only lightly armed with small arms, machine guns and a few mortars and anti-tank weapons. They had nothing heavier. Their job was to provide resistance, and act at the discretion of the Governor Rex Hunt. With a total of 67 Royal Marines to defend the Falklands while 12 of Major Noott’s troop had already sailed to South Georgia aboard HMS Endurance under the command of Lt. Keith Mills. They had been sent to keep an eye on some Argentineans at Leith.

23 members of the Falklands Islands Volunteer Defence Force also responded in time to help defend Stanley, including Jim Airfield, an ex-Royal Marine Corporal who had moved to the Falklands. He apparently arrived at the Marine barracks at Moody Brook and demanded to be given a weapon saying, "There's no such thing as an ex-Marine". Although the Argentinians had overwhelming force they didn't use it to their advantage, in fact their intelligence was very poor. Believed there was only one party of Royal Marines on the island.

1982. Friday 2nd April. The Argentine invasion of the Falklands having been delayed by 24 hours due to bad weather. The plan involved the capture of the Royal Marines base at Moody Brook. The Royal Marines Garrison under the Command of Major Mike Norman number 68. There are also 11 sailors from HMS Endurance who were armed. About 25 men from the Local Defense Force report for duty. The Argentine attack is launched after 6am. The first attacks are on Moody Brook and Government House. A fire fight brakes out. The outlying sections of Royal Marines fall back to Government House. Firefights brake out over Stanley. The Royal Marines surrender. Only 6 men make it back to Government House, where the Governor Rex Hunt was forced to surrender, at 9.25 he ordered the Marines to lay down their arms facing an overwhelmingly much larger force. About 25 Argentineans were dead, although there were no British casualties. Later the British Marines were flown to Montevideo along with the British Governor.

1982. Friday 2nd April. 3 Commando Brigade spear headed the recapture of the Falkland Islands. Known as 'Operation Corporate' it was a ten week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom, disputing two British Overseas Territories in the South Atlantic, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia. It started when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland. A British task force was immediately sent from the UK to recapture them, and given that an amphibious assault would be necessary, the Royal Marines were heavily involved. 3 Commando Brigade was brought to full combat strength that included 40, 42 and 45 Commandos.

1982. Saturday 3rd April. The United Nations Security Council passes Resolution 502 calling for the withdrawal of Argentine troops from the Falkland Islands and the immediate cessation of hostilities.

1982. Saturday 3rd April. The first Royal Air Force transport aircraft was deployed to Ascension Island. While HMS Hermes and HMS Invincible are prepared to sail, as the First British surface ships begin to head south.

1982. Saturday 3rd April. The Argentinean Invasion was condemned by United Nations Security council.

1982. Saturday 3rd April. Argentine troops seize the associated islands of South Georgia and the South Sandwich group (1,000 miles [1,600 km] east of the Falklands) following a short battle in which an Argentine helicopter is forced down and the Argentinean frigate Guerrico is damaged by a Carl Gustav anti tank rocket fired by the Marines in which 4 Argentine troops are killed. General Mario Menendez is proclaimed military governor of the islands. As President Galtieri has predicted, the move proves to be extremely popular. In Buenos Aires, where the unions had a week earlier demonstrated against the government, there are massive outbursts of solidarity in the streets.

1982. Sunday 4th April. The British nuclear submarine HMS Conqueror sails from Faslane.

1982. Monday 5th April. Aircraft carriers HMS Hermes and HMS Invincible sail from Portsmouth. The Task Force will eventually number 13 warships and 4 supply ships. Lord Carrington, the Foreign Secretary, resigns over the invasion and is replaced by Francis Pym.

1982. Friday 9th April. The Canberra sails from Southampton with the 2400 men of 40, 42 and 45 Royal Marine Commandos and 3rd Battalion Parachute Regiment.

1982. Sunday 11th April. The British submarines arrive in the South Atlantic, HMS Splendid and HMS Spartan begin patrolling off the Falklands, while HMS Conqueror heads for South Georgia.

1982. Monday 12th April. HMS Conqueror reaches South Georgia. Britain formally announces the introduction of a 200 mile Maritime Exclusion zone around the Falklands. The destroyers HMS Antrim and HMS Plymouth, with the tanker Tidespring acting as a troopship for M Company 42 Royal Marine Commando are designated Task Force 319.9 under Captain B.C. Young and sail from Ascension.

1982. Friday 16th April. The British aircraft carriers HMS Hermes and HMS Invincible reach the Ascension Island.

1982. Sunday 18th April. The Task Force sails from Ascension. HMS Brilliant, HMS Coventry, HMS Glasgow, HMS Sheffield and HMS Arrow are designated Task Unit 317.8.2 and are ordered to head south at top speed in case diplomatic measures cause both sides to halt all military manoeuvres.

1982. Tuesday 20th April. An RAF Victor makes fourteen hour reconnaissance flight from Ascension to South Georgia.

1982. Wednesday 21st April. Task Force 319.9 arrive off South Georgia and 'Operation Paraquet' begins. British helicopters from HMS Antrim and Tidespring land SAS men on the Fortuna glacier for a reconnaissance mission on Leith, whilst SBS men land by Gemini boat and begin observation of Grytviken. The SAS men are subjected to Antarctic weather conditions and request evacuation. In appalling weather conditions two Wessex helicopters crash amazingly with no casualties. The men are safely extracted.

1982. Friday 23rd April. An SAS Boat troop is put ashore by Geminis on South Georgia and begin observing the Argentineans. An SBS party is extracted by helicopter after problems with the ice puncturing their boats. Report reaches the British that an Argentinean submarine is in the area and HMS Plymouth with two tankers sail east to avoid detection, leaving HMS Endurance as the only ship in the area.

1982. Saturday 24th April. The anti submarine Type 22 frigate HMS Brilliant arrives off South Georgia to reinforce the ships already present.

1982. Sunday 25th April. South Georgia is retaken by the Royal Marines. British helicopters locate the Argentinean submarine Sante Fe on the surface and attack. The submarine heads for Grytviken and beaches. As HMS Antrim and HMS Plymouth arrive on the scene a decision to strike immediately is taken and a force composing of SAS, SBS and Royal Marines are put ashore by helicopter whilst the Royal Navy ships open fire with their 4.5 inch guns to persuade the Argentineans to surrender. The commander of the Argentine forces on the island, Captain Largos, signs an unconditional surrender document on board the British HMS Antrim. The notorious Alfredo Astiz, who is at the time, a Lieutenant Commander in charge of a small party based in Stromness surrenders with his company and signs an unconditional surrender document on board the British HMS Plymouth without firing a single shot violating the military code's article 751.

1982. Sunday 25th April. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher refuses to answer questions from the press on the operation, saying: “Just rejoice at that news and congratulate our forces and the Marines.”

1982. Monday 26th April. HMS Plymouth and HMS Endurance sail round to Leith to accept the surrender. 190 Argentineans taken prisoner. While 2 Para on board the Norland leave Hull bound south heading for the Falklands.

1982. Tuesday 27th April. Argentine warships sail from Puerto Belgrano.

1982. Friday 30th April. The British Nuclear submarine HMS Conqueror detects long range sonar contacts and closes to investigate.

1982. Friday 30th April. The Task Force arrives in the 200 mile exclusion zone surrounding Falklands.

1982. Saturday 1st May. The Main British Task Force enters Maritime Exclusion Zone. An RAF Vulcan Bomber bombs Stanley airfield. HMS Hermes launches the first Sea Harriers, 9 to bomb Stanley airfield, and 3 to bomb Goose Green airstrip. Three British ships HMS Glamorgan, HMS Alacrity and HMS Arrow begin a naval bombardment of Argentine positions around Stanley. Sea Harriers destroy a Mirage, a Dagger and a Canberra. A further Mirage is accidently shot down by Argentinean gunners. No Sea Harriers are lost. HMS Conqueror starts to shadow the Argentine Cruiser General Belgrano.

1982. Saturday 2nd May. The British nuclear submarine HMS Conqueror receives orders to sink the General Belgrano. Launching three torpedoes, the General Belgrano is hit twice and sinks. 320 crewmen die (the single biggest loss of life in the war). British helicopters sink another Argentine patrol vessel Comodoro Somollera.

1982. Saturday 2nd May. Margaret Thatcher faces criticism over the sinking of the General Belgrano because the vessel was outside the 200 mile exclusion zone around the Falklands.

1982. Tuesday 4th May. An Argentine Super Etendard aircraft launch two Exocet air to surface missiles at the British Task Force. The British destroyer HMS Sheffield was destroyed, with 20 men killed, and 24 injured. In a Harrier bombing raid on Goose Green airstrip, one British Harrier plane is shot down by anti-aircraft guns.

1982. Tuesday 4th May. The Sun British newspaper published its infamous ‘Gotcha’ front page headline about the sinking of the General Belgrano.

1982. Thursday 6th May. Two Sea Harriers are lost in bad weather.

1982. Sunday 9th May. HMS Alacrity shells positions around Stanley. Two Sea Harriers attack the Argentine trawler Narwal. The vessel is then boarded by SBS men, and the crew surrender. HMS Coventry and HMS Broadsword are deployed as a missile trap off Stanley and successfully destroy two Skyhawks and a Puma helicopter.

1982. Monday 10th May. HMS Alacrity sinks the Argentine supply ship Isla de los Estados.

1982. Wednesday 12th May. 5th Brigade consisting of 2nd Battalion Scots Guards, 1st Battalion Welsh guards and 1/7th Duke of Edinburgh's Ghurka Rifles sail from Southampton on board the Queen Elizabeth ll. HMS Glasgow and HMS Brilliant are deployed as the missile trap off Stanley. Three Argentine Skyhawks are shot down by Sea Wolf missiles. HMS Glasgow is hit by a bomb which passes straight through the ship without exploding. A Skyhawk is mistakenly shot down by Argentinean gunners. Formal orders given for landing site to be San Carlos. An SAS team is inserted by canoe onto Pebble Island. The men evacuate the next night by canoe and a raid on the airstrip is prepared.

1982. Friday 14th May. 45 SAS men launch a raid on Argentine grass airstrip at Pebble Island, destroying 11 Argentine aircraft. The SAS men are then evacuated by navy helicopters.

1982. Friday 14th May. 14 Argentine airplanes are destroyed in air / sea battle.

1982. Sunday 16th May. Sea Harriers attack two Argentinean supply ships in the Falkland Sound. The ‘Bahia Buen Suceso’ is forced to beach. The Río Carcarañá is sunk.

1982. Tuesday 18th May. A Sea King Helicopter crashes whilst transferring SAS men to HMS Intrepid, 21 men are lost. Ships intended for the landing form a convoy and sail for San Carlos.

1982. Tuesday 18th May. A peace proposal suggested by the United Nations is rejected by Britain.

1982. Wednesday 19th May. 22 British servicemen killed when a helicopter transporting SAS soldiers ditches in the sea.

1982. Thursday 20th May. A Sea King helicopter from the Task Force crashes in Chile and is then exploded by the crew. The helicopter had infiltrated a SAS team into mainland Argentina to attack Rio Grande airbase and destroy the Super Entenards that were causing losses to the Task Force. 2000 Argentinean Marines start to comb the area hunting for the SAS team. Back in Hereford (UK) the SAS commander decides to abort the mission and the SAS team crosses into Chile possibly suffering some casualties.

1982. Friday 21st May. British landings begin at San Carlos. The Frigate HMS Ardent sunk by Argentine aircraft, killing 22 sailors. Fifteen Argentine aircraft shot down.

1982. Friday 21st May. 3 Commando Brigade Headquarters and Signal Squadron Royal Marines Landed in San Carlos Water. A Royal Marines Divisional Headquarters was deployed, under Major General Jeremy Moore RM, who was commander of the British land forces during the war. The landing force consisting of 40, 42 and 45 Commandos RM, reinforced by 2nd and 3rd Battalions the Parachute Regiment, embarked in HMS Fearless and HMS Intrepid, Landing Ships Logistic and in many ships taken up from trade and sailed 8,000 miles south via Ascension Island. The latter stages of the voyage were conducted in poor weather conditions and under threat of Argentine surface, subsurface and air attack. Sound planning in conjunction with the Naval Task Force Commanders, culminated in a successful unopposed Brigade night landing in the San Carlos region of East Falkland before dawn on 21st May. For the next seven days the landing force was under constant attack as the Argentine Air Force attempted to dislodge it from the beachhead. The choice of this remote, sheltered landing force to withstand the air assault and played a major part in ensuring the successful recapture of the Falkland Islands during the ensuing weeks. the Royal Marine landing craft squadrons from HMS Fearless and HMS Intrepid, together with the 1st Raiding Squadron RM, landed 3 Commando Brigade on to 5 separate beaches without loss. After these initial landings the Squadrons continued to off load the logistic shipping in deteriorating weather and under constant air attack. Later all raiding and landing craft were formed into the Task Force Landing Craft Squadron, which subsequently operated on both flanks supporting 3 Commando Brigade and 5 Infantry Brigade in dangerous and testing conditions. The new Squadron also assisted the Commodore Amphibious Warfare in minesweeping duties and Special Forces raiding and insertion tasks. Without this invaluable contribution, before, during and after the main landings, the Falkland Islands Task Force could not have achieved its objective in such a timely manner.

1982. Friday 21st May. SBS men land by helicopter and secure Fanning Head overlooking San Carlos. While the SAS men launch a diversionary attack on Goose Green. HMS Glamorgan shells positions north of Stanley. 2 Para lands at 4:40 am to secure the hills surrounding the anchorage. 40 Commando landed seven minutes later. 45 Commando and 3 Para are landed. By dawn 105mm guns and Rapier air defence systems are flown ashore by helicopter. Scimitars and Scorpions from the Blues and Royals are deployed also. Two British Gazelle helicopters are hit and destroyed and another damaged. SAS troops near Stanley report an Argentinean helicopter dispersal area and RAF GR3 Harriers from HMS Hermes attack the site after first light destroying a Chinook and two Puma helicopters. An RAF GR3 Harrier is shot down near Port Howard. The SAS men destroy a Pucara with a Stinger missile. Argentine air force launch attacks on the San Carlos anchorage. HMS Ardent is hit and sinks. HMS Brilliant and HMS Broadsword are slightly damaged. Argentineans lose approximately 13 aircraft.

1982. Saturday 22nd May. The Commando Logistic Regiment Royal Marines landing at Ajax Bay.

The Falklands campaign was fought some 8,000 miles from 3 Commando Brigade's base in Plymouth. This stretched the logistic support to its utmost. The Commando Logistic Regiment RM (Lieutenant Colonel I.J. Hellberg RCT) was faced with the problem of supporting an enlarged Brigade spread over more than 30 warships, auxiliaries and merchant ships. The skill, dedication and exceptional devotion of the ordnance, transport, repair and medical elements of the Regiment in adverse weather conditions and often under heavy enemy air attack played a major part in the success of the landing in San Carols Water. During the following three weeks of the campaign, from the beach support area at Ajax Bay where it landed on 22nd May, the Regiment supported a Divisional Headquarters and two brigades, treated 695 casualties, processed 2,000 prisoners of war and dealt with over 8,000 tons of stores, ammunition and equipment. The logistic support provided by the Commando Logistic Regiment RM was a battle-winning factor.

1982. Sunday 23rd May 23. The British Frigate HMS Antelope is hit by an unexploded bomb, and 10 more Argentinean airplanes are destroyed.

1982. Monday 24th May. HMS Antelope abandoned after bomb detonates while being defused by disposal officer.

1982. Monday 24th May.  Sir Lancelot and Sir Galahad are hit but the bombs fail to explode.

1982. Tuesday 25th May. HMS Coventry is hit by 3 1000 lb air bombs dropped from Argentine Skyhawks and sunk killing 19. HMS Broadsword is damaged. There were Twelve killed in an Exocet missile attack on a British Merchant Navy vessel the MV Atlantic Conveyor and she sank 3 days later, 12 more British dead.

1982. Thursday 27th May. The Battle for Goose Green / Darwin began.

1982. Friday 28th May 28. Argentine forces at Goose Green surrendered to 2 Para. Seventeen soldiers from 2 Para killed in two days of fierce fighting, which ended in Argentine surrender with dozens killed and more than 1,000 taken as prisoners of war.

1982. Friday 28th May 28. The Atlantic Conveyor sank.

1982. Sunday 30th May. 45 Commando secures the Douglas settlement, while Mount Kent is captured by 42 Commando and SAS.

1982. Monday 31st May. Mount Kent is taken by British troops. The Falklands' capital of Port Stanley is surrounded.

1982. Tuesday 1st June. Britain declares its terms to end the struggle.

1982. Monday 4th June. Three companies of 45 Commando advanced on Bluff Cove Peak.

1982. Monday 4th June. 3 Commando Brigade including the Band of Commando Forces, with their musical instruments. This band embarked upon the SS Canberra as stretcher bearers but performed a number of duties and roles throughout the Campaign. The RM Band of Flag Officer 3rd Flotilla (FOF3) boarded the educational cruise liner SS Uganda which was converted to a hospital ship.

1982. Tuesday 8th June. The Massed Bands Beat Retreat on Horse Guards Parade.

1982. Tuesday 8th June. More than 50 British soldiers killed in attacks on landing craft RFA Sir Galahad and RFA Sir Tristram off Fitzroy.

1982. Friday 11th June. Co-ordinated attacks on Mount Longdon, Two Sisters and Mount Harriet by British troops.

1982. Friday 11th – 12th June. British destroyer HMS Glamorgan badly damaged in missile attack. British forces take Mount Longdon, Two Sisters and Mount Harriet. Three Falkland civilians killed in British naval bombardment.

1982. Friday 11th – 12th June. The British take Mount Longdon, Two Sisters, Mount Harriet, and Mount Tumbledown.

1982. Friday 11th - 12th June. 45 Commando's Attack on Two Sisters. 45 Commando RM (Lieutenant Colonel A.F. Whitehead) landed at Ajax Bay on the Brigade's right flank. After securing the western side of the beach head, and while ships were being unloaded under Argentine air attack, 45 Commando marched across more than 80 kilometres of rugged terrain in freezing weather and driving rain via Douglas Settlement and Teal Inlet to be in a position on Mount Kent for 3 Commando Brigade's main attack. The Commando's objective was the twin peaks of Two Sisters, the centre of the Brigade's three objectives. Bold reconnaissance between 4th and 9th June had pinpointed enemy positions and fighting patrols, while artillery harassing fire had caused some early casualties to the enemy. A silent approach and a two pronged attack during the night of 11th / 12th June against well equipped and dug-in opposition up the jagged, craggy rock formations culminated in fierce hand-to-hand fighting for the final enemy company positions. About 50 prisoners were captured and 20 enemy either killed or wounded; the remainder had retreated to the east. Thirty-six hours later the Commando advanced swiftly to Sapper Hill, again on foot, and thence into Port Stanley.

The Royal Marines and members of the Parachute Regiment yomped (and tabbed) with their equipment across the island heading for the capital Stanley, covering 56 miles (90 km) in three days while carrying 80 pound (36 kg) loads on their back. During the worse time of the year weather wise. Until then not many civilians had heard the word Yomp, however it's now part of many people's vocabulary.

"45 Commando RM, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Andrew F. Whitehead RM, had their Easter leave cancelled and hastily deployed to the Falklands, travelling in a mix of Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ships. Having made a tactical landing at Red Beach, Ajax Bay on 21 May 1982, the men of 45 Cdo RM yomped across East Falkland, via Port San Carlos, New House, Douglas Settlement, Teal Inlet and Mount Kent to take part in the Battle for Port Stanley. They conducted a night attack on the Two Sisters feature over the 11th / 12th June 1982, during which the Commando lost 8 men killed and 17 wounded. The Argentinians surrendered on Monday 14th June 1982. Lieutenant Colonel Whitehead was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO). The Unit Order of Battle (ORBAT) at the time of the Falklands War was three fighting companies, named X, Y and Z or X-Ray, Yankee and Zulu. Each company, led by a Company Commander, consisted of approx 100 ranks, divided into three 'troops' each led by a Troop Commander. In addition, Support Company (Spt Coy) consisting of Anti-Tank, Mortars, Assault Engineers and Recce Troop. Headquarters Company (HQ Coy) consisting of the Signals Troop, Drivers and Admin/Base Staff were additional support. The Senior Non-Commissioned Officer (SNCO) of the unit was the Regimental Sergeant Major (RSM), Warrant Officer Class 1 (WO1) Pat Chapman RM."

1982. Sunday 13th - 14th June. Attacks made on Mount Tumbledown and Wireless Ridge, capturing Argentine positions on mountains overlooking Port Stanley.

1982. Monday 14th June. The large Argentine garrison in Port Stanley is defeated and surrenders, effectively ending the conflict. The Argentine commander Mario Menendez, agrees to "a non-negotiated cease fire with no other condition than the deletion of the word unconditional" from the surrender document which he signs. 9800 Argentine troops lay down their weapons.

1982. Monday 14th June. The Recapture of the Falklands. The Corps was involved in virtually every significant aspect of the South Atlantic campaign, starting on Friday 2nd April when a Naval party 8901 opposed the Argentine assault on the Islands. A company group from 42 Commando RM recaptured South Georgia on 25th April. From 1st May, SB Squadron carried out intelligence-gathering patrols which were critical to the success of the main amphibious landing in San Carlos Water on 21st May. The main landing was planned and executed by 3 Commando Brigade RM (Brigadier J H A Thompson OBE) which had been reinforced by two parachute battalions and other Army subunits. RM detachments served in many ships of the Task Force and manned all landing craft. On 30th May, Major General J.J. Moore OBE MC arrived in San Carlos with his headquarters, based upon HQ Commando Forces RM, and assumed command of all land forces which by then included 5 Infantry Brigade, 3 Commando Brigade RM, however, bore the brunt of the fighting throughout the campaign, commanding most of the battles which led to the surrender of the Argentine forces on 14th June. The professionalism and resilience of the Marines who took part were major factors in the success of this unique amphibious operation conducted at a range of nearly 8000 miles from the UK mounting base. A total of 3520 Royal Marines, approximately 50 percent of the Corps, took part in the campaign. Sadly, there were 27 Marines killed during the conflict that included 2 Officers, 14 NCOs, 11 Marines, and 67 were wounded. The following honours and awards were subsequently conferred upon Royal Marines: 1KCB, 1 CB, 2 DSOs, 6 OBEs, 3 MBEs, 2 DSCs, 5 MCs, 2 DFCs, 10 MMs, 1 DCM, 3 DSMs, 1 DFM and 1 QGM.

The Argentinian force originally occupying Mount Challenger, commanded by Major Ricardo Cordón, consisted of the 4th Infantry Regiment, with the bulk of the defenders drawn from C Company with the 1st Platoon (Sub-Lieutenant Miguel Mosquera) and 2nd Platoon (Sub-Lieutenant Jorge Pérez Grandi) on the northern peak of Two Sisters and the 3rd Platoon (Sub-Lieutenant Marcelo Llambias Pravaz) on the southern peak and the 1st Platoon A Company (Sub-Lieutenant Juan Nazer) and Support Platoon (Second Lieutenant Luis Carlos Martella) on the saddle between the two. Major Óscar Jaimet's B Company of the 6th Regiment (RI 6), acting as the local reserve, occupied the saddle between Two Sisters and Mount Longdon.

During the Battle of the Falkland the Royal Marines lost 27 members (2 Officers, 14 NCOs and 11 Marines).
Wednesday 12th May. RM 3 Commando Brigade Air Sqn. Two Gazelles of C Flight were shot down by Argentine Army small arms fire near Port San Carlos and crashed killing the pilots.
Gazelle number one was, EVANS. Andrew P. Sergeant RM PO25446U.
Gazelle number two was, FRANCI. Kenneth D. Lieutenant RM N023442U and GIFFIN. Brett P. Lance Corporal RM P033537T.

1982. Thursday 27th May. 40 Commando Royal Marines while under Argentine bombing attack on San Carlos Water lost was:
MCANDREWS Stephen G. Marine, RM P035645L.

45 Commando at Ajax Bay lost was:
ENEFER Roger Sergeant RM P024439G.
EVANS Kenneth Corporal RM P020436E.
MACKAY Peter B. Marine RM P039338Q.
WILSON David Marine RM P037820V.
(A fifth Marine? died of wounds on 10th June).

Commando Logistic Regiment at Ajax Bay lost was:

DAVISON Colin Marine RM P037269B.

Thursday 27th May. 45 Commando Royal Marines were the target of an Argentine bombing attack lost was:
CALLAN Paul D. Marine RM P041627B.

1982. Friday 28th May. RM 3 Commando Brigade Air Squadron flying Scout of B Flight was shot down by an Argentine Pucaras North of Goose Green lost was:
NUNN Richard J. Lieutenant RM N023329F was awarded a posthumous DFC.

1982. Tuesday 8th June.
LCU F4 Assault Ship Fearless, sunk by Argentine bombing in Choiseul Sound, lost was:
GRIFFIN Robert D. Marine, RM, P035633L.
JOHNSTON Brian J. Colour Sergeant RM P023116X was awarded a posthumous QGM.
ROTHERHAM Ronald J. Sergeant RM P027686Q.
RUNDLE Anthony J. Marine RM P029758D.

1982. Friday, 11th June 1982.

42 Commando Royal Marines at the Battle for Mount Harriet, in action with the Argentine Army, lost was:
SMITH Jeremy, Corporal RM P036299.J.
WATTS Laurence G. Corporal P032593N.

45 Commando Royal Marines at the Battle for Two Sisters, in action with the Argentine Army.
Three men, including Sgt Leeming on a reconnaissance patrol, were killed by friendly fire just before the main assault on Two Sisters, another Royal Marine was killed by mortar fire early in the attack, believed to be:
FITTON Peter R, Corporal RM P033189P.
LEEMING Robert A. Sergeant RM P025875E).
PHILLIPS Keith Marine P039185R.
UREN Andrew B. Corporal RM P035194P.

1982. Saturday 12th June. 3 Royal Marines from 45 Commando were killed by artillery or mortar fire, believed to be:
MACPHERSON Gordon C. Marine P041923R.
NOWA, Michael J. Marine P03609F.
SPENCER Ian F. Corporal RM P032324V.

2 Names missing, one of them was possibly in a hospital on the 10th June?

1982. Thursday 17th June. The Argentine President Leopoldo Galtieri resigns as leader of the country's military junta.

1982. Sunday 20th June. The British re-occupy the South Sandwich Islands. Britain formally declares an end to hostilities, and the two hundred mile exclusion zone established around the islands during the war is replaced by a Falkland Islands Protection Zone (FIPZ) of 150 miles.

From start to finish, this undeclared Falkland Islands war lasted 72 days, claimed nearly 1000 casualties (236 British and 655 Argentine), many of them conscripts that were drafted by the Argentine junta. The war had a cost of at least 2 billion dollars. From a political point of view, the war helped the re-election of Margaret Thatcher (who was losing popularity before the conflict started) and accelerated the demise of the Argentine dictatorship. Argentine President Leopoldo Galtieri who led the war effort, was quick to resign afterwards, paving the road to the restoration of democracy in Argentina.

1982. Sunday 11th July. Royal Marines Cpl James Gardner died just after the Falkland hostilities ended.

1982. Tuesday 13th July. The Argentine government agrees to end hostilities with Great Britain.

1982. Friday 8th October. Acting Sergeant William Christopher O’Brien was awarded the Distinguished Flying Medal. This was the only occasion that a Royal Marine has ever been awarded the DFM.

1982. Friday 8th October. The Queen has been graciously pleased to approve the appointments of the undermentioned as Companions of the Distinguished Service Order in recognition of gallant and distinguished service during operations in the South Atlantic.
The Distinguished Service Order:
Lieutenant Colonel Nicholas Francis VAUX Royal Marines. Lieutenant Colonel Vaux commanded 42 Commando Royal Marines. His first major task after the amphibious landing was to move his Commando forward by helicopter at night to the Mount Kent feature which had been secured by the SAS. Once established he swiftly moved men on to Mount Challenger, a key position overlooking Mount Harriet. For the subsequent eleven days 42 Commando under Lieutenant Colonel Vaux's leadership patrolled vigorously to gain information. During this period the Commando endured appalling weather conditions and harassing fire from enemy 155mm, 105mm guns and 120mm mortars. Their morale was never in doubt thanks to the splendid leadership displayed by Lieutenant Colonel Vaux. The subsequent Commando attack on Mount Harriet was planned in great detail and executed with considerable skill to take the enemy in the rear. This attack from an unexpected direction most certainly led to the fall of the strongly held position in very rugged terrain with fewer casualties to 42 Commando than had been expected. The excellent plan, executed with verve and dash by 42 Commando, was the work of the Commanding Officer, Lieutenant Colonel Vau.

Lieutenant Colonel Andrew Francis WHITEHEAD Royal Marines. Lieutenant Colonel Whitehead commanded 45 Commando Royal Marines. From the start of Operation SUTTON, he showed himself to be a fine Commanding Officer. His meticulous planning and high standard of leadership was demonstrated on the long approach march from Port San Carlos to the Mount Kent positions overlooking Port Stanley. His Commando marched every foot of the way. Despite the extremely unpleasant weather conditions both on the approach march and during the time spent in defensive positions on Mount Kent his Commando's morale and fitness to fight was of the highest order. Their aggressive and effective patrolling contributed to a marked degree to the success of the ensuing Brigades night attack. During the night battle for the Two Sisters feature, which was his Commando's objective, his cool conduct of the battle resulted in the complete success of his part in the operation. Although while in the Forming Up Point his Commando was caught by enemy defensive fire tasks from 105 and I55mm guns, he calmly gave the correct orders to get the attack underway. Undeterred by heavy machine gun fire which caught two of his companies during the final assault up the steep slopes of the mountain, he fought his Commando through and on to their objective. His calm voice on the radio was a tonic to all who heard it. During the following 48 hours after securing their objective the Commando was subjected to harassing fire from 105 and 155mm guns. Their steadiness under the fire is a tribute to the leadership and calmness of their Commanding Officer.

Lieutenant Richard HUTCHINGS Royal Marines. Lieutenant Hutchings 846 Naval Air Squadron made an important contribution to the planning and conduct of operations by the use of his skills as a Combat Survival Instructor. He completed eight operational missions with dogged determination and courage, demonstrating great resilience under trying circumstances. The personal courage over a prolonged period shown by Lieutenant Hutchings was of the highest order.

Military Cross:
Major Charles Peter CAMERON Royal Marines. Major Cameron was the Commanding Officer of 3 Commando Brigade Air Squadron. From the first day of operations his Squadron of Gazelle and Scout helicopters rendered outstanding service in support of the Brigade, often flying in appalling weather conditions by day and night, having to evade Argentine fighters and anti-aircraft fire. During these operations three helicopters were shot down with the loss of four lives. Nonetheless, the Squadron continued to provide extremely valuable support to the ground forces, ferrying urgently needed ammunition and evacuating wounded during the battle for Darwin and Goose Green amongst other actions. Throughout this most demanding period, Major Cameron led his Squadron with humour and compassion both on the ground and in the air. His fine example of courage and determination, in the face of severe losses, was an inspiration to all and his leadership ensured that no call for help went unanswered.

Captain Peter Murray BABBINGTON Royal Marines. On the night of 11th/12th June 1982, on the Island of East Falkland, 42 Command Royal Marines began a silent night attack against strongly held enemy positions on the Mount Harriet feature, five kilometres to the west of Port Stanley. Initially, in getting onto and amongst the rocky crags of Mount Harriet, undetected by the enemy, they achieved brilliant surprise. The enemy, caught off balance, reacted fiercely. Captain Babbington was commanding the leading Company as the fighting erupted. In the midst of a ferocious fire fight, Captain Babbington calmly directed his men and used his tactical and support weapons to maximum devastating effect. His personal courage and cool professionalism were an inspiring example and a crucial factor in defeating the enemy’ Lieutenant Clive Idris DYTOR Royal Marines. On the night of 11th/12th June 1982, on the Island of East Falkland, 45 Commando Royal Marines, launched a silent night attack against strongly held enemy positions on the craggy hill feature of Two Sisters, ten kilometres to the West of Port Stanley. Initially, in getting onto Two Sisters undetected, they achieved brilliant surprise. When discovered by the enemy a fierce fight ensued. At the height of the fighting Lieutenant Dytor and his Troop came under a hail of enemy fire. In an act of inspiring leadership, he fought his Troop forward and personally led the assault on a strong enemy machine gun position. His was the culminating feat of a highly successful action.

Lieutenant Christopher Fox Royal Marines. During the night 5th/6th June 1982, on the Island of East Falkland, Lieutenant Fox led a reconnaissance patrol close to enemy positions on the Two Sisters feature ten kilometers to the West of Port Stanley. Lieutenant Fox established a covert post from which he was able to control accurate fire against the enemy even though attacked by greatly superior forces. Although wounded, he finally withdrew his patrol, intact, to his unit lines. The intelligence gained by Lieutenant Fox was vital to the planning of the subsequently successful attack by 45 Commando Royal Marines on the Two Sisters feature.

Lieutenant David James STEWART Royal Marines. Early in the morning of the 9th June Lieutenant Stewart, 45 Commando led a troop strength fighting patrol to the Two Sisters feature in East Falklands with a mission to harass the enemy and cause him casualties. In bright moonlight and across 1000 metres of open ground Lieutenant Stewart led his patrol undetected into the enemy position. Two enemy sentries were killed and for the next 30 minutes a fierce fire fight ensued. The enemy on the high ground and in position of their choosing were engaged with troop weapons and artillery with great skill, vigour and courage. The returning fire came from several different positions including 3 machine gun posts and artillery. During the withdrawal, Lieutenant Stewart himself gave covering fire to assist his men move across the open ground. There is no doubt that the success of this patrol which killed 7 enemy and sustained no casualties was largely due to the meticulous planning, the exhaustive rehearsals and the outstanding leadership and courage shown by Lieutenant Stewart. The effect on the enemy was shattering and possibly saved many lives of men in his company which attacked the position two days later.
The QUEEN has been graciously pleased to approve the Posthumous award of the Distinguished Flying Cross to the undermentioned in recognition of gallant and distinguished service during the operations in the South Atlantic:

Distinguished Flying Cross:
Lieutenant Richard James NUNN Royal Marines. On Friday 28th May 1982 the 2nd Battalion the Parachute Regiment was engaged in fierce fighting to take enemy positions in the area of Port Darwin. From dawn, Lieutenant Nunn, a Scout helicopter pilot, had supported the Battalion flying vital ammunition forward to the front line and had evacuated casualties heedless of enemy ground fire. After flying continuously for three and a half hours, it was learnt that the Commanding Officer and others in Battalion Tactical Headquarters forward had been severely wounded. Lieutenant Nunn was tasked to evacuate these casualties collecting the Battalion Second in Command en route. However, five minutes after taking off, suddenly and without prior warning, two Pucara aircraft appeared from the South and attacked the Scout with rockets and cannon fire. By great flying skill Lieutenant Nunn evaded the first attack but on the second his aircraft was hit and destroyed. Lieutenant Nunn was killed instantly and his aircrewman Sergeant Belcher was grieviously wounded. Lieutenant Nunn displayed exceptional courage, flying skill and complete devotion to duty in the face of the enemy. His achievements that day, supporting the Battalion, were exceptional and were instrumental in the eventual victory.

The QUEEN has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Distinguished Flying Cross to the undermentioned in recognition of gallantry and distinguished service during operations in the South Atlantic.

Distinguished Flying Cross:
Captain Jeffrey Peter NIBLETT Royal Marines. During the attack on Darwin and Goose Green, Captain Niblett led a section of two Scout helicopters, supplying ammunition and evacuating casualties for two days, often in the thick of battle and under enemy fire. During one mission both Scouts were attacked by Argentine Pucara aircraft. The helicopters evaded the first attack, but one was subsequently shot down. However, with quite exceptional flying skill and superb teamwork with his aircrewman, Captain Niblett evaded three further cannon and rocket attacks, safely completing the mission. He then resolutely continued support and casualty evacuation operations until well after dark. His courage, leadership and flying skills were also demonstrated in an incident when he evacuated a seriously wounded Marine from Mount Challenger, flying in dark and misty conditions over most hazardous terrain. Captain Niblett proved himself an outstanding Flight Commander and pilot. The superb support that his flight as a whole gave to the landing force reflects his exemplary and dedicated service

Distinguished Conduct Medal: Corporal Julian BURDETT Royal Marines PO36660J. On the night of 11th/ 12th June 1982, on the Island of East Falkland, 45 Commando Royal Marines launched a silent night attack against strongly held enemy positions on the craggy hill feature of Two Sisters, ten kilometres to the west of Port Stanley. As Section Commander, Corporal Burdett was leading his Section when they came under heavy fire from enemy Mortars. Two of his men were killed instantly and he himself severely wounded. Despite these setbacks, he continued to encourage and steady his section as they moved forward. Ignoring his wounds Corporal Burdett also continued to pass further important reports of enemy positions. Simultaneously he organised the evacuation of his wounded colleagues until he himself was carried from the scene of the fighting. Despite serious losses, Corporal Burdett's selfless and distinguished leadership inspired his men to continue their advance.

Distinguished Service Medal:
Acting Corporal Aircrewman Michael David LOVE Royal Marines P035079S. Corporal Love of 846 Naval Air Squadron, completed seven operational sorties in very hazardous conditions. He played a vital part in the success of these missions and displayed remarkable skill, bravery and resilience during periods of intense activity. Sadly, he was later killed in a flying accident but his great contribution to the success of the Squadron's operations will always remain a source of inspiration.

Distinguished Service Medal:
Colour Sergeant Michael James FRANCIS Royal Marines P021992F. Colour Sergeant Francis coxswain of LCU Fl, was working in the vicinity of HMS ANTELOPE when her unexploded bomb detonated, resulting in an immediate fire which caused her crew, already at emergency stations, to be ordered to abandon ship. Colour Sergeant Francis took his craft in to help with the close range firefighting before being ordered to withdraw because of the considerable danger to his craft. In a later incident on 8th June he put his craft alongside RFA SIR GALAHAD to start offloading troops to Fitzroy. Whilst alongside there was a sudden and completely unexpected bombing raid on the vessel and her sister ship RFA SIR TRISTRAM by four enemy aircraft. RFA SIR GALAHAD was hit centrally, immediately bursting into flames and billowing black smoke. One bomb fell within 10 feet of LCU Fl. Despite the possibility of a second raid (which developed later), Colour Sergeant Francis stayed alongside and took off a craft load of about 100 survivors, including many very badly wounded. After landing this load Colour Sergeant Francis returned to the area of RFA SIR GALAHAD, by now an inferno, took off the few remaining survivors, helped RFA SIR GALAHAD's life rafts into the shore, and then checked the rest of the area and other life rafts for further survivors. These are two separate actions of calm and selfless bravery, one in the presence of the enemy.

Sergeant William John LESLIE Royal Marines P023234T. During the period 21st-26th May 1982 HMS BROADSWORD was subjected to numerous air attacks. During these attacks two aircraft were shot down by Sea Wolf missiles and two by Bofors gun and small arms fire. Sergeant Leslie trained and oversaw a General Purpose Machine Gun Rifle Battery manned by a mixed group of seamen and marines on the signal deck. His professional expertise with weapons and his steadiness under fire quickly won the confidence of these men, despite their exposed position, and ensured the effectiveness of their fire, leading to the destruction of two enemy aircraft. Although narrowly missed by a 30 mm cannon shell in an early attack, Sergeant Leslie was unperturbed and continued coolly to guide and encourage his men during successive waves of air attacks on and off duty throughout the whole period.

Military Medals:
Sergeant Thomas COLLINGS Royal Marines P029088B. During the Falkland Islands Conflict Sergeant Ceilings, 3 Commando Brigade, participated in several particularly hazardous actions. During these he displayed great personal courage, and, despite the close proximity of Argentine forces, he often provided accurate appraisals of the hostile units which were of great assistance to his Commanding Officer. He also demonstrated physical endurance of the highest order which was a great inspiration to the men of his unit. His professional ability and bravery reflected the finest traditions of the Corps.
Sergeant Michael COLLINS Royal Marines P027813G. On the night of 11th/12th June 1982, on the Island of East Falkland, 42 Commando, Royal Marines planned for a night attack on Mount Harriet. Crucial to success was the need to reconnoitre a route through unmarked minefields. In the days proceeding the attack Sergeant Collins volunteered to lead a patrol to probe and find a route through. During their reconnaissance a mine exploded causing a member of the patrol to lose a leg: he had to be carried back to safety. Undetterred, Sergeant Collins again volunteered to lead a further reconnaissance patrol. Despite detection and coming under heavy enemy fire, by his outstanding leadership and determination the patrol made a vitally important contribution to the overall success of the operation.

Sergeant Joseph Desmond WASSELL Royal Marines. Sergeant Wassell commanded a four man team in the Mountain and Arctic Warfare Cadre. His quiet and steadfast leadership and professionalism led him to be selected for several particularly hazardous missions culminating in an operation in conjunction with Lieutenant Haddow's team on Goat Ridge while it was still in the hands of the enemy. He led his team on a detailed night reconnaissance patrol and then lay up for 24 hours, at times within a few feet of the enemy. He produced a detailed map listing the size and location of the enemy position which was later used to very good effect. Whilst in this area Sergeant Wassell also directed and controlled artillery fire to within 20 metres of his own men, causing considerable damage to the enemy. Two nights later he returned to Goat Ridge and led the 1st Battalion 7th Gurkha Rifles in their move forward to assault Mount William. Sergeant Wassell set an example of courage in the face of the enemy and the elements that was an inspiration to all.

Corporal Michael ECCLES Royal Marines P028263C. On 12th June 'K' Coy was the leading company for a unit night attack against a strongly held Argentine position on Mount Harriet. After surprising the enemy fierce fighting followed at close quarters amongst the rocks in which decisive and inspiring leadership at section level proved critical. Corporal Eccles set an outstanding example in this respect by leading from the front to encourage his section to exploit shock action and successfully overrun the position. This was only achieved, in fact, by a series of assaults against machine gun positions and groups of snipers. Several ranks were wounded, including another section commander, while the troop became even more depleted as increasing numbers of the enemy surrendered and had to be guarded. Corporal Eccles pressed on relentlessly, however, to inflict sufficient casualties for the remainder to abandon further resistance.

Corpora] David HUNT Royal Marines, P035637B. Corporal Hunt was a Section Commander in a Rifle Company of 42 Commando throughout the campaign. His qualities of leadership, determination, professionalism and good humour were outstanding, often in the most arduous and dangerous circumstances. During the attack on Two Sisters, he was the first to spot enemy positions and to give accurate reports which resulted in artillery fire being brought to bear. It was while leading his section that he became wounded and lost the use of his arm. Ignoring his wounds, he continued to lead his men forward until they were successful in their mission.

Corporal Stephen Charles NEWLAND Royal Marines, P030503S. On the night of 11th/ 12th June 1982, on the Island of East Falkland, 42 Commando Royal Marines began a silent night attack against strongly defended enemy positions on the Mount Harriet feature, five kilometres to the west of Port Stanley. Initially, in getting onto and amongst the rocky crags of Mount Harriet, they achieved brilliant surprise. Thereafter, a fierce attack erupted, and Corporal Newland's Section were pinned down by enemy machine gun fire from a cliff above. Ignoring the obvious dangers, Corporal Newland scaled the cliff and, single-handed, attacked the enemy with bullet and grenade. Although wounded in both legs he continued to engage the enemy and direct his Section onto their position.

Corporal Harry SIDDALL Royal Marines P027128B. On the morning of 12th June 1982, 45 Commando Group had secured their objective of the Two Sisters hill. It was thought that a possible enemy mortar position was situated at the base of a forward slope in the van of enemy positions on Tumbledown Mount. Corporal Siddall, ‘Y Coy’ and Bombardier Holt went forward to attempt to identify the base plate positions. Because of difficult terrain and lack of routes Corporal Siddall left his section to his rear in a firm base. From his forward position he heard enemy approaching. When the four man patrol closed he opened fire, killing one man, and capturing the remaining three, one of whom was wounded. Corporal Siddall's sustained qualities of leadership and determination showed a complete indifference to adverse conditions and his personal safety.

Corporal Chrystie Nigel Hanslip WARD Royal Marines P031958E. On 12th June 1982 'K' Coy, 42 Commando, was the leading company for a unit night attack against a strongly held Argentine position on Mount Harriet. Fierce fighting followed at close quarters amongst the rocks in which decisive and inspiring leadership was vital. Corporal Ward set an outstanding example in this respect by leading from the front to encourage his section to exploit shock action and successfully overrun the position. This was only achieved by a series of assaults on machine gun positions and groups of snipers. Several ranks were wounded including another section commander, and the need to guard the increasing numbers of the enemy surrendering depleted the troop still further. Corporal Ward pressed on relentlessly however, to inflict sufficient casualties for the remainder to abandon further resistance.

Acting Corporal Andrew Ronald BISHOP Royal Marines P037457N. On the night of 11th/12th June 1982, on the Island of East Falkland, 45 Commando Royal Marines, launched a silent night attack against strongly held enemy positions on the craggy hill feature of Two Sisters. Initially, until eventually detected by the enemy, they achieved brilliant surprise. In the fierce fighting that erupted Acting Corporal Bishop's Section Commander was killed by intense fire from an enemy machine gun post. Showing a complete disregard for his own safety, Acting Corporal Bishop rallied his Section and led them forward to assault and take the enemy's position. His clear assessment and determination under fire inspired his colleagues and made a vital contribution to the overall success of the attack.

Marine Gary William MARSHALL Royal Marines P041435J. During the night 8th/9th June 1982, on the Island of East Falkland, Marine Marshall was on patrol in the area of the Two Sisters feature, ten kilometres to the west of Port Stanley. Disregarding his personal safety, Marine Marshall dashed across open moonlit ground through enemy fire to secure a vital position. That done, using his machine gun, he engaged and destroyed the two enemy machine gun posts that had dominated the area. His action was inspiring and enabled his Troop to safely withdraw to secure positions.

Distinguished Flying Medal:
Sergeant William Christopher O'BRIEN Royal Marines PO30684R. During the attack on Darwin and Goose Green Sergeant O'Brien piloted a Gazelle helicopter of M Flight, 3rd Commando Brigade Air Squadron. For two days his helicopter conducted supply and casualty evacuation operations, often under enemy fire. With his Flight Commander he also took part in 17 night flying sorties to evacuate wounded personnel and resupply vital ammunition. At times these sorties necessitated flying forward to company lines in the heat of battle and in appalling weather. The conspicuous gallantry and cool professionalism displayed on all these occasions was superb and Sergeant O'Brien made an outstanding contribution. His expertise and competence as a pilot has been widely admired and recognised.

1982. Monday 11th October. From the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood at St. James's Palace London S.W.I. The Queen has been graciously pleased to approve the Posthumous award of the Queen's Gallantry Medal to the undermentioned in recognition of gallantry during the operations in the South Atlantic.

Queen's Gallantry Medal Acting:
Colour Sergeant Brian JOHNSTON Royal Marines PO23116X. Colour Sergeant Johnston, coxswain of LCU F4, was working in the vicinity of HMS ANTELOPE when her unexploded bomb detonated, starting an immediate fire which caused her crew, already at emergency stations, to be ordered to abandon ship. Without hesitation Colour Sergeant Johnston laid his craft alongside the ANTELOPE and began to fight the fire and take off survivors. At approximately 2200Z he was ordered to stay clear of the ship because of the severity of the fire and the presence of a second unexploded bomb. Colour Sergeant Johnston remained alongside until his load was complete. In all LCU F4 rescued over 100 survivors from the ANTELOPE. On 8th June, LCU F4 was attacked by enemy aircraft in Choiseul Sound. During this action Colour Sergeant Johnston and five of his crew were killed. Colour Sergeant Johnston's selfless bravery in the face of extreme danger was in the highest traditions of the Corps.

The Queen has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Queen's Gallantry Medal in recognition of gallantry during the operations in the South Atlantic:
Mention in Dispatches:
Major Peter Ralph LAMB Royal Marines.
Major Michael John NORMAN Royal Marines.
Major David Anthony PENNEFATHER Royal Marines.
Major Rupert Cornelius VAN DER HORST, Royal Marines.
Captain Eugene Joseph O'KANE Royal Marines.
Captain Andrew Robert PILLAR Royal Marines.
Captain Nicholas Ernest POUNDS Royal Marines.
Lieutenant Andrew John EBBENS Royal Marines.
Lieutenant Fraser HADDOW Royal Marines.
Lieutenant Roland Frederick PLAYFORD, Royal Marines.
Warrant Officer Class 2 Robert John BROWN Royal Marines P021729L.
Warrant Officer Class 2 Adrian Spencer ROBINSON Royal Marines P019573Y.
Colour Sergeant Barrie DAVIES Royal Marines P020357M.
Colour Sergeant Everett YOUNG Royal Marines P023189T.
Sergeant Peter BEEVERS Royal Marines P026130T.
Sergeant Edward Lindsay BUCKLEY Royal Marines P025425T.
Sergeant Brian Gordon BURGESS Royal Marines P037926M.
Sergeant Edgar Robert CANDLISH Royal Marines P031726H.
Sergeant Robert Terence COOPER Royal Marines, P027420D.
Sergeant Graham DANCE Royal Marines P041201U.
Sergeant Colin Charles DE LA COUR Q.G.M. Royal Marines P024604K.
Sergeant Brian DOLIVERA Royal Marines P028117H.
Sergeant Andrew Peter EVANS Royal Marines P025446U (Posthumous).
Sergeant Ian David FISK Royal Marine, P028197B.
Sergeant William David Paul LEWIS Royal Marines P028215X.
Sergeant Mitchell MC!NTYRE Royal Marines P022409Q.
Sergeant Henry Frederick NAPIER Royal Marines P025932E.
Sergeant Thomas Arthur SANDS Royal Marines P027627C.
Sergeant William John STOCKS Royal Marines P024265U.
Sergeant Christopher Ralph STONE Royal Marines P026323M.
Sergeant Robert David WRIGHT Royal Marines P027999Q.
Corporal Christopher John Graham BROWN Royal Marines P033816X.
Corporal Gordon COOKE Royal Marines P024499L.
Corporal Thomas William McMAHON Royal Marines P030590A.
Lance Corporal Peter William BOORN Royal Marines P037261V.
Lance Corporal Barry GILBERT Royal Marines P040829B.
Marine Robert BAINBRIDGE Royal Marines P027011B.
Marine Nicholas John BARNETT Royal Marines P038293A.
Marine David Stanley COMBES Royal Marines P037746K.
Marine Garry CUTHELL Royal Marines P036511U.
Marine Leslie DANIELS Royal Marines P038702U.
Marine Stephen DUGGAN Royal Marines P029137R.
Marine Leonard John GOLDSMITH Royal Marines P041637T.
Marine Graham HODKINSON Royal Marines P028769S.
Marine Mark Andrew NEAT Royal Marines P040450H.
Marine Geoffrey NORDASS Royal Marines P038320X.
Marine David Lloyd O'CONNOR Royal Marines P037962R.
Marine Christopher James SCRIVENER Royal Marines P039444L.
Marine John STONESTREET Royal Marines P03SS76L.
Marine Ricky Shaun STRANGE Royal Marines P032274P.
Marine Perry THOMASON Royal Marines P038632D.
Marine Paul Kevin WILSON Royal Marines P040423E.
Queen's Commendation for Brave Conduct:
Marine Paul Anthony CRUDEN Royal Marines P040123Y.

1982. October. 280Je. Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1982. 3 Commando Brigade Air Squadron moved to RNAS Yeovilton.

1983. Monday 24th January. Amendment to BR2118 Royal Marines Drill: "The practice of Directors of Music marching in front of their bands, when there is insufficient room for them to march on the right flank, Director of Music. The Director of Music will be 2 paces clear of the right flank of the band and in line with the leading ranks of Musicians. When there is insufficient room for the Director of Music to march on the flank he is to take up a position at the rear of the Band. If the Bandmaster is not on Parade, he should take the normal position of the bandmaster. If the bandmaster is on parade he should take up a position 2 paces to the rear of the bandmaster."

1983. Thursday 31st March. The Royal Marine Band of Flag Officers Naval Air Command was disbanded.

1983. Thursday 11th August. 175 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. N.P. Edgeley was awarded the Kings Badge.

1983. Friday 16th September. 284 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1983. Friday 21st October. 285 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1983. Friday 4th November. 177Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1983. Friday 2nd December. 286 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1983. 40 Commando deployed to Cyprus for a United Nations tour of duty.

1983. Royal Marine Band of Flag Officer Naval Air Command was disbanded.

1983. 40 Commando was moved to Taunton.

1983. Major C.J. Nunn RM was the first Royal Marines officer to command an Army Air Corps squadron in Detmold, Germany, and Northern Island from May 1983 to December 1985.

1984. February. The Massed Band Concert at the Royal Albert Hall renamed 'The Mountbatten Festival of Music'.

1984. Tuesady 12th June. The Massed Bands Beat Retreat on Horse Guards Parade.

1984. Wednesday 27th June. Her Majesty The Queen and his Royal Highness Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, KG, KT Captain General Royal Marines visited Royal Marines Poole to homour the Corps. The first occasion on which her majesty had visited the Corps within a Royal Marines establishment other than to present Colours.

1984. Detachments of 3 Commando Brigade Air Defence Troop embarked in ships of the Armilla Patrol.

1984. 539 Assault Squadron formed.

1984. All 10 man Frigate detachments were withdrawn.

1985. Friday 1st March. 190Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Simon Ashenden was awarded the Kings Badge.

1985. March. 288 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1985. Monday 1st April. The RM Band of Commando Forces ceased to exist, and HM The Queen approved the transfer of the badge of The Prince of Wales Plumes from this band to the RM Band at the Commando Training Centre, RM. This badge had originally been worn by the Bands of Plymouth Division and then Group but, when the latter was split into Bands for Commando Forces and CTC in 1972, it passed to the Commando Forces Band.

1985. Friday 21st June. 192 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1985. Friday 4th October. 194Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Steve Bates was awarded the Kings Badge.

1985. Friday 8th November. 198Je Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1985 - 1993. Royal Marines Commandos deploy on operational tours in Belize.

1986. Friday 17th January. RM C-in-C Naval Home Command Band on board HMY Britannia assist as beach, stores, stretcher parties and immigration officers during evacuation of British Nationals from Aden. making several trips into various beaches the Yacht evacuated 1068 men, women and children up to the 24th January.

1986. Friday 25th April. 295Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1986. Friday 30th May. 506 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1986. Tuesday 17th June. 42 Commando RM carried out London Public Duties from 17th July (the third occasion that the Corps had received this honour) In addition to Buckingham Palace, St James's Palace and the Tower of London, guard mounting was required at Winsor Castle. Two Bands were needed; the Band of the Royal Marines School of Music, directed by Lieutenant Colonel G. A. C. Hoskins and led by Drum Major D Dawson was in London with the Band of C-in-C Fleet, directed by Captain E. P. Whealing and led by Drum Major Archer, at Windsor Castle.

1986. Friday 18th July. 298Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Simon Brooks was awarded the Kings Badge.

1986. 512 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1986. Thursday 18th December. 518 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Simon Precious was awarded the Kings Badge.

1986. The Royal Marine Commando memorial was unveiled at Lympstone.

1987. Friday 13th March.99 Kings Squad passed for duty.

1987. Friday 27th March. 300Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1987. Tuesday 31st March. Royal Marine Band of Flag Officer 3rd Flotilla (FOF3) was disbanded.

1987. Friday 22nd May. 302Je. Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1987. Friday 3rd July. 526 Kings Squad passed for duty.

1987. Monday 26th October. Change of title from RM Deal to Royal Marines School of Music.

1987. The Special Boat Service came under command of Director Special Forces.

1987. Special Boat Service became part of the United Kingdom Special Forces Group alongside the Special Air Service and 14 Intelligence Company. During the Gulf War, there was no amphibious role assigned to the SBS, an "area of operations line" was drawn down the middle of Iraq, the SAS would operate west of the line and the SBS to the east. As well as searching for mobile scuds, their area contained a mass of fibre-optic cable that provided Iraq with intelligence, the location of the main junction was 32 miles from Baghdad.

1988. February. Massed Bands concert at the Royal Albert Hall extended to three performances for the first time. This concert was video recorded.

1988. 13th May. 541 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Marine Sommeville was awarded the Kings Badge.

1988. Friday 20th May. 542 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1988. Friday 1st July. 545 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1988. Friday 9th September. 548 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1988. Friday 30th September. 550 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Marine Farthing was awarded the Kings Badge.

1988. The 3rd Raiding Squadron was disbanded in Hong Kong.

1989. Friday 12th May. 562 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1989. Friday 22nd September. An IRA (Irish Republican Army) bomb exploded in the recreation room of the North Barracks at the Royal Marine School of Music in Deal depot killing 11 bands men.
Musician Michael Francis Ball aged 24, flautist, from Ramsgate.
Musician John Andrew Cleatheroe aged 25. Alto-Saxaphone, from Wakefield.
Band Corporal Trevor Edward Davis aged 39. Trombone.
Musician Richard George Fice aged 22. Trumpet, from Cardiff, Wales.
Musician Richard Mark Jones aged 27. Band Corporal David McMillan aged 26. Trumpet.
Musician Christopher Robert Nolan aged 21.
Band Corporal Dean Patrick Pavey aged 31. Bassoon, from Eastbourne.
Musician Mark Timothy Petch aged 24.
Musician Timothy John Reeves aged 24 from Oldham.
Musician Robert Leslie Simmonds aged 34. Clarinet, violin, piano.
A further 21 Bandsmen were injured.

1989. Friday 29th September. The Band of the Royal Marines School of Music marched through the town of Deal to Honour their fallen Comrades, to thank the towns people for their support and as an act of defiance towards the bombers.

1989. Friday 9th March. 579 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1989. Friday 1st December. 573 Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1990. Saturday. 22nd September. The Sunday closest to the 22nd September to be the RMBS Memorial Day, as a result of the 1989 Deal Bombing.

1990. Friday 9th March. 579 Kings squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1990. Saturday 5th May. 580 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1990. November. 591 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1990. Thursday 2nd August to Thursday 28th February. The Gulf War codenamed 'Operation Desert Shield' an operation leading to the build up of troops and defences in Saudi Arabia and 'Operation Desert Storm' that took place from Sunday 17th January 1991 to Thursday 28th February 1991. When a war was waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

1990. Monday 29th October. RM Band of C-in-C Fleet, deployed on board the recently converted casualty handling Unit, RFA Argus, sail from Plymouth for military service in the Gulf. Casualty handling plus Nuclear, Biological and Chemical decontamination and protection are the main operational areas for this force which, apart from the possibility of Special Forces activity, was the only Royal Marines commitment in the first Iraq War. To 19th March 1991.

1990. Royal Marines were embarked on HM Ships during the Gulf War.

1991. Tuesday 22nd January. 36 SBS operators were inserted by 2 chinook helicopters from No. 7 Squadron RAF, into an area full of Iraqi ground and air forces as well as spies and nomads, they avoided them and destroyed a 40-yard section of a fibre-optic cable with explosives-destroying what was left of the Iraqi communication grid.

1991. January. 549 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1991. February. The Special Boat Service carried out one of its most high-profile operations when it liberated the British Embassy in Kuwait, abseiling from helicopters hovering above the embassy.

1991. Saturday 1st June. The Royal Marines Band Service ceased to wear the Green Beret.

1991. June. 604 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1991. Friday 12th July. 606 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Simon Hamleton was awarded the Kings Badge.

1991. Thursday 8th August. 608 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1991. HQ Commando Forces and 3 Commando Brigade (less 42 Commando) were deployed to South East Turkey for Operation Safe Haven.

1991. 'Operation Safe Haven'. Apart from the SBS, the Royal Marines had missed out on the Gulf War's 'Operation Granby'. However, during the humanitarian crisis in the Kurdish areas of Northern Iraq, 40 and 45 Commando deployed as part of efforts to protect the Kurds.

1991. Thursday 19th December. 616 Kings squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1991. Thursday 31st October. The Eastney Barracks was closed. RM Band of C-in-C Naval Home Command relocated to the re-named Eastney Block, HMS Nelson.

1992. Friday 24th January. 617 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1992. Friday 31st January. 618 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1992. Friday 13th March. 621 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1992. Wednesday 1st April. Manpower cuts announced reduced the Royal Marines Band Service to 432 ranks, divided into seven bands.

1992. May - June. The 100th Anniversary Edition of the 'Globe & Laurel', Editor Captain A.G. Newing RM. The magazine was now being produced on Whale Island following the closure of the Eastney Barracks. Holbrook & Son Ltd were still printing the magazine but had now moved to Norway Road in Hilsea.

1992. Monday 31st August. First women join the Corps as part of New Entry Squad 2/92 to commence training as Musicians and Buglers.

1992. Friday 13th November. 636 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1992. 27th November. 637 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1992. An Alliance was made with the Barbados Defence Force.

1993. Friday 25th June. 650 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1994. January. Rumours had been going around for some time that the SBS and SAS will be merging their process of selection into a joint Special Forces (SF) Selection Course; we can now confirm that this is true. RM and RN volunteers wishing to join the SBS will attend Joint SF Selection in the Brecon Beacons, Brunei and Hereford. There will be two courses per year, under the supervision of a joint SBS/SAS training team. However, prior to the start of selection, there will still be a requirement to attend an aptitude test at RM Poole, which will determine if a man is suitable to operate in the most challenging of environments.

The new two-week aptitude test will comprise:
Boating Phase is for 1 Week.
Students must Pass the Combat Fitness Test (CFT).
1. Pass the SBS Swimming Test:
(a) 600m in 15mins.
(b) Complete RM BST (50m clothed with weapon and belt order)
(c) Complete a length (25m) underwater without diving.
c. Complete all canoe paddles.
d. Complete a three-mile portage with canoe and Bergan.
e. Complete a 20 mile paddle.
2. Diving Phase (1 Week)

Students must:
a. Complete a number of dives.
b. Satisfactorily demonstrate all drills taught.
c. Show confidence and a willingness to dive.
The first week is physically and mentally demanding, however the second week is more relaxed, covering basic diving theory and drills in slow time, with the aim of instilling confidence and assisting those less adaptable.

Aptitude Course Dates.
4/93:5th- 17th Sep 93 2/94:12th - 24th Jun 94.
5/93:14th-26th Nov 93 3/94:28th Aug-10th 5ep 94.
1/94:10th-22th Apr 94 4/94:18th-30th Sep 94.
The Selection Course
The outline sequence is:
1. Brecon's Phase (3 Weeks).
2. Pro-Jungle SOP Training (2 Weeks).
3. Jungle Training Brunei (6 Weeks).
4. Officer Week/Signals Training (1 Week).
5. Support Weapons Training (1 Week).
6. Army Combat Survival Instructor Course (2 Weeks).

The three-weeks Brecon's Phase begins with an initial passing-in phase (including a CFT and a hill walking exercise of 23km with 401b bergan and weapon) and ends with a test week of six hill walking exercises (a total of 180km with bergan and weapon). The interim period before test week includes a series of navigation and physical training exercises including a swimming test. Volunteers should be under no illusion, that preparation for this type of training must focus on achieving bergan fitness coupled with competent navigation.

Continuation Training:
1. Demolitions (2 Weeks).
2. OP Training (1 Week).
3. COB Course (2 Weeks).
4. Individual Skills Courses (8 Weeks).
5. SF Parachute Course (3 Weeks).

During the eight weeks individual training period, men are trained to become SF communicators or medical specialists, whilst the officers undergo language training and attend a SF Commanders Course. On completion of the SF Para course, SBS students spend eight weeks learning the specialist skills of boating and diving, which includes aspects of submarine work, coastal navigation and tactical swimming operations.

SF Selection Course Dates
1/94: 10th Jan 94 2194:13th Jul 94 1/95:23rd Jan 95. Rank and age limitations are shortly due to be increased to Sergeant and an upper age limit of 32. Application for Aptitude Tests will continue to be by C233 Drafting & Course E Request Card to DRORM, or to ADRMOA for officers. The course is well within the capability of most Marines, particularly those with the mental commitment and determination to succeed. Training is demanding but that's the way it has to be. If you are not sure that the SBS is for you, prepare yourself as best you can, give it a go and then let us decide. The rewards are most definitely worth the effort and include: a structured career; job satisfaction; realistic and challenging exercises; extra skills training (languages/free fall para etc); work with other SF units at home and abroad:
Operational employment and extra pay - but you earn it.
Interested? Want to know more? For further advice and guidance contact the Training Squadron at AM Poole. Or put your chit in now.

1994. Friday 25th March. Royal Marine Band C-in-C Fleet disbanded as part of RMBS redundancies and restructuring.

1994. March. 664 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1994. Friday 1st April. Bands renamed. C-in-C Naval Home Command became Portsmouth; Flag Officer Scotland and Northern Ireland became Scotland; Flag Officer Plymouth became Plymouth; Royal Marine Commandos became Commando Training Centre, Royal Marines. Royal Marines School of Music and Britannia Royal Naval College retained their names.

1994. Friday 13th May. 667 Kings squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1994. Friday 3rd June. 668 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1994. Saturday 23rd July. Lieutenant General Sir Robert Ross, Commandant General, RM presented a copy of the 'Soldiers' Chorus from Gounod's opera Faust to 29 Commando Regiment, Royal Artillery, as their official quick march. This was once the quick march of the Royal Marine Artillery.

1994. Friday 21st October. 673 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1994. Friday 2nd December. HRH The Duke of Edinburgh, Captain General, visited the Royal Marines School of Music.

1994. Thursday 22nd December. 675 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1994. 'Operation Vigilant Warrior' 45 Commando was deployed to Kuwait to bolster coalition forces. When it looked as if Saddam Hussein was about to move again against Kuwait, 45 Commando were airlifted to Kuwait.

1995. Headquarters Royal Marines was established on Whale Island, Portsmouth.

1995. Sunday 1st January. The White Ensign to be flown in all Royal Marine units.

1995. Wednesday 15th February. The Mountbatten Festival of Music Concert at Royal Albert Hall directed, produced and recorded entirely by RMBS officers and other ranks for the first time. This is now recognised as the largest military band festival in the world.

1995. Monday 3rd April. Lieutenant Colonel Sir F. Vivian Dunn died at the age of eighty six. He succeeded Captain McLean as Corps Director of Music on the 31st March 1953, the title changing to 'Principal Director of Music, Royal Marines on the 1st October 1953, an appointment that he held until December 1968. He is the only military Musician to receive a knighthood.

1995. Friday 26th May. 679 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1995. Friday 1st September. 3 Commando Brigade Air Squadron RM was disbanded and immediately recommissioned at RNAS Yeovilton as 847 Naval Air Squadron.

1995. 3 Commando Brigade Air Squadron was incorporated into Naval Air Command as 847 Naval Air Squadron.

1995. RM provided the Commander and the Operations Staff of the Rapid Reaction Force HQ in Bosnia.

1995. Commando Logistic Regiment was moved to Chivenor.

1995. 42 Commando and elements of the Commando Logistic Regiment were on humanitarian and disaster relief in the West Indies.

1995. DRORM was closed.

1996. Friday 2nd February. As a result of the Governments 'Front Line First' initiative the proposal to relocate the RMSM from RM Barracks, Deal to HMS Nelson was confirmed in the House of Commons on 25 May 1995. Relocation to be completed by 1st April 1996, concurrent with the final stage of the rationalisation of the RMBS.

1996. Friday 22nd March. Disestablishment of the Royal Marines School of Music at Deal. Beating Retreat Ceremony by the Massed Bands HM Royal Marines, including the Band of HM Marine School of Music, culminated in a final march through Deal. Attended by 6,000 people in pouring rain.

1996. Friday 29th March. HQ Royal Marines Band Service and the Royal Marines School of Music at Deal closed pending relocation to Portsmouth. HQ RMBS operational at HMS Nelson, Portsmouth the next day.

1996. March. 696 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1996. Monday 15th April. Training commenced at RMSM in HMS Nelson. The Royal Naval Detention Quarters were specially modified for the purpose.

1996. Friday 4th October. 695 Kings squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1996. Monday 28th October. Offical opening of RMSM in Portsmouth by HRH The Prince Edward.

1996. The Royal Marines School of Music was moved to Portsmouth.

1996 - 1997. 42 Commando and a detachment from 539 Squadron were deployed to the Congo prepared to evacuate civilians from Kinshasa.

1997. Wednesday 1st January. Musician W.H. Morris awarded the Silver Medal of the Royal Victorian Order in the New Year Honours list. Traditional only awarded to Bandmasters and Colour Sergeants, he was the first Musician to receive this, The Queen's personal award.

1997. Friday 21st February. 702 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1997. Tuesday 1st July. Responsibility for musical training at the Royal Marines School of Music transferred from the Royal Marines Command to the Naval Recruiting and Training Agency under Flag Officer Training and Recruitment.

1997. Friday 25th July. HRH The Duke of Edinburgh opens new Plymouth Band Complex.

1997. September. Links between Royal Marines School of Music and the University of Portsmouth formalised. All courses run by RMSM would be formalised by the University enabling Musicians to gain civilian qualifications. RMSM accredited as a centre for study.

1997. Friday 14th November. 719 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone. Marine Curtis was awarded the Kings Badge.

1997. Thursday11th December. HMY Britannia Decommissioning Ceremony. Final salute to the ship was paid by the Director of Music and the Drum Major as the Royal Yacht Band, part of the RM Portsmouth Band, marched past the ship playing 'Auld Lang Syne'.

1998. Thursday 1st January. Musician J.Z.L. Wright of HMY Britannia awarded the Silver Medal of the Royal Victorian Order in the New Years Honours List. Only the second and last, Musician to receive this award for service on board the Royal Yacht.

1998. Friday 6th March. 726 Troop Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1998. Wednesday 1st April. HM Queen Elizabeth agreed that the RM Portsmouth Band should continue to provide a Royal Band for the Royal Family. The entire Band including Buglers, to wear 'Royal Band' flash at all times and to wear the Traditional Divisional Tunic when on Royal Duty.

1998. 45 Commando was on humanitarian and disaster relief deployed to Honduras and Nicaragua, following a devastating hurricane.

1998. 40 Commando and a detachment from 539 Squadron in the Congo prepared to evacuate British Nationals.

1999. Friday 12th February 745 - 746 Kings Squad passed for duty from Lympstone.

1999. Saturday 28th May. In accordance with RM Officer Rank alignment (DCI Gen 39/99), changes to be made to Royal Marines dress convertions. e.g. Majors no longer wear overalls nor gold leaf on caps.

1999. June. Lieutenant Phil Kelly RM became the first Royal Marine officer to qualify as a Sea Harrier FA2 pilot.

1999. Thursday 1st July. Royal Marine Officer Ranks aligned with the Army Ranks.

1999. Tuesday 20th July. Final Royal Tournament - Tri-Service event led by the Massed Bands of the Royal Marines. To the 2nd August.

1999. Thursday 19th August. Exercise 'Argonaut 99' including Ex Northern Approaches (Turkey) and Ex Bright Star (Egypt). Major deployment involving 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines, the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps and the Royal Marines Commando training Centre band deployed on HMS Ocean. Other Royal Naval ships were HMS Fearless, HMS Edinburgh, HMS Percivale, HMS Bedivere and HMS Galahad. To the 15th December.

1999. September. 20 SBS operators were involved in the Australian led International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) in East Timor. Together with the Australian Special Air Service Regiment and the New Zealand Special Air Service they formed INTERFET's special forces element named Response Force. Response Force departed from Darwin by C-130 Hercules transport aircraft and flew into Dili tasked with securing the airport, a seaport and a heli-port to enable regular forces to land and deploy with the SBS filmed driving a Land Rover Defender out of a Hercules. Response Force was then utilised to perform to a variety of tasks including direct action and special reconnaissance through out East Timor. The British forces withdrew in December 1999, including the SBS. A Sergeant was awarded the Military Cross after his patrol came under fire from pro-Indonesian militia.